Transcript: Costs: Dams are extremely expensive to build Ecological consequences Flooding Loss of habitat Pollution from construction Deforestation Conflicts over water may occur Displacement of natives Health concerns Benefits: Hydro-electric power does not create pollution Electricity can be produced at a constant rate Dams are designed to last for decades Lake can be used for irrigation of farms Lake can be used for leisure activities Attracts tourists The Dam Project A Hydro-Electric Brazil $20,000 per family having to move Over $16 billion to build 2 dams (currently) This cost was originally thought to be $2.2 billion Lawsuits (undrinkable water) Stage 2 Stage 1 Our Final Decision Due to the high level of deforestation, the displacement of indigenous and ethic peoples, and depletion of biodiversity we have agreed the building of these dams are more costly then beneficial. These dams would cause more diseases, and a divergence in the rivers affecting local populations. What's the Dam Cost? Stage 4 The Dam Long-Term Implications Stage 3 The Dam Costs and the Dam Benefits ...Dam? Or no dam? Affects on marine life population bacteria/algae blooms Potential for flooding Food chains will be disrupted from loss of biodiversity Loss in biodiversity= loss in supply for pharmaceutical industry world-wide Tribes migration can cause conflict More tourism creates more pollution Mikayla Withers & Lina Ramirez Brazil is now being considered one of the leading Dam builders in the world. About 80% of Brazil's electricity is already produced via hydroelectricity, and the government is pressing for even more expansion of the hydroelectric industry. So what would occur if Brazil were to add additional dams as planned? Cost-Benefit Analysis
Transcript: Cost/Benifit Analysis You have been learning about Cost/Benifit Analysis in your Social Studies Classes. But... How does this Relate to Science? First lets talk about Sustainability What does this word mean? What are some importaint things you heard? 3 Main Componants of Sustainability The Economy $ Society The Environment When we make changes to our world we must concider all these factors. How does this change BENIFIT me? What does this change COST me? Questions? Let's practice Cost/Benifit Analysis 1. Form a group of 5 2. Each group memeber will get a slip of paper with a character 3. Each member will read their paper aloud 4. After you have read think about how the senerio could benifit you or cost you 5. Talk with your group members and make a list of the costs and benifits Did everyone think the same?
Transcript: Cons Pros and Cons Pros and cons Old Car There are many pros of a new car. One pro is that the car will rarely break, and you will impress employers when asking for a job. If you roll up to the interview in a cheap, loud, old, rickety car, they'll less likely give you the job. Pros However, the car is getting a bit too loud and the neighbors are complaining to you about it. You have to fix your car, and make sure it doesn't die on you in the middle of the highway. The cheap and classic old car you bought is turning more enjoyable everyday. The loud sound is a comforting sound in the morning and you grow emotionally attached to it. The car is more than just an old car to you, it is your friend and your helper. However, the new car will provide many problems for you. The car will be expensive, and put a hurtful amount of debt on you. This will make your car less of a luxury and more of a problem. Also, the interest will increase the cost on the loan by $3000. Cons New Car Pros The new car is a worse decision. As your first car, you are likely to crash it. It's better to get an old, mediocre car, because if you crash it, you'll be less devastated, and it will be cheaper to repair. Also, the new car will put you in debt, and could lower your credit if you are late on your loan. It is smarter to get a new car when you are financially stable and a good driver. The old car is the better decision. The Choice Which one is better? In this life decision, you want to make the best one. The cars have their ups and downs, but which one is better? All in all Cost-Benefit Analysis You have $1500 dollars to put toward your first car. The choice is that you either buy a car that has 100,000 miles and is in good condition that costs $3000, or you can put your $1500 as a down payment towards a 60-month loan at 7.5% interest for a brand new car that will cost you 18,500.
