Transcript: Galton said- In 1921, Sanger founded the American Birth Control League, which later became the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. In New York, she organized the first birth control clinic staffed by all-female doctors, as well as a clinic in Harlem with an entirely African-American staff. In service of White Supremacy is an historically based, institutionally perpetuated system of exploitation and oppression of continents, nations, and peoples of color by white peoples and nations of the European continent, for the purpose of maintaining and defending a system of wealth, power, and privilege. "Eugenics is the study of the agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations either physically or mentally." Sir Francis Galton, 1904 In the praxis of hegemony, imperial dominance is established by means of cultural imperialism, whereby the leader state (hegemon) dictates the internal politics and the societal character of the subordinate states that constitute the hegemonic sphere of influence, either by an internal, sponsored government or by an external, installed government. The imposition of the hegemon’s way of life — an imperial lingua franca and bureaucracies (social, economic, educational, governing) — transforms the concrete imperialism of direct military domination into the abstract power of the status quo, indirect imperial domination. Eugenic policies Antonio Gramsci (1891–1937) developed the philosophy and the sociology of geopolitical hegemony into the theory of Cultural Hegemony, whereby one social class can manipulate the system of values and mores of a society, in order to create and establish a ruling-class Weltanschauung, a worldview that justifies the status quo of bourgeois domination of the other social classes of the society The Way out Eugenics, meaning "well born," was introduced in the 1880s by Sir Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin and the father of modern statistics. Galton pioneered the use of pedigrees, twin studies, and statistical correlation for the purpose of using that knowledge to improve "the breed of man." What it is and what is the connection? Planned Parenthood Under hegemony, rebellion (social, political, economic, armed) is eliminated either by co-optation of the rebels or by suppression (police and military), without direct intervention by the hegemon; examples are the latter-stage Spanish and British empires, the 19th- and 20th-century reichs of unified Germany (1871–1945), and currently, the United States of America forbidding marriage, segregation in institutions, and sexual sterilization of allegedly "unfit parents" and strengthening federal quotas on immigrants (in 1924) from nations believed to be "racially inferior" to Anglo-American stock...NAZIS!! Who Curbed the Bell? Eugenics Hegemony is an indirect form of government, and of imperial dominance in which the hegemon (leader state) rules geopolitically subordinate states by the implied means of power, the threat of force, rather than by direct military force Hegemony Cultural Hegemony
Transcript: Probability & Integration By Matthew Carbonell & T.C. Drury Introduction What is probability? Subtopic 1 Connection to Calculus Subtopic 2
Transcript: People with a shoe size of 6-9 are standard citizens and earn modest incomes and live comfortablty. People with a shoe size of 9 and above are deemed superior and have been in power since the development of the civilization The extreme ends of the curve represent the least frequently occuring subset of the identified trait, while the most common subset of the traits lie between the ends and the most common occurence can be found at the middle of the graph Caucasian Male Our inclination to order items by ranking them in a linear series of increasing worth. Gould, S. (1981). The mismeasure of man. New York: Norton. Topic: Homosexuality. (n.d.). Retrieved October 28, 2015. Clean Bill of Health In a world (not so) far, far away....... Reductionism ....being "normal"! Those unfortunate souls who have small feet are doomed to a life with no access to shoes and are forced to depend on others to survive. Murray and Herrnstein believed those who fall on the extreme ends of the curve are doomed to stay there, that there is nothing that can be done to improve their placement. Ultimately, their argument was to give up hope for improvement among those "less than." References Society's Bell curve Society's expectations do not conform to the very nature of the tool those who study these kinds of phenomena are using to describe it! We would never let shoe size determine how we identify our status in society. Shoe size is such an arbitrary trait! Why not? IQ score: 145-175 Maybe.. X-Axis: trait under inspection, said trait is quantified in order to be placed on the graph Y-Axis: frequency of the population Vertical lines represent categories within the given trait. Society is hierarchical in nature, organized by SHOE SIZE All body parts intact and functional No diagnosis of a mental illness