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Immunology

Transcript: Immunology Immunology~ the branch of science dealing with the components of the immune system, immunity from disease, the immune response, and immunologic techniques of analysis Some Vocabulary: Leukocytes- White blood Cells Stem Cells- Undiffertiated cells that can become many different kinds of cells. Progenitor- Ancestor or forebear. Lymphoid- Found in lymph tissue/fluid. Myeloid- Found in muscle/epithelial. Activated: Energized; "turned on". Phylogeny: Origin or linage of development. Located in the bone marrow. Unactivated; doesn't know who to fight yet. Look for cells with cancer or viruses. Connect the inate and the adaptive immune system. Helps B-Cells get activated. Cytotoxic Cell- destroy virally infected cells and tumor cells. Makes antibodies. Antigen specific cells. Lymph nodes. Eats invaders. Have you ever wondered how someone can get the flu even if they already got the vaccine? Well, first. . .Get the vaccine. Let the flu flood through the blood as natural killer cells attack and destroy it. T-Cell Concepts: Differentiated in the thymus. Found mainly in lymph nodes. They are the majority of circulating lymphocytes. DON'T MAKE ANTIBODIES. Attack and destroy invaders. Produce chemical messengers called CYTOKINES that enhance specific immunity and nonspecific mechanisms of defense. { Next, you ingest the new mutated flu virus. Specific Immunity Located in the blood. { Located in the tissue. } Find video for FLU MUTATING Nonspecific Immunity Find video for natural killing cells attacking }

Immunology

Transcript: IMMUNOLOGY Antigen is what? surface protein that evokes an immune response Pathogen Disease causing microorganism Phagocytosis Picture of phagocyte - Pathogen is engulfed - phagosome is formed - lysosome fuses with phagosome - pathogen is digested by enzymes - wastre products are excreted Cell mediated immunity Involves what cells? T cells - Antigen is presented by a phagocyte or infected cell - Antigen is recognised as foreign - cell is lysed by perforin destroying the cell If the antigen is presented by a phagocyte and more help is required , you must use? Humoral Immunity Involves B cells Plasma - antigen is presented by phagocyte - T helper cell binds - T helper cell activates B cell - B cell differentiate in to memory and plasma cells - plasma cells produce antibodies Antibody Proteins so they have a Specific shape Monoclonal antibodies specific to one antigen they can work by or by Secondary Responses Latent period becomes shorter. Antibody release increases Vaccinations Passive immunity means to get antibodies from Mum in breast milk or with antibodies Active immunity means to make your own antibodies and therefore Memory cells by making the antibodies by prior exposure or with a non pathogenic form of the disease Big proportions of the population must be vaccinated to prevent EPIDEMICS In fact the % is 95% this reduces the risk of exposure to someone with the disease or who is not immune bacteria cause problems by producing viruses damage cells when the reproduce

PowerPoint Game Templates

Transcript: Example of a Jeopardy Template By: Laken Feeser and Rachel Chapman When creating without a template... http://www.edtechnetwork.com/powerpoint.html https://www.thebalance.com/free-family-feud-powerpoint-templates-1358184 Example of a Deal or No Deal Template PowerPoint Game Templates There are free templates for games such as jeopardy, wheel of fortune, and cash cab that can be downloaded online. However, some templates may cost more money depending on the complexity of the game. Classroom Games that Make Test Review and Memorization Fun! (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2017, from http://people.uncw.edu/ertzbergerj/msgames.htm Fisher, S. (n.d.). Customize a PowerPoint Game for Your Class with These Free Templates. Retrieved February 17, 2017, from https://www.thebalance.com/free-powerpoint-games-for-teachers-1358169 1. Users will begin with a lot of slides all with the same basic graphic design. 2. The, decide and create a series of questions that are to be asked during the game. 3. By hyper linking certain answers to different slides, the game jumps from slide to slide while playing the game. 4. This kind of setup is normally seen as a simple quiz show game. Example of a Wheel of Fortune Template https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Wheel-of-Riches-PowerPoint-Template-Plays-Just-Like-Wheel-of-Fortune-383606 Games can be made in order to make a fun and easy way to learn. Popular game templates include: Family Feud Millionaire Jeopardy and other quiz shows. http://www.free-power-point-templates.com/deal-powerpoint-template/ Quick video on template "Millionaire" PowerPoint Games Some games are easier to make compared to others If users are unsure whether or not downloading certain templates is safe, you can actually make your own game by just simply using PowerPoint. add logo here References Example of a Family Feud Template PowerPoint Games are a great way to introduce new concepts and ideas You can create a fun, competitive atmosphere with the use of different templates You can change and rearrange information to correlate with the topic or idea being discussed. Great with students, workers, family, etc. For example: With games like Jeopardy and Family Feud, players can pick practically any answers. The person who is running the game will have to have all of the answers in order to determine if players are correct or not. However, with a game like Who Wants to be a Millionaire, the players only have a choice between answers, A, B, C, or D. Therefore, when the player decides their answer, the person running the game clicks it, and the game will tell them whether they are right or wrong.

