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Circular Flow Diagram

Transcript: Places where firms buy methods of production. i.e. employees. The borrowing of your money. i.e. GOVERNMENT BORROWING. GOVERNMENT FIRMS Consumer spending. Government purchases of goods and services. Litteraly meaning the rest of the world...Inports and exports to the rest of the world eqaul money. Foreign lending and purchases of stock. Exports. Imports. Taxes. Where people that have an income spend their money. Goverment transfers HOUSEHOLDS FINANCIAL MARKETS Investment spending. A Million Women vs. Wal-MartPublished: August 30, 2010 Recommend Twitter Sign In to E-Mail Print Reprints Share Close LinkedinDiggMixxMySpacePermalink. For nine years, Wal-Mart has fought to stave off a class-action lawsuit alleging that the company has long discriminated against its female workers in pay and promotions. So far it has avoided a trial on the merits of the issue. The battleground instead is whether the million or so women who have worked for Wal-Mart since 2001 really constitute a class, which the company vigorously disputes. In 2004, a federal district court judge said they did, and in April the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals agreed, ruling the case could proceed. Related Times Topic: Wal-Mart Stores Inc.Now Wal-Mart has taken the class issue to the Supreme Court. It is probably a smart legal move, given the court’s clear tendency to rule in favor of corporations, particularly when big classes or discrimination claims are involved. We hope the court resists the temptation to toss out the case, which would force women to file lawsuits one by one. Wal-Mart’s employment practices deserve a full hearing. The case originally began with seven female employees of Wal-Mart who realized that men were being paid more than women for comparable jobs and were getting promoted more often. As District Judge Martin J. Jenkins wrote in 2004, the statistics showed that women working in Wal-Mart stores were paid less than men in every region and in most job categories. The salary gap widened over time even for men and women hired into the same jobs at the same time, he wrote, and women took longer to enter into management positions. Just because statistics showed a general salary gap, and more than 100 women presented evidence of second-class status, does that mean that each of the more than one million women who have worked at Wal-Mart in the last decade were victims of discrimination? The company said that was an outlandish claim, and argued that there was no pattern or intent of discrimination. Judge Jenkins found that the potential discrimination was big enough to affect women as a class. The Ninth Circuit agreed and said it was better to deal with the matter in one lawsuit than with thousands clogging up the court system. If this goes forward it would be the largest employment discrimination lawsuit in American history. Wal-Mart could face more than $1 billion in damages if the case proceeds and the company loses. Wal-Mart is the world’s largest private employer, and as the Ninth Circuit wrote, “mere size does not render a case unmanageable.” The Supreme Court should give the women of Wal-Mart a chance to make their case together. Where goods are produced to be sold. Borrowing and stock issues by firms. Gross domestic product. Wages, profit, interest, rent. Foreign borrowing and sales of stock. The people that run the country/take all your money. Government borrowing. FACTOR MARKETS Private savings. People that have an income...AKA consumors. THE REST OF THE WORLD Wages, profit, intrest, rent. MARKETS FOR GOODS AND SERVICES.

Circular Flow Diagram

Transcript: Circular-Flow Diagram The people that live under the same roof, share their wages, and make the world go round:) Markets for Goods and Services Foreign lending and purchases of stock Where the gov. and households can purchase goods and services they need from firms. Taxes Foreign borrowing and sales of stock THE WORLD! A COST TO EVERYONE Gary Gensler of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission says the current system “adds up to higher costs to all Americans.” The men share a common goal: to protect the interests of big banks in the vast market for derivatives, one of the most profitable — and controversial — fields in finance. They also share a common secret: The details of their meetings, even their identities, have been strictly confidential. Drawn from giants like JPMorgan Chase, Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley, the bankers form a powerful committee that helps oversee trading in derivatives, instruments which, like insurance, are used to hedge risk. In theory, this group exists to safeguard the integrity of the multitrillion-dollar market. In practice, it also defends the dominance of the big banks. The banks in this group, which is affiliated with a new derivatives clearinghouse, have fought to block other banks from entering the market, and they are also trying to thwart efforts to make full information on prices and fees freely available. Banks’ influence over this market, and over clearinghouses like the one this select group advises, has costly implications for businesses large and small, like Dan Singer’s home heating-oil company in Westchester County, north of New York City. This fall, many of Mr. Singer’s customers purchased fixed-rate plans to lock in winter heating oil at around $3 a gallon. While that price was above the prevailing $2.80 a gallon then, the contracts will protect homeowners if bitterly cold weather pushes the price higher. But Mr. Singer wonders if his company, Robison Oil, should be getting a better deal. He uses derivatives like swaps and options to create his fixed plans. But he has no idea how much lower his prices — and his customers’ prices — could be, he says, because banks don’t disclose fees associated with the derivatives. “At the end of the day, I don’t know if I got a fair price, or what they’re charging me,” Mr. Singer said. Derivatives shift risk from one party to another, and they offer many benefits, like enabling Mr. Singer to sell his fixed plans without having to bear all the risk that oil prices could suddenly rise. Derivatives are also big business on Wall Street. Banks collect many billions of dollars annually in undisclosed fees associated with these instruments — an amount that almost certainly would be lower if there were more competition and transparent prices. Just how much derivatives trading costs ordinary Americans is uncertain. The size and reach of this market has grown rapidly over the past two decades. Pension funds today use derivatives to hedge investments. States and cities use them to try to hold down borrowing costs. Airlines use them to secure steady fuel prices. Food companies use them to lock in prices of commodities like wheat or beef. The marketplace as it functions now “adds up to higher costs to all Americans,” said Gary Gensler, the chairman of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, which regulates most derivatives. More oversight of the banks in this market is needed, he said. But big banks influence the rules governing derivatives through a variety of industry groups. The banks’ latest point of influence are clearinghouses like ICE Trust, which holds the monthly meetings with the nine bankers in New York. Under the Dodd-Frank financial overhaul, many derivatives will be traded via such clearinghouses. Mr. Gensler wants to lessen banks’ control over these new institutions. But Republican lawmakers, many of whom received large campaign contributions from bankers who want to influence how the derivatives rules are written, say they plan to push back against much of the coming reform. On Thursday, the commission canceled a vote over a proposal to make prices more transparent, raising speculation that Mr. Gensler did not have enough support from his fellow commissioners. The Department of Justice is looking into derivatives, too. The department’s antitrust unit is actively investigating “the possibility of anticompetitive practices in the credit derivatives clearing, trading and information services industries,” according to a department spokeswoman. Government transfers Financial Markets Investment spending Government purchases of goods and services Through the purchase and sale of stocks America borrows and lends money, and receives imports and sends exports to the rest of the world. Government Borrowing Households Private Savings FIRMS Government Its your job yo. Where you earn money for your household Imports Factor Markets Consumer spending Finacial markets are the baning system basically. Where people invest, save, and

