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The Frigate Bird

Transcript: The Frigate Bird Anatomy 3 feet in length wingspan over 7 ft in breeding season, males have a bright red throat pouch females have white throats and bellies has a long gray bill with a hooked tip deeply forked, scissor like tail and sharply pointed wings Habitat lives on ocean coasts and islands lives on mangrove islands during breeding season breeding season- coastal Fl. and tropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans non-breeding- coast of N.C. south to Fl. and west to Tx. They also live on sandy shores of California Reproduction males inflate red pouch to attract a mate females lay one egg in a nest built of sticks on land chick fledges about 5-6 months old female continues to feed the chick for another 4 months takes 50 days for the egg to hatch both parents incubate and feed the chick food sources small fish, squid, jellyfish, crustaceans, young turtles, birds, and eggs Behavior and Hunting exellent flyer and glider swoops and grabs chicks and other birds "pirates" What makes me a bird? hollow bones for flight beak feathers lay eggs two leggs- bipedal Population Status worldwide 500,000-1,000,000 few natural predators, humans are main predator introduced species of rats and domestic cats have been found hunting them and their eggs Adaptations Puffy red chest hooked bill tiny tarsi and unwebbed zygodactylous feet Interesting facts have been known to ride the wing for 12 days ride warm currents so they are a sign of warm weather can only take flight from trees or cliffs because of the large wing span are not very water repelent, they cannot get their wings wet and take off without difficulty references

The Magnificent Frigate Bird

Transcript: Bibliography Differences Great Frigate Bird has a green sheen instead of purple. during mating the females fly above the males and determine which to mate with and this helps to decide. Females have a red eye ring instead of blue Great Frigate Bird is slightly smaller then the Magnificent. the magnificent flies more and needs the larger size and wing span because it can't walk. The wing span difference was caused by reproductive barriers because both birds live in the same area but the wing span benefited the Magnificent Frigatebird very much. Speciation took place because they became a new unique organism, even though they weren't geographically isolated. Comparison male Fregata minor Fregata Magnificens Magnificent Frigate Bird Has a wing span of nearly 7 feet because it spends most of its time soaring. cannot get wet because it doesn't produce an oily substance that prevents wings from getting soaked Large wings help it to snatch fish and crustacean out of the water without touching it. Has a sharp, curved down beak for catching fish too. Great Frigate bird also has a red gular sack under the beak. Same beak, long, bent down, and to a sharp point. fregata magnificens There was a mutation that caused the sheen of feathers and eye ring color to change. This mutation did not hurt anything so it stuck around. It was not necessarily selected for because both traits stayed. Both traits survived but led to speciation by reproductive isolation. These traits led to adaptive radiation. The mutations caused reproductive isolation and therefore, new species. Fregata minor Magnificent Frigatebird: Fregata magnificens female "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Fregata Magnificens: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. Castro, Isabel, and Antonia Phillips. A Guide to the Birds of the Galápagos Islands. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1996. Print. "Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata Magnificens)." Magnificent Frigatebird Videos, Photos and Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. Moore, Randy, and Sehoya Cotner. Understanding Galápagos. New York City: McGraw Hill, 2014. Print. Swash, Andy, and Rob Still. Birds, Mammals and Reptiles of the Galápagos Islands. New Haven: Yale UP, 2000. Print. Coloration Males: All black with purple sheen except for red gular sac Females: All black except for white head and breast. Blue eye ring Adolescent: All black except for white head and throat These color adaptations help with mating. They are what shows the difference between The Magnificent Frigate Bird and The Great Frigate Bird The Magnificent Frigate Bird using large wing span to catch fish. Speciation Fregata magnificens (Fregata magnificens) 7 foot wing span purple sheen on wings red gular pouch Color ADaptation Fregata minor (Great Frigate Bird) 7 foot wing span green sheen on wings red gular pouch Fregata aquila (Ascension Frigate Bird) green sheen on wings red gular pouch 6 foot wing span Fregata ariel (Lesser Frigate Bird) 5.5 foot wing span red gular pouch Fregata andrewsi (Christmas Frigate Bird) 7 foot wing span red gular pouch green sheen on wings