IMMUNOLOGY

Transcript: GROUP MEMBERS DIANA LORONS ABD HAKIM BIN YUSOFF SITI ZULAIKA BT AHMAD SALLY STEPHEN BLAIUS NORATIRA BINTI MAHMUD NADIRA NATASYAH • Complement system • Surface barriers • Inflammation • Natural killer cells • Cellular barriers The Innate Immune System • Innate immunity occurs immediately, when circulating innate cells recognize a problem PHYSICAL BARRIER Skin Commensal organisms associated with skin Tissue Gut: intestine and associated microflora Blood-brain barrier Innate Immune Cells • Neutrophils • Eosinophils • Basophils • Mast cells • Monocytes • Dendritic Cells • Macrophages 1. Neutrophils : A type of white blood cells Filled with microscopic granules A little sacs containing enzymes that digest microorganisms 2. Eosinophils : A normal type of white blood cell Has coarse granules within its cytoplasm Produced in bone marrow Migrate to tissues throughout body As allergic reaction occurs, number of eosinophils in blood increases 3. Basophils : A type of white blood cell and type of granulocyte Has granules (small particles) with enzymes Released during allergic reaction and asthma 4. Mast cells: Present in most body tissues Numerous in connective tissue, such as the dermis (innermost layer) of skin Allergic response: An allergen stimulates the release of antibodies, which attach themselves to mast cells After subsequent allergen exposure, mast cells release substances such as histamine into the tissue Histamine is a chemical that responsible for allergic symptoms 5. Monocytes: A type of white blood cell and a type of phagocyte Made in the bone marrow Travels from blood to tissues of the body where monocytes become a macrophage Macrophages surround and kill microorganisms, ingest foreign material, remove dead cells, and boost immune responses Macrophages play an important role in the sustainance of different cell types: 6. Dendritic cells : Are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) Play an important role in the regulation of the adaptive immune response Are unique APCs and called as “professional” APCs Why “professional” APCs? : i. The main function of DCs is to present antigens ii. Only DCs have the ability to induce a primary immune response in resting naive T lymphocytes Functions of DCs : i. Capable of capturing antigens ii. Processing antigens iii. Presenting antigens on the cell surface along with appropriate co-stimulation molecules Also play a role in the maintenance of B cell function and recall responses DCs are important in the establishment of immunological memory ADAPTIVE IMMUNE SYSTEM to destroy invading pathogens and any toxic molecules they produce. Because these responses are destructive, it is crucial that they be made only in response to molecules that are foreign to the host and not to the molecules of the host itself. provide long-lasting protection: for example; someone who recovers from measles is now protected against measles for their lifetime but in other cases it does not provide lifetime protection: for example; chickenpox. *** Sometimes the adaptive system is unable to distinguish foreign molecules, the effects of this may be hayfever, asthma or any other allergies. Antigens are any substances that elicit the adaptive immune response.*** Adaptive immune responses are carried out by white blood cells called lymphocytes B cells -activated to secrete antibodies, which are proteins called immunoglobulins. The antibodies circulate in the bloodstream and permeate the other body fluids, where they bind specifically to the foreign antigen that stimulated their production . -Binding of antibody inactivates viruses and microbial toxins (such as tetanus toxin or diphtheria toxin) by blocking their ability to bind to receptors on host cells. Antibody binding also marks invading pathogens for destruction, mainly by making it easier for phagocytic cells of the innate immune system to ingest them. T-cells -recognise and kill virus-infected cells directly. -directly kill virally or bacterially infected cells -responsible for the rejection of a transplanted organ What is Antibody? How antibody works (pictures) Who is Robert Koch??? He is one of the the person which had invent/ designed the Koch's postulate, which had been published in 1890 Together with Friedrich Loeffler DEFINITION: Koch's postulates are four criteria designed to establish a causal relationship between a causative microbe and a disease. IMPORTANCE: Koch’s postulates are useful in helping determine the cause of some diseases, especially when more than one microbe may be the possible causative agent. POSTULATE 1: The microorganism must be found in abundance in all organisms suffering from the disease, but should not be found in healthy organisms. POSTULATE 2: The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture. POSTULATE 3: The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism POSTULATE 4: The microorganism must be reisolated from the inoculated, diseased

