Transcript: FOOD ADDITIVES :) Acetone Peroxide Richard Wolffenstein developed acetone in 1895. It is used as a bleaching agent for flour. Caffiene Caffeine was discovered in 1819 by Friedlieb Runge. It can be found in coffee, tea, soda, and many other things. It temporarily wards off drowsiness and restores alertness. A negative aspect is that you can develop a dependency. Gelatin Gelatin was dicovered in 1682 by Denis Papin. Peter Cooper was the first to patent a gelatin dessert. It is used in gelatin desserts, trifles, aspic, marshmallows, candy corn, and confectioneries. Fructose Fructose was discovered by Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut in 1847. Sucrose is in fruit, vegetables, and commercal sweeteners. Benzoic Acid Nostradamus first discovered benzoic acid in the 16th century. In 1832, Justus von Liebig and Friedrich Wohler determined the structure of the acid, and its antifungal abilities were found in 1875. Today in the early 21st century, benzoic acid is used as an ingredient in feedstock, medicines and food preservatives. Aspartame Aspartame was discovered in 1965 by James M. Schlatter. It is an artificial sweetener.
Transcript: Maintenance Acids Food acids are added to make flavors sour. Antioxidants Add nutrition to foods Food coloring They are use to make the color of the food more attractive (like m&m’s!). Flavors Make the food taste better Glazing agents make the food shiny Preservatives Kills bacteria. Sweeteners Super sweet non-sugar things.(like Saccharin and Aspartame） Food Additives Food additives are things add to your food that helps flavoring, color, or to maintain consistency and texture and to also provide nutrition. Brief introduction Some of the food additives will help the maintenance of the food so it won't be rotten in several days. This also help the food to not be wasted because it's bad! References Things like vinegar and soybean sauce is natural. So they make no harm! What are the main kinds of food additives The negative part Why is food additives good? What is food additives? Useless They are all natural! Some food additives are harmful for your body. For example: Sweeteners may cause you cancer. Other harmful food additives include Artificial colorings, Aspartame, Hydrogenated vegetable oil, Partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, Sodium Nitrate, and Sodium Nitrite The solution There are good food additives There are also bad additives So, why don't we quit using bad food additives and use good ones? That is my solution! BY: Amazing Tim Harmful http://additivesandpreservatives.wikispaces.com/What+are+the+positives+and+negatives+of+additives+and+preservatives%3F http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_additives#Safety Food Additives: Good or Bad:( The Good part. Good for your body! Why is food additives bad? Some of the food additives is good for your body, like salt and Antioxidants. Food coloring won't change anything except the color and made things beautiful!
Transcript: Antioxidants –chelate metal ions initiating rancidity (reduce rate of oxidation) Added to cooking oil, used for coating of packaging material, or used as dipping solution Sulfites -Used as antioxidants, mainly to prevent browning (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) -Used as antimicrobial -But aggravates asthma and allergic reactions, banned in fresh fruits and veg -Reacts with thiamin (source of nutrient), not used if food is rich in thiamine such as tuna and sunflower seeds Sensory Colouring Make food more appealing Offset colour loss during processing Enhance natural colour of food Protection from light during storage Flavours Labeling – Orange juice (juice made from real oranges, may contain permitted colouring matter) Orange flavoured drink (contain synthetic flavour) Synthetic flavours are combination of many chemicals, often lack complexity Acid/base regulator Peas maintained at pH above 8 to prevent change of color Flavour enhancers Enhance the taste of foods E.g. MSG, Guanylic acid and its salt, isosinic acid and its salt Sweeteners To make food taste sweet Nutritive: provide calories such as glucose, fructose, sorbitol Non-nutritive: does not provide calories such as aspartame, saccharine, acesulfame potassium Emulsifiers To help water and oil mix such as mono and diglycerides Can improve texture of food Thickeners, stabilisers and gelling agent Improve texture and consistencies of many foods such as locust bean gum, agar, propylene glycol E.g. ice cream, jam, jelly Others Anticaking agents –absorb moisture e.g. calcium silicate, silicon dioxide to prevent powdered and crystalline materials from caking or forming lumps Safety of Food Additives -Scientific tests to test safety level of food activities -Allowable/acceptable = level with no observable harmful effect Daily intake (ADI) 100 -Food additives must be proven safe at the level used in foods and have an advantage when used -GRAS (generally recognized as safe) -Control substances are not GRAS – guidelines for quantity used in ppm for EACH type of food -Because for food that are not consume all at once have more additives e.g. soy sauce while food that are consume at once have less additives e.g. coke FOOD ADDITIVES Tin leaching into pineapple syrup, antibiotics, hormones, hair, packaging materials Intentional additives Antioxidants, sweetener, colours, flavours, emulsifiers Substance that is added to food to cause a desirable change in the product’s characteristic (may or may not have nutritional values) Preservation (added intentionally but does not improve properties of food; not food additives) Contaminants/ incidental additives Adulterants Antimicrobial – additive to prevent growth of microorganism E.g.Salt, sugar (traditional methods) Nitrites – E.g. sodium nitrite(NaNO3) inhibits growth of(C. botulinum) bacteria that cause botulism as well as contributing to colour and flavour of meat products but may cause nitrosamine if consumed in large amount Acids –inhibit microbial growth by lowering pH, E.g. Calcium propionate prevents mould growth on bread (added to improve the properties of food)