Transcript: • The outcome of a program that involves hospitals providing appropriate booster seats to children will require policy changes, new equipment and training for employees. Policies will have to be put into place as to who is eligible to receive these booster seats. Also, booster seats will have to be purchased so that they can be provided to the children. Staff will have to be trained properly so they will know how to distribute the booster seats accordingly. • “Designed for children who have outgrown child safety seats, belt-positioning booster seats (BPBs) ensure that the lap and shoulder portions of the seat belt fit a child’s anatomy, restraining the child without applying potentially injurious forces to vulnerable regions of the body. Given the known effectiveness of BPBs in reducing injuries among children aged 4 to 7 years and the low use of BPBs, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality called for more interventions to promote BPB use” (Bryant-Stephens, Garcia-Espana, & Winston, 2013, pp. 576). Bryant-Stephens, T., Garcia-Espana, J. F., & Winston, F. K. (2013). Boosting Restraint Norms: A Community-Delivered Campaign to Promote Booster Seat Use. Traffic Injury Prevention, 14(6), 578-583. doi:10.1080/15389588.2012.733840 Bull, M.(2014). Car seat safety. The American Academy of Pediatrics,35(7). Retrieved from www.aapnews.org Penner,S.(2017). , Economics and financial management for nurses and nurse leaders. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company Perdios,B. (2013). The appropriate and inappropriate use of child restraint seats in America. Pediatric Child Health,17(9) Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3496348/ Safe Kids Worldwide (2017) - Child Passenger Safety Certification New York, NY retrieved from : http://cert.safekids.org/contact-us Kayleigh Ragland Booster seats reduce crash-related injury, and their use is mandatory for vehicle occupants aged 4-7 years in of the United States (Miller, Zaloshnja, & Hendrie, 2006). One CDC study found that, in one year, more than 618,000 children ages 0-12 rode in vehicles without the use of a child safety seat or booster seat or a seat belt at least some of the time (Greenspan, Dellinger, & Chen, 2010). Based on strong evidence of effectiveness, the Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends car seat laws and car seat distribution plus education programs to increase restraint use and decrease injuries and deaths to child passengers (Zaza, Sleet, Thompson, & Bolin, 2010). According to Penner, Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is the method of evaluating the benefits relative to the costs of a program or service (Penner, 2017). When speaking of CBA in regards to healthcare we are thinking of the health benefits for the patient, alternative treatments, and the financial aspects all while making an informed decision (Getzen, 2014). CBA is an evaluation to look at all the benefits and all the costs while making a decision in regards to someone's health care (World Health Organization, 2016). Jessica Fox Gunn, V. L., Phillippi, R. M., & Cooper, W. O. (2012). Improvement in Booster Seat Use in Tennessee. Pediatrics, 119(1). doi:10.1542/peds.2006-1876 Kellie Self Child Safety Seats: How Large are the Benefits and Who Should Pay? (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2017, from https://www.childrenssafetynetwork.org Brandy Cooper Brandy Cooper Healthcare Economics University of Arkansas at Little Rock Jessica Fox, Brandy Cooper, Kayleigh Ragland & Kellie Self Observations of car seat use show shockingly high proportions that are not using a car seat, or using the wrong car seat for the child’s weight and height. An American study that observed more than 13,000 children noted that approximately 90% were using car seats. Of these, only 60% were using the correct type and only 20% were using the seats correctly (Perdios,2013). Greater parent education and is required on the importance of using a car seat and how to use the restraint safely and effectively. Proper instruction of child car seat use is an important tool in improving compliance and will decrease fatalities and improve the rates of use. Physicians and other health professionals can play a part in reducing the likelihood of parents placing children in unsafe seats. Kellie Self Benefits of the service Injury Prevention Cost Benefit Ratio for Hospital Provided Booster Seat Program GOAL! Cost Benefit Analysis Project and Presentation Conclusion It is difficult to say what some unintended side effects of a proper booster seat program. Other than cost, there is no down side. It is hard to even consider cost when it comes to the safety of children. Not all families have the luxury of not considering cost, so it is programs like these that help to reach out and provide safe, reliable booster seats to those in need. There are things in this world that a price simply cannot be placed upon, such as, a child’s life. It is imperative to not only have children in booster seats, but have them in age
