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Transcript: BUSINESS STATISTICS FINAL PROJECT Many of the students in the Stat course see that the length of the white string is longer than that of the black string. Test this claim using the means of the strings at the 1% level of significance. The data provided for messages texted by students during a day ranged from no messages up to 250 text messages. Is there evidence at the 3% level of significance that the standard deviation in messages texted at most 45 messages? DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS INTRODUCTION The class professor has read in a newspaper that the percent of left-handers in males is 20%. Does this apply to the students in this class? Check using a = 0.04. Texting has become a trend these days among the youth. Some researchers claim that average texted messages by a student is at least 30 messages a day. What is your conclusion after testing this hypothesis using a = 0.025. INTRODUCTION Quantitative data: length of a white string (in inches), length of a black string (in inches) Reading hours TV hours Text messages sent Our data was extracted from a survey which an instructor distributed to his students. Qualitative data: Class year in school Gender Handedness DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS ANALYSIS Frequency distribution for black string length Number of classes = 6 Class width = 3 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Frequency distribution for reading in hours Number of classes = 6 Class width = 3 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS The computed F (0.96) is greater than the critical F (0.33) We reject the null hypothesis Conclusion: There is enough evidence to prove that a linear relationship DOES EXIST between the dependent variable y (Reading) and the independent variable x (TV time). IMPLEMENTATION OF REGRESSION AND ADVANCED STATISTICAL ANALYSIS DISCUSSION OF RESULTS DISCUSSION OF RESULTS


Transcript: b Y BUSINESS STATISTICS 2 X g m 1 p MODE FOR GROUPED AND UNGROUPED DATA F Mode INTRODUCTION One of the values of the measurements of central tendency is the mode. This value offers us an approximate indication of which elements in a data collection are most likely to occur. For instance, you may be aware that a college offers ten distinct courses to students. Now, the course with the most student registrations will be counted as the mode of our provided data. Overall, mode informs us what item in the data set has the highest frequency. There are a lot of real-life uses and importance of using the value of mode. There are a lot of aspects wherein just finding the average (or mean) will not work. For instance, refer to the example given above. In order to find the highest number of students enrolled in a course, finding any of the mean or median won't work. Hence, we tend to use the Mode in such cases. E MODE FORMULA In statistics, the mode formula is used to calculate the mode or modal value of a given set of data. It is defined as the value that is repeatedly occurring in a given set. That means, the value or number in a data set, which has a high frequency or appears more frequently is called mode or modal value. Mode is one of the three measures of central tendency, apart from mean and median.Mode for ungrouped data is found by selecting the most frequent item on the list. Now, for any given data range, let us consider 'L' is the lower limit of the modal class, 'h' is the size of the class interval, '(f) m' is the frequency of the modal class, '(f) 1' is the frequency of the class preceding the modal class, and '(f) 1' is the frequency of the class succeeding the modal class. Here, the modal class is the data interval with the highest frequency. Thus, the mode can be calculated by the formula: Mode formula for ungrouped and grouped data Ungrouped Data To find the mode for ungrouped data, it just requires the data values to be arranged either in ascending or descending order, then finding the repeated values and their frequency. The observation with the highest frequency is the modal value for the given data is here referred to as the modal value. Grouped Data Mode formula for grouped data is given as, where, .L is the lower limit of the modal class. .h is the size of the class interval. .fm is the frequency of the modal class. .f1 is the frequency of the class preceding the modal class. .f2 is the frequency of the class succeeding the modal class. Life is an Open Book.. D Ready to Turn the Next Page? C Derivation of Mode Formula For the grouped data represented on the histogram, there are not individual values, to check for modal value. Thus, we take up the modal class of size h, and then find out the mode based on that. Consider the graph given below. Let the frequency of the modal class be fm or f1. Here, BC = h. The frequency of the preceding modal class be f0 and the frequency of the class succeeding the modal class be f2, the lower limit of the modal class be I0. Thus, the mode is given by I0+x. Deduction of mode formula B How to find mode for ungrouped and grouped data ? The value that appears the most frequently in a piece of data is known as mode. The mechanism for finding the mode may now be altered depending on the data provided (grouped or ungrouped). A grouped data set is data that is shown in intervals, as the name implies. Graphs are frequently used to display such information. Ungrouped data, on the other hand, is information that may be shown in a tabular format. As a result, we divide our data into two categories: grouped and ungrouped. Let's have a look at the methods for finding mode for both ungrouped and grouped data. Mode for Ungrouped Data Data that does not appear in groups are called ungrouped data. Let us take an example to understand how to find the mode of ungrouped data. Let us say a garment company manufactured winter coats with the sizes as mentioned in the frequency distribution table: We can clearly see that size 42 has the greatest frequency. Hence, the mode for the size of the winter coats is 42. However, the same does not hold good for grouped data. Mode for Grouped Data To find the mode for grouped data, follow the steps shown below. Step 1: Find the class interval with the maximum frequency. This is also called modal class. Step 2: Find the size of the class. This is calculated by subtracting the upper limit from the lower limit. Step 3: Calculate the mode using the mode formula. Let us understand this with an example. Below given is the data representing the scores of the students in a particular exam. Let us try to find the mode for this: Thank you! A