IMMUNOLOGY

Transcript: But having once or twice every week produce more immunoglobluin A Thank you. Give (and receive) a massage Go shopping Read a good book Vitamin D “Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without.” ― - Gautama Buddha Gladden your sex life Keep chill and relax :) 0916-455-9012 Soft skull or leg bones. Poor growth Tooth delay. More prone to infections Level can cause weakness of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy). BENEFITS IMMUNOLOGY (Part II) Techniques Parry from HIV God grant us the serenity to accept the things i cannot change, the courage to change the things i can, and the wisdom to know the difference. HIV is transmitted primarily via unprotected sexual intercourse (including anal and even oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. Did you know? Vitamin D deficiency An average woman has sex less than once a week. Experts says that's not enough. It lowers oxygen consumption. It increases blood flow and slows the heart rate. Good for people with high blood pressure. Higher levels of DHEAS (Dehydroepiandrosterone) Reduced Need for Medical Care Harmonizes our endocrine system Significant relief from asthma Condom advantages It protects against HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. you don’t have to worry. harmless for health. can be bought almost anywhere. Serenity Take 5-10 minutes for a simple seated meditation. Take a long walk on the beach Go for a bike ride in a scenic part of town Get up sing and dance to your favorite song Sit in nature Be your best friends having peace of mind “The chemicals that are running our body and our brain are the same chemicals that are involved in emotion. And that says to us that we’d better pay more attention to emotions with respect to health.” That having sex can increase levels of nerve growth–a big part of brain development and mental ability–than the rest. The research suggests that benefits of sex not only include more smarts, but also lower stress. BUT BE WARNED! PROTECT YOURSELF! Sex Benefits This Vit. is different from other essential vitamins because our own bodies can manufacture it with sunlight exposure. The main function of vitamin D is to regulate the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in our bones and aid in cell to cell communication throughout the body Helps Keep Your Immune System Humming Boosts Your Libido Improves Women's Bladder Control Lowers Your Blood Pressure Counts as Exercise cure headaches Celebrate your Sensual Side

Immunology

Transcript: Innate Defences Adaptive Defences The internal innate defences are activated if the external innate defences are breached. Hence, now the invader (e.g. pathogen) is inside the body and the body has to deal with differently. It has got to recognise the foreign invader before any defence can happen. 1. block or filter out microbes - skin, nostril 2. mucous membrane - trap bacteria, dust and other particles - found in respiratory, digestive, reproductive and urinary systems - beating cilia in the respiratory system – sweep mucous and trapped particles away until they are either swallowed or expelled by sneezing, coughing or blowing nose 3. anti-microbial secretions (chemical defences) - sweat, saliva and tears - disrupt bacterial walls and destroy bacteria - oil and acids on skin - makes the surface of the skin inhospitable for bacteria and other microbes - concentrated stomach acid NON-SPECIFIC exteral barriers to prevent infection Defensive Proteins A.k.a. second line of defence SPECIFIC Internal Innate Defences A.k.a. first line of defence External Innate Defences 1. natural killer (NK) cells - release cytotoxic granules - induces lysis/apoptosis of target cells - attacks infected cells and cancer cells 2. neutrophil - phagocytise pathogen - release cytokines - attrack more immune cells - release antimicrobials (kill microbes, not viruses) 3. Dendritic Cell & Macrophage - "antigen-presenting cells" - important for the adaptive defence - phagocytise pathogen - present antigen fragments on plasma membrane 4. Eosinophil - combat multipcellular parasites & infections in vertebrates Overview of Body's Defences consists of White Blood Cells IMMUNOLOGY

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