or disorder Not over or under weight Average stature No diagnosis of a chronic illness Unimpaired learning capacity Not dyslexic, ADD, ADHD, etc. Earning a spot at the top means.... Deafness is another thing that cannot be graphed on a bell curve, unfortunately, deaf people have also been subject to "society's bell curve" and have been forced to live their lives as "outliers" for as long as history. It is important for society to stop comparing every little trait to the bell curve! Deaf people have much more to offer than their hearing status, but all too often - that becomes their label. Like homosexuality, deafness is a multi-faceted and complex identity that should not be reduced to a single entity. That's ridiculous! Components of the bell curve So why have we allowed equally arbitrary traits (race, gender, intelligence, etc.) to do just the opposite? The bell curve theory does not apply to humanity as a whole. riˈdəkSHəˌnizəm/ noun The practice of analyzing and describing a complex phenomenon in terms of phenomena that are held to represent a simpler or more fundamental level, especially when this is said to provide a sufficient explanation. A tool created to categorize traits (of nature, statistical items, intelligence, human features, etc.) in isolation A highly influential book written by Murray and Herrnstein on the application of the bell curve to human features, namely intelligence The curve itself is divided up into sections that ultimately rank the individual's intelligence level along a spectrum from highly desireable on one end to beyond repair on the other However, the ranking of intelligence was originally created simply to identify students in need of additional support in school. Along the way, though, the focus got skewed and the ranking system began. In our society, we tend to map all human characteristics on the bell curve and oppress and essentially move to "dehumanize" those who do not fall on the upper half of the graph on certain standards. What about deafness? We, as a society reduce people to single qualities (e.g. deaf, black, down syndrome). Every person has so much more to offer than their flaws. Human-ness cannot be defined by parsing out and ranking features along a graph. Society would benefit from taking a holistic view of the people it encompasses. The majority of people fall somewhere in the middle, the extremes ends of the curve are outliers and can only be expected to apply to a small percentage of the population. The statistics behind the bell curve are correct, however, the ramifications were created by oppression NOT statistics. The system of oppression has made sure that those who are less fortunate, either financially, intellectually, racially, (the list goes on and on) stay that way. A V E R A G E Hierarchy Real World Example Hearing (not deaf) Clean bill of health The majority of people in America identify as heterosexual, while a small percentage of people identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual (7% of the poulation). While the LBGTQ community could be considered the "outliers," sexuality is not quantified, and it would be difficult to do so. Additionally, many Americans believe that
Transcript: Measurement Activity Deviation- Change between each point Range- Distance from the first point to last point on a graph Minimum- The smallest value in the series Maximum- The biggest value in the series Definitions Task: A graph of a normal distribution, with a large rounded peak tapering away at each end Bell Curve Graphs Task: Bell Curve Graph - Create a bar graph for each set of data - Title the graph - Label the X and Y axis's - Identify and draw the Bell Curve - Use color! 1. Grab a microwave, popcorn bag, and a pencil 2. Pop popcorn for 2:30 3. Record data after every 10 seconds 4. Draw graph AND label it using graph paper in worksheet 5. Get it checked off by Mr. Kade or Miss. Lindsey 6. Create popcorn graph with poster paper 7. Get it checked off by Mr. Kade or Miss. Lindsey 8. Clean up your table 9. Eat the rest of your popcorn! As a table: - Measure and record your height using a yard stick How to get accurate measurements: - Take off shoes - Stand against a wall, feet flat, and heels touching the wall - Measure from the floor to the top of the head - Record the data in the table What We Are Doing Today Point A: the beginning process Point B: rate is reaching near the positive maximum Point C: the peek going to the negative slope Point D: rate is reaching near the maximum but negative Point E: the end of the process First Prediction - Collect data by listening to how many times popcorn pops while it is cooking - Graph the data and look at a normal distribution or a bell graph - Look at the data and see if we can find common themes within each data collection Graph The Data
