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Immunology

Transcript: IMMUNE SYSTEM An immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells. The proper targets of your immune system are infectious organisms: bacterias, fungus, Parasites and viruses. This set of unique markers on human cells is called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). There are two classes: MHC Class I proteins, which are on all cells, and MHC Class II proteins, which are only on certain specialized cells. Markers of Non-Self Any non-self substance capable of triggering an immune response is known as an antigen. An antigen can be a whole non-self cell, a bacterium, a virus, an MHC marker protein or even a portion of a protein from a foreign organism. The distinctive markers on antigens that trigger an immune response are called epitopes. When tissues or cells from another individual enter your body carrying such antigenic non-self epitopes, your immune cells react. This explains why transplanted tissues may be rejected as foreign and why antibodies will bind to them. Markers of Self: Major Histocompatibility Complex For example, when the immune system of a patient receiving a kidney transplant detects a non-self "tissue type," the patient's body may rally its own immune cells to attack. Every cell in your body is covered with these MHC self-marker proteins, and--except for identical twins--individuals carry different sets. MHC marker proteins are as distinct as blood types and come in two categories--MHC Class I: humans bear 6 markers out of 200 possible variations; and MHC Class II: humans display 8 out of about 230 possibilities. Organs of the Immune System The organs of your immune system are positioned throughout your body. They are called lymphoid organs because they are home to lymphocytes--the white blood cells that are key operatives of the immune system. Within these organs, the lymphocytes grow, develop, and are deployed. The cells of the adaptive immune system are special types of leukocytes, called lymphocytes. B cells and T cells are the major types of lymphocytes and are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. B cells are involved in the humoral immune response, whereas T cells are involved in cell-mediated immune response. Killer T cell are a sub-group of T cells that kill cells that are infected with viruses (and other pathogens), or are otherwise damaged or dysfunctional. As with B cells, each type of T cell recognises a different antigen. Helper T cells regulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses and help determine which types of immune responses the body will make to a particular pathogen. These cells have no cytotoxic activity and do not kill infected cells or clear pathogens directly. They instead control the immune response by directing other cells to perform these tasks. Nutrition and diet The adaptive immune system evolved in early vertebrates and allows for a stronger immune response as well as immunological memory, where each pathogen is "remembered" by a signature antigen, should a pathogen infect the body more than once, these specific memory cells are used to quickly eliminate it. Killer T cells yö T cells Adaptive Immune System A B cell identifies pathogens when antibodies on its surface bind to a specific foreign antigen. This antigen/antibody complex is taken up by the B cell and processed by proteolysis into peptides. Your immune cells recognize major histocompatibility complex proteins(MHC) when they distinguish between self and non-self. An MHC protein serves as a recognizable scaffold that presents pieces (peptides) of a foreign protein (antigenic) to immune cells. An empty "foreign" MHC scaffold itself can act as an antigen when donor organs or cells are introduced into a patient's body. These MHC self-marker scaffolds are also known as a patient's "tissue type" or as human leukocyte antigens (HLA) when a patient's white blood cells are being characterized. The functioning of the immune system, like most systems in the body, is dependent on proper nutrition. It has been long known that severe malnutrition leads to immunodeficiency. Overnutrition is also associated with diseases such as diabetes and obesity, which are known to affect immune function. More moderate malnutrition, as well as certain specific trace mineral and nutrient deficiencies, can also compromise the immune response. Specific foods may also affect the immune system; for example, fresh fruits, vegetables, and foods rich in certain fatty acids may foster a healthy immune system. Likewise, fetal undernourishment can cause a lifelong impairment of the immune system. In traditional medicine, some herbs are believed to stimulate the immune system, such as echinacea, licorice, ginseng, astragalus, sage, garlic, elderberry, and hyssop, as well as honey although further research is needed to understand their mode of action. Cells destined to become immune cells,