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Transcript: Job Title The actual data gathering needs considerable time and effort since the data include the features of the job, the proper attitude towards the job, and the characteristics of the employee. Specific tasks and activities APPLICATION OF JOB ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES These include and clarify the functions of the job in detail. Usually, the specific functions start with a verb to show an element of action. Recruitment and Selection Knowledge, tools, and equipment used Work conditions the best you can... Required behavior on the job The process of gathering all the needed information which is important in a particular job. PREPARATION OF JOB DESCRIPTION AND JOB SPECIFICATION This prezi and many more available at: Written summaries of various jobs consistingof duties, responsibilities, and qualifications SELECTION OF JOBS HR Planning Observation Interviews Questionnaire Logbook The job analyst can also gather information regarding the performance levels or standards required by the job. In this step, the firm identifies and formulates the goals of the job analysis. Free prezi template Running Business is a great corporate prezi developed by Prezzip to be reused by the prezi community. Just add your story! Information about the behavior required in the performance of various jobs. General description of the job Parts of a Job Description Compensation The use of questionnaire is one of the least expensive tools for data gathering. It usually includes the duties and responsibilities, working conditions, equipment used, and requirements of the job. The logbook is a good source of data regarding employee duties- how frequently they have to be done and when they are scheduled to be finished. There are certain jobs that require the use of logbooks and more often than not, these jobs are quite hard to observe. This method is very useful for repetitive jobs. Nonetheless, there are jobs that cannot be observed like researching or computer programming. JOB SPECIFICATIONS Reporting relationships The following information that can be collectedthrough Job Analysis This portion provides a summary of the job and gives an overview of its duties and responsibilities. The interview allows a face-to-face interaction between the job analyst and the interviewee. It provides an opportunity for the job analyst to clarify vague points and create a venue for a pleasant interaction between the employee and the job analyst. Required job standards This describes the exact job title or designation like HR Manager or HR Assistant, and Production Manager, among others. As discussed earlier, it lists the minimum requirements of the job. The parts given are the commonly-used ones, although there is no standard format as to how job descriptions are written. In some companies, a job description also contains the working conditions and the equipment used. Job specification Classification provides the rank or position of the job in the hierarchy of the various jobs in the company. Here A job anlyst can obtain information on the different tasks required by a job Job classification JOB DESCRIPTION Here Additional information includes how these tasks are done, the specific time performed, and the reason why they need to be perfomed. Training and Development Job Analysis They are used in the following HR ativities After the data gathering comes the time to write the job description for each job analyzed FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES These includes the educational background, training, or experience, as well as type of personality, attitudes, etc that are needed for the position, Refers to the minimum qualificationsrequired by a particular job such as educational background, experience, skills, and abilities. This includes the job title for the position’s immediate supervisor. In the case of an HR Manager, the immediate supervisor may be a Vice President for HR or HR director. The reporting relationship also includes the subordinates under the HR Manager’s supervision. Personal characteristics and requirement These include the physical aspects of the job such as work schedules, and physical environment. information on social contact is also obtained Since job analysis is a time-consuming process, jobs to be anlyzed are carefully selected. ACTUAL CONDUCT OF JOB ANALYSIS The job analyst can gather the information about the tools and equipment used by the employees. JOB ANALYSIS PROCESS Specific duties and responsibilities Proper selection of the appropriate techniques will be less costly for the organization. Chapter II: Recruitment, Selection, and Placement step on it! your toolkit use your head Job Analysis techniques Let's GO! CLICK!

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