Transcript: Implementing the standards of §305(c) of the 2010 MSAPA would be an inappropriate requirement for the Madison Transportation Department rulemaking process. The requirements that would be imposed on the agency would exceed its statutory authority to take "reasonable measures as are adequate to meet the need for vehicle safety." This would create an undue burden on the agency and would inhibit the agency from implementing good public policy. The language that is used to require a cost benefit analysis of regulatory alternatives is ambiguous and would leave agencies with an unclear standard of the level of analysis that they need to conduct. This is not to say that such rigorous analysis would be ineffective in all rulemaking circumstances, but placing this burden on every proposed rule by the agency would be an inefficient use of resources. Industry Opposition Meghan Navar- Browder, Henry Sales, Taylor Briggs Section 305(c) A regulatory analysis must contain: (1) an analysis of the benefits and costs of a reasonable range of regulatory alternatives reflecting the scope of discretion provided by the statute authorizing the proposed rule; and (2) a determination whether: (A) the benefits of the proposed rule justify the costs of the proposed rule; and (B) the proposed rule will achieve the objectives of the authorizing statute in a more cost-effective manner, or with greater net benefits, than other regulatory alternatives. What's going on in Madison? The officials within the Madison Transportation Department have been noticing increased news stories about fatal traffic collisions that were attributed to the inattention of drivers who were talking on cell phones at the time of their accident. In response, the agency proposed a rule that would prohibit any driver from using a hand held phone while operating a motor vehicle. The agency based this rule on studies that showed that a driver's risk of an accident increased substantially when he or she is using a cell phone. Like other traffic offenses, this rule would be enforced by the state police. The Madison Transportation Department has cited other states that have implemented similar restrictions. This rule was created for the purpose of creating safer roadways, saving lives, and reducing injuries. Rep. Larry should withdraw this proposed legislation . Based on our analysis, the bill would require such extensive amendments that it would not be the same bill. The bill would place undue burdens on the agency and serve as a unnecessary road block to efficient and effective rulemaking. The bill assumes that the agency would never do its own version of cost benefit analysis, but as is exemplified through the agency's published findings MTD has already undertaken substantial analysis in arriving at this policy conclusion. Currently, the Madison APA contains no provisions on regulatory analysis. Rep. Larry's proposed legislation would provide that in significant MTD rulemaking proceedings: (a) the department must conduct a regulatory analysis, applying the standards in 2010 MSAPA §305(c) (b) the department may not issue a rule unless it finds pursuant to such an analysis that the benefits of the rule will be commensurate with its costs, and (c) on judicial review, a court may set aside a rule if it finds that the department did not make a good faith effort to comply with the mandates of the new legislation Representative Larry to the Rescue? Aides' Analysis Cost Benefit Analysis Aides' analysis Section C of the Proposed Bill does not clearly define “good faith effort”. This would require courts to review the merits of cost benefit analyses, and would result in inconsistent judicial outcomes. The case of National Association of Independent Insurers v. Texas Department of Insurance serves as a cautionary tale of judicial review of good faith. Requiring a court to analyze specific details of an agency's analysis unfairly places judges in the shoes of seasoned subject matter experts. In Conclusion... Aides' Analysis Requiring an agency to create a number to justify the benefits of their actions where such a number does not exist is a ineffective and inefficient way to create policy. Measuring benefits versus costs does not adequately, effectively, or appropriately place value on human life, and can lead to sinister policy outcomes. An example of this type of policy outcome was done through the consulting group Arthur D. Little, which recommended to the Czech government that it should encourage smoking “because it caused citizens to die earlier and thus reduced government expenditures on pensions, housing, and health care.” This regulation would not have a clearly quantifiable cost because the damage from handheld phone use by drivers does not always result in death, but instead there are many forms of damages or costs that can result from these accidents. MSAPA §305(c) Keep in Touch, an industry group funded by wireless telephone companies have submitted its own study in
Transcript: Cost of Wilderness Therapy Programs Cost-effective Perspectives in Cost-Benefit Analysis $23400 (Cost of incarceration) Each teen prevented from adopting a life of crime (including, future adult offenses) could save the country between $1.7 million and $2.3 million per youth Cost Effectiveness Let alone the piece of mind Cost Benefit Analysis Recidivism vs "Adventure Therapy has shown to be effective in reducing problem behaviors and dysfunction in adolescents" The basics of Cost-Benefit Analysis Comparing the results of a program qualitatively to the cost of the program Cost-Benefit of Adventure Therapy $ 2755 (financial savings) Cost-benefit Cost Effectiveness and Cost-Benefit Analysis References Anasazi Foundation. (2015). Retrieved from www.anasazi.org/admissions.html Cost-effectiveness/Cost-benefit. (2015). Merriam Webster. