Transcript: Fluid travels from a region of high to low pressure, but... (Peck 2010) 2. creates a region of low pressure We can now calculate pressure... How does fluid travel up a straw? Energy can only change between different forms. The total energy of a fluid is made up of: Kinetic energy Potential Energy Pressure energy (Tsankov 2015) Total energy = Kinetic energy + Potential energy + Pressure energy The kinetic energy of a fluid is due to its movement Therefore, the energy at P1 is the same as at P2 The amount depends upon: Pressure acting on the fluid Density of the fluid Which states.... References (continued) Bernoulli's Equation Energy is gained from pumps The Mechanical Energy Equation is similar to Bernoulli's Equation, but it takes into account: Smith, T 2014, Impeller, Learn Engineering, viewed 14th October 2015 <https://www.learnengineering.org/2014/01/centrifugalhydaulic-pumps.html> What is a fluid? In this example, point 1 is in the pipe, while point 2 is in the house. Yap, J 2012, Drinking water with a straw, Omninox, viewed 14th October 2015 <https://www.omninox.org/blog/how-does-drinking-water-with-a-straw-work/> Prager, J. King, K. Carlson, D. 2009, Bernoulli's principle, TeachEngineering, viewed 13 October 2015 <https://www.teachengineering.org/view_lesson.php?url=collection/cub_/lessons/cub_bernoulli/cub_bernoulli_lesson01.xml> A fluid is... When the impeller spins, the pressure at the inlet is less than the atmospheric pressure surrounding the fluid. With this assumption, the energy of a fluid at two different points in a pipe is the same Potential energy = mass x gravity x height (Evans 2015) A Centrifugal Pump works like sucking a straw, but on a larger scale... From the assumptions we can remove some parts from the equation as given below. a substance which takes on the shape of its container due to moving and changing shape easily References (continued) Kinetic energy = 1/2 x mass x velocity squared (King, Prager & Carlson 2009) Rollins, L 2015, A charming cartoon sunny day, Dreamtime Images, viewed 14th October 2015 <https://www.dreamtime.com> Before we start the calculation, what is atm? 1 atm is the atmospheric pressure at sea level 1atm=101300Pa The following principle can be applied to describe this movement... The total energy is constant! Therefore we can say: Fluid at a high pressure has more energy than fluid at a lower pressure. The high pressure fluid wants to have the same energy as the fluid around it The high pressure fluid will flow to low pressure, decreasing its total energy van Zyl, R 2012, Fluid Pumping, Learn Langa, viewed 12th October 2015 <https://www.learnmpumalanga.co.za/artcles/pumps/et-submersible-pumps.html> Tsankov, C 2015, Water faucet with water drop, 123RF, viewed 14th October 2015 <https://www.123rf.com> Tsankov, C 2015, Water faucet with water drop, 123RF, viewed 14th October 2015 <https://www.123rf.com> Assume: No energy losses In the pipe, height = 0 Pressure on the hill is 2 atm Therefore, the energy at P1 is the same as at P2 2. creates a region of low pressure The Mechanical Energy Equation is similar to Bernoulli's Equation, but it takes into account: atmospheric pressure The sum of Pressure energy Potential energy Kinetic energy at P2 Rollins, L 2015, A charming cartoon sunny day, Dreamtime Images, viewed 14th October 2015 <https://www.dreamtime.com> They can be applied to simple things like drinking straws as well as complicated pumps Evans, L 2015, Silver Pump, Priest Electric, viewed 13th October 2015 <https://www.priestelectric/services/pump-and-fan-rebuilding> Knowing how water and other fluids move around is very important! The pressure energy of a fluid is due to the pressure acting on the fluid. (Smith 2014) = This basically means that fluids can flow! For example: (King, Prager & Carlson 2009) The amount depends upon: mass velocity And by assuming that no energy is gained or lost by the fluid during its flow, So if the fluid loses kinetic energy, the potential and pressure energy will increase so that the total stays the same Let's look at an example of how Bernoulli's equation can be applied to this Since fluids move from high to low pressure, this enables the fluid to be pumped from one region to another. WHY? The sum of Pressure energy Potential energy Kinetic energy at P1 The amount depends upon: mass velocity This equation is know as: References (1) Aragon, L 2011, Glass of iced lemonade, Sweet Clipart, viewed 15th October 2015 <https://www.sweetclipart.com/glass-iced-lemonade-401> The Mechanical Energy Equation Now we can easily calculate the pressure needed to push the water up. Smith, T 2014, Impeller, Learn Engineering, viewed 14th October 2015 <https://www.learnengineering.org/2014/01/centrifugalhydaulic-pumps.html> Now we can easily calculate the pressure needed to push the water up. Yap, J 2012, Drinking water with a straw, Omninox, viewed 14th October 2015 <https://www.omninox.org/blog/how-does-drinking-water-with-a-straw-work/>