Circular-Flow Diagram

Transcript: Firms Produces goods/services for sale Funds flow from firms to households in the form of wages, profit, interest, and rent through the factor markets Investment spending comes from the firms to the markets for goods and services taxes imports Government Washington (CNN) -- House Budget Chairman Paul Ryan, R-Wisconsin, will unveil a highly anticipated 2012 Republican budget next week that proposes dramatic changes to political lightning rods -- entitlements. The plan, to be released Tuesday, calls for a controversial overhaul of Medicare, the health care program for seniors, and imposes deep cuts in Medicaid, which provides health benefits to low-income Americans, according to House Republican sources with knowledge of the proposal. Starting 10 years from now, in 2021, Americans would no longer enroll in the Medicare program, but instead receive vouchers for private insurance, according to the GOP sources, who stressed anyone 55 or older now would not be affected by the change. The plan is modeled after one Ryan proposed last year with Alice Rivlin, budget director under President Bill Clinton. Details of how Ryan's Medicare voucher program would work are still unclear, but the Ryan-Rivlin plan said the amount of the voucher -- a lump sum payment from the government -- would be calculated in part by taking the average federal cost per Medicare enrollee. The GOP goal in revamping Medicare is to save billions of dollars, since Medicare is a large contributor to the massive federal deficit and debt. Sources said they did not yet know how much savings Ryan would project by drastically changing the Medicare program. On Medicaid, Ryan's plan calls for deep cuts, as much as $1 trillion. The program would also fundamentally change -- the federal share of the Medicaid system would become block grants to the states. CNN is told that the House GOP budget plan does not call for significant change to the Social Security program. Republicans argue that while Social Security is a factor in the nation's fiscal crisis, it doesn't contribute as much to the soaring debt as Medicare. Two House GOP lawmakers briefed on the proposal told CNN they and others on the House Budget Committee believe it's a mistake not to tackle Social Security. As for so-called discretionary spending, one of the sources -- who would not speak on the record before the plan is publicly announced -- said Ryan's proposal promises to roll back spending to 2006 levels. It's unclear how much that would slash, but it is expected to be far more than the roughly $61 billion in spending cuts House Republicans passed in February. Ryan is expected to give specifics on how much savings the plan would create when it is unveiled Tuesday. A GOP source said even with the major cuts and changes in Ryan's proposal -- essentially a blueprint that guides spending decisions and does not go to the president for his signature -- it would not bring the budget into balance for many years. Still, GOP sources briefed on the plan said it would save hundreds of billions of dollars more than the president's proposed 2012 budget, and trillions over the next 10 years. The budget would also cut the corporate tax rate, but at the same time do away with tax loopholes for corporations. Ryan's plan also provides for a permanent extension of all the Bush-era tax cuts which, under a compromise with President Barack Obama, were extended last year through 2012. House Republican leaders have been signaling for some time that they plan dramatic and controversial changes to entitlement programs in order to rein in the budget deficit and debt. Knowing that the proposed changes will be politically risky and elicit an onslaught of criticism, Ryan, along with Republican Whip Kevin McCarthy, has been holding sessions two or three times a week with House Republicans to try to arm them with facts and figures about the gravity of the debt problem and why it needs to be fixed. CNN was allowed into one of these meetings last month, and heard Ryan lay out for his GOP colleagues in stark terms what he calls the "tidal wave" of debt the country is facing. "The Congressional Budget Office has this economic model where they measure the economy going forward, and they are telling us that the entire economy crashes in the year 2037 because their computer simulation can't conceive of any way in which the U.S. economy can continue," Ryan told the GOP group. "By the time my kids are my age, just those three programs -- Social Security, Medicaid and Medicare --will consume all federal revenues. There will be no room for anything else in the federal budget," Ryan said. When Ryan proposed a version of his Medicare overhaul idea last year, known as his "road map," Democrats skewered it and tried to use it as a campaign weapon against Republicans across the country. Obama has often said it is important for Washington to address entitlement spending. But the president has not offered any specific proposals and

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