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ Easy Access to FBI Arrest Statistics: 1994-2012. (2015). Retrieved from http://ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezaucr/asp/ucr_display.asp Justice Policy Institute. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.justicepolicy.org/uploads/justicepolicy/documents/06-03_rep_costeffective_jj.pdf National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.nij.gov/topics/corrections/recidivism/Pages/welcome.aspx Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/publications/statbb.asp?ID=T35 Open Sky Wilderness Therapy. (2015). Retrieved from www.openskywilderness.com/who-we- are/admissions-team Red Cliff Ascent. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.redcliffascent.com/admissions/ Summit Achievement. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.summitachievement.com/admissions Second Nature. (2015). Retrieved from http://adolescents.snwp.com/admissions/ True North Wilderness Therapy. (2015). Retrieved from truenorthwilderness.com/admissions Tucker, A. R., Smith, A., & Gass, M. A. (2014). How presenting problems and individual characteristics impact successful treatment outcomes in residential and wilderness treatment programs. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 31(2), 135-153. doi:10.1080/0886571X.2014.918446 Wilderness Treatment Center. (2015). Retrieved from www.wilderness-therapy- program.com/admissions-wtc.html $20645 (Cost of Anasazi) (Tucker, Smith, Gass. 2014) Quantifiable comparison of the costs and benefits of a program Program or Company vs The Clients* Single Incarceration Prices
Transcript: Cost Benefit Analysis Four year Public School - Bignhamton NY Medium size 13,412 total undergrads/ Suburban setting Five hours away in public transportation SAT CR: 590, M: 620, W: 580 Ashley Melendez Education is an important resource that many people don’t take advantage of. Investing in an education will pay off in the long run. There are so many choices to choose from that it all seems overwhelming. Not only does one have to think about what one wants in a college/university but one also has to think about thinking realistically based on the schools requirements and what one has to offer. Private four year university Medium 6,124 total undergrads/Suburban setting 78% graduate within six years T& F: $40,658, R & B: $14,674, B & S: $1,537, EPE: $1,929 Estimated Total $58,798 $33,873 average financial aid package SAT: CR: 550, M: 550, W: 540, Rank: 29% top tenth Business School - BA in Business Administration, Certificate Program in International Business School of Health Sciences and Human Performance offers HEOP Four year, public university Medium 12,929 total undergrads / Suburban setting 65% graduate within six years T & F: $8,996, R & B: $12,426, B & S: $1,200, EPE: $1,065, TE: $400, Estimated Total $24,087 $10,235 average financial aid package SAT: CR: 490, M: 520 GPA: 3.75+ 14% Business School - 5 year BA/MBA Program Early Assurance to Albany Medical School MD Program Offers EOP Four year Public School - Stony Brook Long Island Large size 16,480 total undergrads/ Suburban setting Two hour away in public transporation Tuition and fees: $8,855, R&B: $12,032, B & S: $900, Estimated personal expenses: $1,368, Transportation:$500, Estimated Total $23,655 $12,789 average financial aid package, 73% of financial need met (average) SAT: CR: 540, M: 610, and W: 540 GPA: 3.75+ (53%) 21% of students graduate with a health profession. 8% in business. College of Business - MBA Fast Track Program School of Nursing - BA program offers EOP Four year, public university large 19,829 total undergrads / Suburban setting T& F: $9,461, R & B: $13,061, B& S $1,196, EPE: $1,230, TE: $1,078 Estimated Total $26,026 $9,558 average financial aid package 65% of financial need met (average) SAT: CR: 500 M:550 GPA: 30% 3.5 or better Appx. 13 Hrs away on BUS (P.T), Appx. 1 hr in plane School of Management - BA/MBA Degrees Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences Offers EOP Tuition: $6,470, Fees:$2,511, R&B:$13,820 Overall Cost of Attendance: $22,801 - $24,251 School of Management Decker School of Nursing Binghamton is ranked #4 in as a best value among the nation's public colleges for out-of-state students and #15 overall by Kiplinger's Personal Finance, 2014 Offers EOP requiremesnts Location Setting Dstance from home SAT scores/ GPA Interested majors Financial assistance
Transcript: Costs of stadia Transport development Infrastructure projects Cost/Benefit Analysis International association football tournament Organised by FIFA Every 4 years First tournament - 1930 19 tournaments 32 teams Group Stage round robin Followed by knockout stage Brazil -= most successful - 5 wins One of the most watched sporting events in human history World Cup Brazil 2014 White elephant project Projects behind schedule Financial mismanagement Monitoring behavior and safety of tourists Ticket revenue Private funding/investment Hosting one of the world's biggest sporting events National pride Cost/Benefit Analysis By Sahil & Kian Economic growth - at least $70 billion Increase tourism Decrease unemployment Legacy External Benefits External Costs Private Benefits 20th World Cup 2nd time for Brazil 1st time in S America since 1978 1st time using goal-line technology 12th June - 13th July 2014 12 venues FIFA WORLD CUP Private Costs A process by which business decisions are analysed. The benefits of a business-related action are summed and then the costs associated with that action are subtracted
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