Immunology

Transcript: Therapeutic Treatment Cells transfected with PSCA had 22.5% positive expression No depletion Footpad injection and intradermal routes produced the strongest response Immunologic Therapies Question: Whether DCLV-PSCA can target DC-SIGN expressing cells and deliver the PSCA antigen to DCs in vitro Question: Whether PSCA is preferentially expressed in DCLV Question: Whether DCLV-PSCA can target and mediate PSCA expression in BMDCs Tumor-bearing mice vaccinated with DCLV-PSCA showed significantly slower tumor growth. Similar to control versus Null mice tumor growth. To investigate DCLV-mediated cancer vaccines in a more clinically related setting. Explore the potency of this vectored immunization to overcome the immune tolerance to the self-tumor antigen PSCA. Generate protective immunity against prostate cancer. No CD4+ Lentiviral Vectors 8 out of 12 mice were tumor free for 44 days post tumor challenge. The remaining 4 mice had slower tumor progression than the Null treated mice. DCLV-PSCA reduced the number of surface lung metastasis formation by at least 75%. Histology confirms that tumor formation is reduced in DCLV-PSCA treated mice. Whether immunization by DCLV-PSCA has therapeutic or prophylactic efficacy in vivo Amora Mayo-Perez Presented by: Amora Mayo-Perez, Xun Zhang, Aiman Rahim & Antonio Quinones Male C57BL/6 mice were immunized with 6x107 TU of DCLV-PSCA through 5 administration routes CD8+ cell response through IFN-γ secretion DCLV encoding PSCA target DC-SIGN-expressing cell lines 60% of DC-SIGN cells have PSCA expression post transduction versus the 6.79% of 293T cells express PSCA Why use PSCA? Prophylactic Treatment DCLV-PSCA group survived more than 70 days while Null and control reached the tumor size limit within 55 days DCLV-PSCA immunity was limited to melanoma cells that expressed PSCA. Role of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in antitumor immunity Protection against lung metastasis of B16-PSCA cells It is an attractive immunotherapeutic target based on its over-expression in a majority of prostate cancer cells, while its expression in other somatic tissues is highly limited. Correlates positively with tumor malignancy, pathology grade and androgen-independence. Null Generation of anti-prostate tumor immunity in both prophylactic and therapeutic models 3.65% PSCA expression in CD11c+ cells versus 0.11% expression in CD11c- cells Image Source: http://newsinfo.iu.edu/web/page/normal/16911.html Although DCLV-PSCA immunization slows tumor growth, groups with a depletion of CD8+ or CD4+ T cells has a faster tumor growth rate. Whether DCLV-PSCA vaccine is dependent on CD8+ and CD4+ T cell infiltration into the affected area No CD8+ Results Question: Whether recombinant DNA DCLV-PSCA vector would efficiently deliver the antigen to the DCs and mount an antigen specific T cell response to CD4+ and CD8+ cells Have the ability to transduce both dividing and non-dividing cells (including peripheral DCs). As a vaccine carrier, they can simultaneously deliver antigens to DCs and activate DCs through toll-like receptors (TLRs). DC-directed LV (DCLV): which can specifically target DCs expressing DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) and deliver antigens to them. (reported in previous study) CD4+ cell response through IL-2 secretion Overexpression of PSCA is associated with metastasis ,determine the ability of DCLV-PSCA immunization to inhibit metastasis formation In vivo induction of CD8+ and CD4+ T cell immune response 800 cells / 1 million in the spleen responded to the CD8+ epitope peptide and 300 cells / 1 million in the inguinal lymph node responded to the peptide Vaccination extended survival from 49.5 days to 64 days following immunization What was the purpose of this research? T Cell depletion experiment to determine the dependency of antitumor effect on infiltrated T cells in vivo Therapies which can instruct the immune system to recognize and eliminate tumor cells. Potential immunotherapy candidates for prostate cancer vaccines: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) Prostate acid phosphatase (PAP) Mucin 1 (MUC1) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) NY-ESO-1 vaccine No significant difference between the Control and the Null vector treated mice CD8+ T cell-depleted mice had larger tumors then CD4+ T cell-depleted group How is PSCA used? Test the expression of PSCA in 293T cells Antibody directed to PSCA-to inhibit prostate cancer tumor growth and supress metastatis formation. Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR)-based adoptive T cells therapy targeting PSCA for its potential in treating prostate cancer. PSCA as a vaccine antigen-has been clearly shown in animal models that it can slow down prostate cancer progression. Dendritic Cell-Directed Vaccination with Lentivector Encoding PSCA for Prostate Cancer in Mice 250 CD4+ cells/ 1million splenocytes