Transcript: DCC 5143 : FLUID MECHANICS What is a fluid flow? INTRODUCTION ->The innumerable small particles get together flowing stream. Definition Definition ->These particles,while moving, group themselves in a variety of ways. eg :either Oil and natural gas are transported hundreds of miles by large pipelines or blood is carried throughout our bodies by arteries and veins. 1.Uniform Flow Types of fluid flow in a pipe Types of fluid flow in a pipe 4.Turbulant flow 2.Non-uniform flow 3.Streamline flow 5.Steady flow 6.Unsteady flow 7.Compressible flow 8.Rotational flow 9.Irrotational flow 10.One-dimensional flow 11.Two-dimensional flow 12.Three-dimensional flow Skecth of flow Skecth of flow Steady flow Steady Flow + Definition A flow , in which the quantity of liquid per second is contant, is called a steady flow. A steady flow may be uniform or non-uniform. _ Steady Uniform flow Conditions do not change with position in the stream or with time. An example is the flow of water in a pipe of constant diameter at constant velocity Steady Non-uniform flow Conditions change from point to point in the stream but do not change with time. An example is flow in a tapering pipe with constant velocity at the inlet - velocity will change as you move along the length of the pipe toward the exit. Unsteady Flow Unsteady Flow A flow , in which the quantity of liquid flowing per second is not constant , is called unsteady flow. Definition Definition This unsteady flow also may uniform or non-uniform flow. At a given instant in time the conditions at every point are the same, but will change with time. An example is a pipe of constant diameter connected to a pump pumping at aconstant rate which is then switched off. Unsteady uniform flow Unsteady uniform flow Every condition of the flow may change from point to point and with time at every point. For example waves in a channel. Unsteady non-uniform flow Unsteady non-uniform flow Reynolds Number FOrmula Reynolds Number formula You don't need a microscope, you have prezi. Even the Smallest Details! Go Viral Brainstorm your ideas on the atomic level Contact Info Connect Share your details
Transcript: The ability of the body to maintain a stationary position on the surface of water. When swimmers move through a fluid environment, they will experience resistance. This occurs as a result of friction between the body's surface and the fluid. DRAG FORCE : force that opposes the forward motion of a body or object, reducing its speed or velocity. It is resisting force because it acts in opposite to whatever is moving through it. The force that attracts objects to the centre of the Earth. Fluid Resistance Drag Force in Swimmers FLUID MECHANICS Centre of Buoyancy the centre of gravity of a volume of water displaced by an object when it is immersed in that water. How to reduce drag force: - Streamlining body by wearing tight fitting clothes made of Lycra - Special helmets in sports such as cycling - Wind-resistant clothing - Elimination of body hair by caps/shaving Bouyant force LIFT FORCE: A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it. Lift is the component of this force that is perpendicular to the oncoming flow direction.In water, it is called a hydrodynamic force. Gravity upward force produced by the fluid it is submerged into. Flotation
Transcript: MECHANICS FLUID Fluids Fluid mechanics study of bla bla bla What is Fluid Mechanics? fluid is bla bla bla
Transcript: The study of forces that develop when an object moves through a fluid medium. Two fluids of interest: - Water - Air In some cases, fluid forces have little effect on an objects motion (e.g Shot put) In other cases, fluid forces are significant - badminton, tennis, swimming, cycling etc Major fluid forces of interest: - Buoyancy - Drag - Lift Resistive force acting on a body moving through a fluid (air or water). Two types: – Surface drag: depends mainly on smoothness of surface of the object moving through the fluid. • shaving the body in swimming; wearing racing suits in skiing and speedskating. – Form drag: depends mainly on the cross-sectional area of the body presented to the fluid • cyclist in upright v. crouched position • swimmer: related to buoyancy and how high the body sits in the water. • The drag force acts in a direction that is opposite of the relative flow velocity. – Affected by cross-section area (form drag) – Affected by surface smoothness (surface drag) • The lift force acts in a direction that is perpendicular to the relative flow. – The lift force is not necessarily vertical. Lift • Represents a net force that acts perpendicular to the direction of the relative motion of the fluid • Created by different pressures on opposite sides of an object due to fluid flow past the object – example: Airplane wing (hydrofoil) Fluid Mechanics: Fluid Mechanics Drag and Lift Drag Fluid Forces
Transcript: Oiller Momentum Equations & Dynamics Forces Introduction+ Bernouli's equation Flow Measurement Venturi Meter Fluid Dynamics Fluid Mechanics Energy Loses through Pipe Lines Pressure Force Pressure Time for Emptying Tanks + Dynamics of rotating of cylinder liquids Similarity & Dimension Analysis Nozzle Meter Orifice Flow Meter Fluid Statics Collar Pitot Tube Introduction Steady flow of incompressible fluids in pipes