Transcript: Herrnstein and Murray (1994) "Social class remains the vehicle of social life, but intelligence now pulls the train" (p.25) Howard Gardener Stephen Jay Gould - 'Mismeasure by any measure' Leon J. Kamin - Statistical abuse Development of cognitive elite Equate skill with intelligence American education Overview www. wjh.havvard.edu/~cfc/chabris1998a.html Christopher F. Chabris - "smart people do better than dumb people" Herrnstein died a week before it was published Media frenzy- 5 other books published in response http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/bellcurve.shtml#kaminabuse Accessible Gathered lots of statistical data Offers different perspective on social class Article 2? Evaluation IQ Methodology Action in the workplace Evaluation Critique Overall evalutation? New Harvard admissions Racial controversy Raising cognitive ability Harvard attendance Genes? Reinforces gender stereotypes Racial controversy Patronising the reader Repetitive The Bell Curve Miranda, Meghan and George
Transcript: Written in 1994, it is one of the most controversial works of the 1990's to the present day. Written by Charles Murray and Richard J. Herrnstein. Data was mainly collected from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, (more than 12,000 high school students tested in 1979 + progress tracked ever since) and the Armed Forces Qualification Test, a general intelligence test which the military uses to predict success in military training schools. It discusses the differences in intellectual capacity and IQ in relation to poverty, professions, parenting, crime, ethnicity, class and so on. 'Social class remains the vehicle of social life but intelligence now pulls the train' (Herrnstein & Murray, p12) Low intelligence is responsible for low socio-economic status. IQ has an effect even when education is held constant. The relationship between intelligence, ethnicity and class Issues and criticisms By Mimi, Cami, David, Lawrence The 'cognitive elite', Herrnstein and Murray argue, are slowly separating themselves from society. Elite schools selecting more intellectually talented students. Heritability of IQ is quite high and there is a strong tendency for those similar in ability to marry Separate themselves by living in separate neighbourhoods, sending their children to private schools and supporting social instutions. African-American IQ's are a standard deviation - 15 IQ points - than the average European or Asian American East Asans typically earn higher scores on intelligence and achievement tests than white Americans. Poverty Of White people in the bottom 5% in IQ percentile, 30 percent were below the poverty line, fifteen times the rate of people in the top cognitive class' Low intelligence means a comparatively high risk of poverty. Socio-economic status They describe the link between poverty and crime caused by low IQ rather than poverty itsself. East asians living in Asia or America score above White Americans in tests of cognitive ability. The difference measured in IQ between African Americans and Whites has remained at about 15 IQ points for decades, although there is some indication of very modest convergence due to fewer low scores in the African American Population. A great deal of evidence points to both genetic and environmental contributions to ethnic group differences in IQ Governments can influence these forces but not neutralize them as the authors argue that IQ is mainly inherited. Low IQ is a risk factor for welfare dependency. Modern societies distinguish the most clever youths and guide them into narrow occupational and educational routes which creates the cognitive elite. The Bell Curve R.Herrnstein & C.Murray The Bell Curve National Context Deemed as 'Scientific racism' as it follows a conservative ideology. Research is not disputed however conclusions drawn are considered 'bunk'. Consistently cite J.Phillipe Rushton- a Pyschologist that claimed 'Mongoloids' are the superior race, followed by 'caucasoids' and then 'negroids' Hard to isolate determining factors in the complex system of human society - other variables overlooked. Herrenstein developed 'Intelligence project' in Venezuela 1980 to 1983 - contradictory Selective use of research on education The confused concept of "IQ" Determinist view Cause and Effect Social trends Cognitive Classes and Social behaviour "It seems highly likely to us that both genes and the environment have something to do with racial differences." The introduction to the chapter more cautiously states, "The debate about whether and how much genes and environment have to do with ethnic differences remains unresolved." (Herrnstein et al, 1994 c13) The way we are headed Improvements in intelligence testing mean that businesses are able to select those with higher IQs for better positioned jobs. This, Herrnstein and Murray argue has merged the most intelligent and affluent classes. The cognitive elite is slowly isolating itself socially,geographically and culturally. Those with high IQs also tend to have less children, so the average american IQ is falling, and thus they suggest that the quality of life of the lower classes will also fall. They propose that democracy will slowly disintegrate. Increasingly isolated