PowerPoint Game Templates

Transcript: Example of a Jeopardy Template By: Laken Feeser and Rachel Chapman When creating without a template... http://www.edtechnetwork.com/powerpoint.html https://www.thebalance.com/free-family-feud-powerpoint-templates-1358184 Example of a Deal or No Deal Template PowerPoint Game Templates There are free templates for games such as jeopardy, wheel of fortune, and cash cab that can be downloaded online. However, some templates may cost more money depending on the complexity of the game. Classroom Games that Make Test Review and Memorization Fun! (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2017, from http://people.uncw.edu/ertzbergerj/msgames.htm Fisher, S. (n.d.). Customize a PowerPoint Game for Your Class with These Free Templates. Retrieved February 17, 2017, from https://www.thebalance.com/free-powerpoint-games-for-teachers-1358169 1. Users will begin with a lot of slides all with the same basic graphic design. 2. The, decide and create a series of questions that are to be asked during the game. 3. By hyper linking certain answers to different slides, the game jumps from slide to slide while playing the game. 4. This kind of setup is normally seen as a simple quiz show game. Example of a Wheel of Fortune Template https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Wheel-of-Riches-PowerPoint-Template-Plays-Just-Like-Wheel-of-Fortune-383606 Games can be made in order to make a fun and easy way to learn. Popular game templates include: Family Feud Millionaire Jeopardy and other quiz shows. http://www.free-power-point-templates.com/deal-powerpoint-template/ Quick video on template "Millionaire" PowerPoint Games Some games are easier to make compared to others If users are unsure whether or not downloading certain templates is safe, you can actually make your own game by just simply using PowerPoint. add logo here References Example of a Family Feud Template PowerPoint Games are a great way to introduce new concepts and ideas You can create a fun, competitive atmosphere with the use of different templates You can change and rearrange information to correlate with the topic or idea being discussed. Great with students, workers, family, etc. For example: With games like Jeopardy and Family Feud, players can pick practically any answers. The person who is running the game will have to have all of the answers in order to determine if players are correct or not. However, with a game like Who Wants to be a Millionaire, the players only have a choice between answers, A, B, C, or D. Therefore, when the player decides their answer, the person running the game clicks it, and the game will tell them whether they are right or wrong.

Immunology

Transcript: Robert Koch: 1891 It is recorded that apparently a son of a Chinese political figure was inoculated against smallpox as early as 1000 AD. Researchers speculate that the Chinese at this time were known to scratch a small matter of a smallpox pustule into the healthy person's skin to create immunity. Discovery/ Recognition of HIV-1983 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, a microbiologist, first describes bacteria. Immunology by Gabrielle LaFlesh Smallpox Epidemic- 1545 The phagocyte was discovered by Elie Metchnikoff. He also discovered phagocytosis (the digesting of a particle by a phagocyte), while studying starfish larvae. Gloucestershire, England-1796-1798 The brand name "Gardisil" is an HPV vaccine that many pediatricians encourage teenagers to receive. It is the first vaccine developed so far to prevent cancer. Thucydides, a historian and political philosopher, noted that people who have recovered from the plague and care for those who have the plague do not get the plague again. Hep B Vaccine- 1986 Montagnier and Barre-Sinoussi discovered that HIV was the cause of the AIDS virus. 4 Cardinal Signs of Inflammation 40 BC A second generation commercial Hep B vaccine is released; it is synthetically prepared and do not contain blood products (which means that it is impossible to get Hep B from the vaccine. Alexander Flemming discovers in a discarded petri dish that Penicillum fungi has bacteria-killing powers. Penicillin is one of the most widely-used antibiotics today used to prevent infection; however, overuse has lead to bacterial resistance. Plague of Athens- 430 BC The linage between T and B cells were first recognized as cooperating together in the immune response. Edward Jenner, a country doctor, administers his first effective smallpox vaccine. He scratched the lesion on an infected milkmaid's hand (who had coxpox), and used that matter to vaccinate a boy who was developing cowpox symptoms, preventing smallpox. Chinese Inoculation- 1000 AD Flemming and Penicillin- 1928 Celsus identifies the four signs of inflammation- redness, swelling, heat and pain. T and B Cells:1964-1968 Discovery of the Phagocyte- 1882 Emil von Behring develops the first Diphtheria vaccine. Boston Quarantine- 1648 Diphtheria Vaccine- 1913 Leeuwenhoek's bacteria- 1676 Over 8,000 children die in India due to Smallpox that was suspected to be introduced by Portuguese traders. Because of the yellow fever raging in Cuba at the time, a strict quarantine was ordered to keep ships from the West Indies away. U.S. Army Doctor Major Walter Reed leads a team of researchers to prove that Yellow Fever is spread by mosquito bites, and not through fomites (a substance that can carry an infectious organism, such as a blanket) and body fluids. Joseph Lister and Surgical Asepsis- 1865 Yellow Fever Postulate- 1901 Karl Landsteiner discovered that people had different blood types; some had A, B, A and B, or no antigens on their blood cells. This lead to an increased success rate of blood transfusions. HPV Vaccine Developed- 2005 Robert Koch create proofs to confirm that microorganisms cause infectious disease. He also identifies the pathogens that cause TB, cholera, and anthrax. Cloning of Antibody Gene- 1976 West Africa Ebola Outbreak- 2014 Susumu Tonegawa clones the first antibody gene. His work basically told us that DNA is responsible for producing antibodies and constantly changes itself throughout a human's life. The most severe pandemic of Ebola virus recorded in history. So far, there has been 24,000+ cases and over 14,000 deaths. After reading about Pasteur's work, surgeon Lister used carbolic acid (a chemical used to get rid of cattle parasites) in his surgeries for surgical sterilization. Within 3 years, the death rate from his surgeries decreased 30%. ABO Blood Types- 1901

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