Transcript: Gas 1) The principle states that an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy 17 pins were attached to the sheet balloon pops after a longer period of time pressure is distributed over a larger area Sources molecules are closely bound together by molecular forces holds its shape fixed volume particles cannot move, they have fixed places particles vibrate cannot be compressed particles are close to each other only one pin on he sheet 17x bigger pressure than on the first one balloon pops immediately 1atm normal atmospheric pressure at sea level Fluid Mechanics occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers velocity, pressure remain the same no turbulences more ideal, creates less resistance glass doesn't hurt feet glass pieces move so that the pressure is equalized pressure is distributed over a large are Archimedes' principle: states that any body partially or completely submerged in a fluid experiences an upward, buoyant force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body Flowing fluids Depends on: density of the object lift on airplanes wing Life: was born in Syracuse on the island of Sicily in 287 BC, son of an astronomer and mathematician called Phidias Atmospheric pressure Types of Flow molecular force is weaker than in a solid takes up the shape of the container fixed volume cannot be compressed particles go to the lowest possible position horizontal surface particles roll on top of each other particles are close to each other Cause: atmospheric gases are affected by Earth's gravitational pull they have weight atmospheric pressure is caused by the weight of air above you 1) Laminar flow Buoyancy Changes: atmospheric pressure changes with altitude Phenomena related: ear popping as we go up or down Archimedes Density: [kg/m^3] density of water: 1 g/cm^3 Notebook Pictures: google images, notebook https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/state.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressure http://www.daleswater.co.uk/what-is-an-artesian-well/ http://archimedespalimpsest.org/about/history/archimedes.php http://www.britannica.com/science/Archimedes-principle http://www.britannica.com/science/Bernoullis-theorem https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernoulli%27s_principle http://www.britannica.com/science/laminar-flow http://www.britannica.com/science/turbulent-flow Artesian Well by Blanka Cause: force of gravity the weight of water is above you Calculation: pressure increases by 1atm for going down 10m Depends on: depth of object molecular force is very weak fills the container takes up the shape and volume of the container particles are far from each other particles are freely flying and colliding zig-zag motion Brownean motion can be compressed 2) Hydrostatic pressure 2) Turbulent flow Pressure (symbol: p) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. p~F, 1/A [ N/m^2 = Pa (pascal)] 1atm=1 bar= 10^5 Pa Phases of Matter artesian groundwater is the same as any other type of groundwater the difference is how it gets to the surface doesn't require a pump to bring the water to the surface if enough pressure in aquifer, it forces water to the surface Aquifer: geologic layer of permeable and impermeable rocks it provides source for the artesian well roofs lifted in hurricanes substances with lower density than the fluid will flow on top, substances with higher density will sink to the bottom Solid (pressure under water) p= F/A curving balls when spinning fluid undergoes irregular fluctuations, mixing speed of the fluid is continuously changing most kinds of fluid flows are turbulent eg.: blood flow, currents, lava flow etc. Buoyant force is the lifting force acting on all objects submerging (partly or entirely) in any fluid (liquid or gas) Pressure Bernoulli's principle it is the principle of energy conservation basis for many engineering applications Experiments Liquid Phenomena related
Transcript: Propulsion is the means of creating force leading to movement or the force that drives a body forward. Buoyancy The buoyant force is an upward force that is exerted against the underside of a floating body. Resistance Fluid Mechanics Propulsion Levers Fluid Mechanics Conclusion Newton's Second Law: " The acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the force acting upon the body or the amount of input force."
Description: Add some color to your quarterly business review with this vibrant business presentation template. The bold visuals in this business template will make your next QBR a memorable one.
Description: Storytelling is at the heart of great service. Use this stunning, customizable business presentation template to highlight employees who do exceptional work or position your customers as the heroes of your business.
Description: The sky’s the limit. Boost your new sales initiative into orbit with an engaging and compelling SKO presentation. This template features a effective sales kickoff theme that makes it easy to be engaging. Like all Prezi SKO templates, it’s fully customizable with your own information.
Description: Catch the eye and engage the imagination with this cool-looking Prezi proposal template. The bold, bright design and highly dynamic theme all but guarantee success for your next sales or marketing proposal. All Prezi presentation templates are easily customized.
Now you can make any subject more engaging and memorable