cognitive elite Merging of cognitive elite with the affluent Deteriorating quality of life for people with low cognitive ability. Argue that intelligence is highly related to America's most pressing social problems. Main Findings IQ is mostly inherited. Nature plays the dominant role rather than socio-economic background. (60% inherited 40% environment) Intelligence is most important factor in each person's life and serves to predict things such as socio-economic status and tendencies toward criminal behavior Found that some races have higher IQs than others and the socio-economic status of different race is due to IQ. Cognitive elite are separating themselves from the rest of society. Relationships between IQ and social behaviors that are presented in
Transcript: Critics The Bell Curve (1994) President Bill Clinton in office LA riots (1992) riots stemmed from the acquittal of four white Los Angeles Police Department officers in the beating of black motorist Rodney King in 1991. In the spring of 1992 lasted for 5 days. 2,000 were injured, 50 people dead, 1,000 buildings were damaged and an estimated cost of $1 billion in damages. Authors believed that crime, poverty, welfare, and dependacy came from low IQ The authors believed that the United States was heading toward a dangerous trend in which the "cognitive elite" and those with average and below average intelligence are becoming even more seperated. -argued that intelligence comes from genes not from environment - blacks seen as intellectually inferior for having low IQ scores Downward pressure in IQ distribution Ethnic Differences in IQ The Bell Curve has a simple but powerful thesis: There are substantial individual and group differences in intelligence; these differences profoundly influence the social structure and organization of work in modern industrial societies, and they defy easy remediation. In the current political milieu, this book's message is not merely controversial, it is incendiary. As scholars such as Daniel Moynihan, Arthur Jensen, and E. O. Wilson have learned, the mainstream media and much of the scientific community have little tolerance for those who would question our most cherished beliefs. Herrnstein and Murray have received similar treatment. They have been cast as racists and elitists, and The Bell Curve has been dismissed as pseudoscience, ironically by some commentators who broadly proclaim that their critique has not benefited from a reading of the book. The book's message cannot be dismissed so easily. Herrnstein and Murray have written one of the most provocative social science books published in many years. The issues raised are likely to be debated by academics and policymakers for years to come. -Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr. ( psychology professor) They believed that the national IQ distribution was going downward rather than increasing -encouraged cognitive elite to procreate and pass down genes The Controversy.... The Bell Curve Low IQ's = Social problems -As mentioned before many critics took offense on the book and claimed that the authors were supporting scientific racism through it. -others argued that selected data was used in order to coincide with the author's political arguments -contradictory data -still others criticised the fact that the book was never never published in peer-reviewed scientific journals -caused riots from both who supported the book and those who were against it -those in support of the book thought that it was being honest. events -welfare reformation "While health care was the centerpiece of the president's State of the Union Address to a joint session of Congress, Clinton also insisted that welfare reform, anticrime legislation, education reform, revamping of the job training system and a range of other issues cannot be ignored this election year." -Ann Devroy (Washington Post Staff Writer) Wednesday, January 26, 1994 Chapters 13 and 14 recieved explosive reactions. - ethnic differences in cognitive ability (IQ) -downward pressure in IQ distribution -Low IQ's create social problems
Transcript: Why getting a C might not be as bad as you think Expectations We need to learn how to be mediocre. Not that we don't want to give our best efforts, but it is inevitable that we're going to be average at some in most things. VS Bell Curve Taking advantage of our strengths and embracing our weaknesses could help us as a society to be okay with being average. Take into consideration that if you're exceptionally good at one thing odds are you're not so great at another. This will help us to accept one another. Well, because of the bell curve. The bell curve is grading scale to show an even distribution. There should be few A's and F's, a little more B's and D's, and more C's than anything. C's are supposed to be average. Why? Most high school students feel a significant pressure to achieve all A's. Though this is a great goal, it's unrealistic that the many that strive, will succeed.
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