Frigate Bird

Transcript: Their geographic location is the Galapagos Islands Educator. Their adaptations are during outside breeding season the gular sac fades to orange and you can barely see it. Their feathers arent water proof so they cant sit on water for more than 2 minutes. They cant move properly on land cant get in the water so they have to fly most times. Their bbig wings allow them to steal food from the other birds and they fly during strong winds. Population The Frigate birds are thought to be decreasing across their range because of habitat destruction and human disturbance at nesting sites. Frigate birds mainly only socialize when mating. When the Frigate birds are mating the males blow pout their red gull-like sac to attract the females. Scientific name and diet/prey The Frigate bird cant walk on land or get wet and they live in Australia off of the coast. Their habitat is nests in trees but humans and deforestation is destroying their homes. Endangered, unusual characteristics, and Habitat Physical Characteristics Predators, life expectancy, and Gestation Period Physical Land Features/habitat The male has a gullar-like sac under its throat and the female is black with white underneath. They both have silky feathers. The Frigate birds life expectancy is 15-25 years and their predators are; Humans, Rats, and Cats and their gestation period is 9 months. Socialization Coast of Australia Geographic Location and Adaptations The Frigates bird scientific name is the Fregata. The Frigate bird's diet is; Fish, Squid, Jellyfish, and occasionally seabirds. The Frigate bird is endangered. They live off the coast in Australia. The main unusual characteristic of the bird is their gullar-like sac under their chin. Frigate Bird

Frigate Bird

Transcript: -Courtship occurs between August and October -Males gather in groups and do a multitude of behaviors to attract females. -Females build while males gather -One egg is laid -Parental care differs between male and female Frigate Birds. -Only seabirds known on which sexes breed on cycles of different lengths BY: Krystal Romo & rachel Frei -Wing span allows them to stay flying for extended periods of time. -Little need for wing flapping. -Effortless flight allows for long distances to be covered with minimal energetic cost. -Mozambique Channel Study ( Henri et. al 2004) Info Sources Male vs Female - Large species of Sea Bird found across all tropical and subtropical oceans -Unable to to walk well; has short legs and very small feet causing awkward movement on land -Unable to swim, which directly affects its choice of diet - Their plumage lacks a waterproof coating -Color: Black, White, Brown, Red -Lifespan: 15-25 years -Wing span- 150cm - 250cm (59in - 98in) - Lifestyle: Colony -Male: entirely black plumage, glossed green on the head, with bare patch of skin on lower chest, known as the gular sac. -Can be inflated into bright red balloon-like an organ. -Female: larger than Male -white patch across breast and upper belly, entirely white head then black. -lacks gular sac, and has less glossy, brownish-black plummage Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Fregatidae Genus: Fregata Threats Diet Fun Facts Habitat Habitat -Found in tropical oceans and coincides with the trade winds. -They breed on strands of mangroves on coral reefs, bushes on dry islands, and along coasts. *Man-O'War-Bird *Pirate Bird *Frigate Pelican Classification Magnificent FrigateBird (Fregata magnificens) Taxnomy Conservation -Relatively large population and is not currently considered to be globally threatened -As a result of human disturbance, habitat loss and the introduction of non-native predators, several historic colonies have been wiped out. -Losses have been most severe in the Caribbean, where an estimated 50 percent of the colonies have been destroyed. - There heavy reliance on food brought to the surface by underwater predators such as dolphin and tuna, which are themselves being driven to extinction, could have serious consequences for this species -Carnivorous -Airborne flying fish, squid, jellyfish, small sea turtles, tiny molluscs and scraps discarded by boats -Sometimes they harass other bird species -Kleptoparasitic Study (Vickery & Brooke 1994) -Their predators consist of cats, rats, and predominantly humans Who is this Bird? Image sources Vickery J. A, Brooke M. L. (1994) The Kleptoparasitic Interactions Between Great Frigatebirds and Masked Boobies on Henderson Island, South Pacific. The Condor 331-40. doi:10.2307/1369318 Weimerskirch H., Corre M., Jaquemet S. (2004) Foraging strategy of a top predator in tropical water: great frigate birds in the Mozambique Channel. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 297-308. doi:10.3354/meps275297 Breeding Behavior Biology -Many magnificent frigatebird colonies are protected by written laws, but rarely enforced. - There is a lack of funds, colonies are not patrolled -No method to punish those breaking the law -Improved protection and enforcement of existing laws, particularly in the Caribbean colonies, is therefore necessary to ensure the survival of this remarkable bird -Largest species of Frigate Bird -Frigatebirds are the only seabirds where the male and female look strikingly different -Charles Darwin dubbed this species “the condor of the ocean”

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