Transcript: Potassium Bromate BHA and BHT Benefits Monosodium Glutamate FDA must be proven dangerous less strict laws Found in: margarine chips and crackers baked goods fast foods Health Issues: high cholesterol heart diseases strokes diabetes Costs High Fructose Corn Syrup Problems and Affects Great Britain Food Additives added vitamins (D and B) added minerals (potassium) fiber-enriched Found in: potato chips gum cereal rice lard Health Issues: neurological system of brain cancer economic environmental obesity diabetes Found in: hot dogs bacon curred meat processed meat smoked fish Health Issues: liver and pancreas problems Found in: processed foods candy bread dressings canned vegatables Health Issues: high cholestrol diabetes tissue damage EMEA must be proven harmless stricter laws Corn Association Why in USA vs. Great Britain Sodium Nitrate/Nitrite Trans Fat Common Corn Products Found in: candy soft drinks sports drinks macaroni and cheese maraschino cherries cereal Health issues: chromosomal damage thyroid cancer kidney and adrenal gland tumors Found in: Chinese food chips cookies Cambell soup frozen dinners Health Issues: eye damage fatigue obesity depression Nutritional Benefits Definition: any substance added to a food product intended to enhance or change -either directly or indirectly - a substance by effecting the characteristics of the substance McDonalds colors flavors and texture preservation by Emma Durain and Victoria Torgersen Pizza Hut What is a Food Additive? Food Dyes Found in: breads Health Issues: cancer Found in: diet sodas jello sugar-free gum koolaide chewable vitamins toothpaste Health issues: Parkinson's diabetes Alzhiemer's USA Common and Dangerous Additives Pringles USA vs. Great Britain Ingredients Aspartame diseases obesity long term health issues sweeteners food - cows, chicken, pigs fast foods additives
Transcript: Food Additives Food additives have negative effects on the physiological health of individuals, their cognitive development, and their behavioural development. “On average 30% of foods in our daily diets are processed foods.” (Oelke, 2006). 1 2 3 Sharpen awareness of food additives on the market Consume organic foods as much as possible Purchase food that are fresh compared to packaged or frozen Dr. Soffritti’s previous studies also showed that aspartame can increase obesity and may even cause a metabolic syndrome that affects 48 million Americans today. (Blaylock, 2007) A recent study involving 153 preschool children and 144 children aged 8-9 demonstrated a link between increases in the preservative sodium benzoate, and children being closer to falling under the clinical definition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thesis: However, excess amounts can affect the brain and nervous system (Mercola, 2008). As a result, the body begins to show signs of agitation, depression, anger, and a person may experience anxiety attacks, and panic attacks by nearly 67%. Recommendations: A recent study was done on children to measure the visible effects of sugars found in one soda. As a result, the children who consumed the soda made twice as many mistakes and demonstrated inappropriate behaviour (Mercola, 2008). Aspartame accounts for over 75% of individuals’ adverse reactions to food additives that have been reported to the FDA (Mercola, 2009). Side effects from aspartame include dizziness, nausea, weight gain, insomnia and anxiety attacks. More severe conditions that can be triggered by the consumption of aspartame are the onset of brain tumours, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s, mental retardation, birth defects, and diabetes. Children who ingested the more concentrated mix moved 10% closer to an internationally accepted definition of hyperactivity (Globe and Mail, 2007). Dr. Soffritti’s study was conducted on groups of 70-95 male and female Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were administered aspartame with concentrations with varying concentrations from the 12th day of fetal life until natural death. The results confirmed that exposure to an accumulation of aspartame overtime, starting with fetal life, increases the risk for cancer. (Blaylock, 2007)
Transcript: natural or synthetic ? ADDITIVES are divided into 2 kinds, there are NATURAL additives and SYNTHETIC additives Antioxidants Food Additives Flavorings Sweeteners "... something that is added to a product such as coloring, flavoring, & preservatives ..." Organization of Food and Medicines control Definition Coloring Nutrient Supplements Preservatives Chemistry How to Prevent ? - BPOM labels - expiration date - damaged packages - ingredients
Transcript: Food Additives maintain and enhance food nutritive quality make it visualy appealing help in its processing, packaging, or storage Different Categories of Food Additives Acids Acidity regulations anticaking agents antioxidants bulking agents food colouring colour retention agents emulsifiers flavours/flavour enhancers flour treatment agents glazing agents humercants stabilizers sweetners tracer gas preservatives thickeners Common Food Additives beeswax caffeine caramel cellulase cellulose citric acid gelatin mineral oil sucralose zinc sulphate OLESTRA sulfites aspartame MSG sterol esters Emulsifiers have 2 ends, one prefering that of water and the other oil. These ends are known as the hydrophilic and lipophilic end. (hydrophilic being water and lipophilic being oil) In and oil-in-water emulsion, they will coat the surface of oil droplets and insulate these droplets from water, which will inturn enable them to stay seperated during the emulsion and keep them from forming there own layer. However in a water-in-oil emulsion the emulsifier will insulate the water just as the oil-in-water emulsion did, but it will STOP them from seperating the oil. Artificial dye/ Food Colouring There are exactly 7 artificial food dies: Indigotine(dark blue) fast green FCF (blueish green) Allura red AC Erythrosine (pink) Tartrazine (yellow) Sunset Yellow FCF (orange) Brilliant Blue FCF Splenda/ Sucralose low cal artificial sweetner 600 times sweeter then sucrose which is our common table sugar and is 3.3 times sweeter then aspartame, which is a chemical we commonly consume through juice crystals and diet pop extremely heat stable available in granulated form When sucralose desolves in water the chemical reaction is almost instananeous and causes the water to appear cloudy A food additive is any chemical substance that is intentionally added to change or modify a foods visual appearance, taste, texture , processing or storage life of the food. Food additives directly effect the foods characteristics in order to achieve a particular effect. What Is a Food Additive? What Do Food Additives do? Emulsifiers have 2 ends, one prefering that of water and the other oil. These ends are known as the hydrophilic and lipophilic end. (hydrophilic being water and lipophilic being oil) In and oil-in-water emulsion, they will coat the surface of oil droplets and insulate these droplets from water, which will inturn enable them to stay seperated during the emulsion and keep them from forming there own layer. However in a water-in-oil emulsion the emulsifier will insulate the water just as the oil-in-water emulsion did, but it will STOP them from seperating the oil. Emulsifier By: Casey Drake and Alyssa Christensen sucralose
Transcript: What are Food Additives? Flavors additives that give food a particular taste or smell Propionic Acid CH3CH2COOH Sodium Nitrate NaNO3 Can damage your health diet high in sodium nitrites may lead you to bad health condition Food Additives Although food additives may harm our health, we cannot stop using and eating food additives. But we can still avoid taking a lot of food additives by checking labels on the foods and making wise choice. Sustainable Table http://www.sustainabletable.org/issues/additives/ Live strong.com http://www.livestrong.com/article/416466-the-harmful-effect-of-sodium-nitrite-in-food/ Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweetener#Saccharin I food http://www.ifood.tv/blog/effects-of-food-coloring-on-health Food insight organization http://www.foodinsight.org/Resources/Detail.aspx?topic=Food_Ingredients_Colors Thank you for your attention. Aspartame stevia, aspartame, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame potassium, and saccharin Chicken Flavor Bulking agents Safety issues Antioxidants attention deficit Natural sweetener Humectants strictly regulated by each country cancer accidentally created by an experiment using toluene derivatives Stabilizers Emulsifiers prevent bacterial or fungal growth Good for people who are overweight and diabetic! Green 3(C37H34O10N2S3Na)- Carcinogenic links-Beverages, puddings, ice cream, sherbet, cherries, baked goods Tracer gas Sweeteners It's not good:( Safe Propionic acid inhibits the growth of mold and some bacteria Easier to make more various and vivid colors Preservatives C7H5NO3S Artificial sweeteners Glazing agents Derived from plant, animal or mineral sources which have been processed in some way Thickeners frozen desserts, gelatins, beverages, and chewing gum the taste of toothpastes, dietary foods, and dietary beverage SAFE vs UNSAFE artificial sweeteners used, so very low calorie! Artificial preserves the food and prevent bacterial growth Expensive http://www.sustainabletable.org/issues/additives/ Red 40(C18H14O8N2S2Na2) - Different kinds of allergies- Gelatins, puddings, confections, beverages, condiments Natural coloring additives Allergies behavioral disturbances Anticaking Agents Controversy on artificial sweeteners Colour retention agents Natural Can be produced in large quantities at a cheaper price bitter aftertaste References: Artificial coloring additives honey, xylitol, maple syrup etc. COLOR*FOOD= APPETITE / agitation Acids Saccarin HOME COOKING = Acidity regulators about 200 times as sweet as sugar Preservatives Blue 2(C16H8O8N2S2Na2)- Brain tumor, nausea and allergies- Baked goods, cereals, snack foods, ice cream, confections, cherries High intensity sweetener, low calorie - little amount used Smell of the food is highly attractive to human brain Difficult to produce in large quantities :any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink *to offset color loss due to exposure to light, air, temperature extremes, moisture and storage conditions *to correct natural variations in color *to enhance colors that occur naturally *to provide color to colorless and "fun" foods FOOD INDUSTRY What do color additives do? prevent oxidation Derived from petroleum distillates or coal tars / essentially synthetic chemicals created in laboratories more stable in somewhat acidic conditions, so used for soft drinks inhibit natural ripening of fruits and vegetables adds attractive color to meat and fish Coloring Additives 300 to 500 times as sweet as sugar (sucrose) substances added to food to enhance its flavor and appearance Antifoaming agents + from berries, fruit, vegetables, and mushrooms Red3 (C16H8O8N2S2Na2) - Tumors related to thyroid- Canned Cherries, confections, baked goods, snack More attractive and delicious food aspartic acid * phenylalanine Food Colouring tumor
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