Transcript: Fluid travels from a region of high to low pressure, but... (Peck 2010) 2. creates a region of low pressure We can now calculate pressure... How does fluid travel up a straw? Energy can only change between different forms. The total energy of a fluid is made up of: Kinetic energy Potential Energy Pressure energy (Tsankov 2015) Total energy = Kinetic energy + Potential energy + Pressure energy The kinetic energy of a fluid is due to its movement Therefore, the energy at P1 is the same as at P2 The amount depends upon: Pressure acting on the fluid Density of the fluid Which states.... References (continued) Bernoulli's Equation Energy is gained from pumps The Mechanical Energy Equation is similar to Bernoulli's Equation, but it takes into account: Smith, T 2014, Impeller, Learn Engineering, viewed 14th October 2015 <https://www.learnengineering.org/2014/01/centrifugalhydaulic-pumps.html> What is a fluid? In this example, point 1 is in the pipe, while point 2 is in the house. Yap, J 2012, Drinking water with a straw, Omninox, viewed 14th October 2015 <https://www.omninox.org/blog/how-does-drinking-water-with-a-straw-work/> Prager, J. King, K. Carlson, D. 2009, Bernoulli's principle, TeachEngineering, viewed 13 October 2015 <https://www.teachengineering.org/view_lesson.php?url=collection/cub_/lessons/cub_bernoulli/cub_bernoulli_lesson01.xml> A fluid is... When the impeller spins, the pressure at the inlet is less than the atmospheric pressure surrounding the fluid. With this assumption, the energy of a fluid at two different points in a pipe is the same Potential energy = mass x gravity x height (Evans 2015) A Centrifugal Pump works like sucking a straw, but on a larger scale... From the assumptions we can remove some parts from the equation as given below. a substance which takes on the shape of its container due to moving and changing shape easily References (continued) Kinetic energy = 1/2 x mass x velocity squared (King, Prager & Carlson 2009) Rollins, L 2015, A charming cartoon sunny day, Dreamtime Images, viewed 14th October 2015 <https://www.dreamtime.com> Before we start the calculation, what is atm? 1 atm is the atmospheric pressure at sea level 1atm=101300Pa The following principle can be applied to describe this movement... The total energy is constant! Therefore we can say: Fluid at a high pressure has more energy than fluid at a lower pressure. The high pressure fluid wants to have the same energy as the fluid around it The high pressure fluid will flow to low pressure, decreasing its total energy van Zyl, R 2012, Fluid Pumping, Learn Langa, viewed 12th October 2015 <https://www.learnmpumalanga.co.za/artcles/pumps/et-submersible-pumps.html> Tsankov, C 2015, Water faucet with water drop, 123RF, viewed 14th October 2015 <https://www.123rf.com> Tsankov, C 2015, Water faucet with water drop, 123RF, viewed 14th October 2015 <https://www.123rf.com> Assume: No energy losses In the pipe, height = 0 Pressure on the hill is 2 atm Therefore, the energy at P1 is the same as at P2 2. creates a region of low pressure The Mechanical Energy Equation is similar to Bernoulli's Equation, but it takes into account: atmospheric pressure The sum of Pressure energy Potential energy Kinetic energy at P2 Rollins, L 2015, A charming cartoon sunny day, Dreamtime Images, viewed 14th October 2015 <https://www.dreamtime.com> They can be applied to simple things like drinking straws as well as complicated pumps Evans, L 2015, Silver Pump, Priest Electric, viewed 13th October 2015 <https://www.priestelectric/services/pump-and-fan-rebuilding> Knowing how water and other fluids move around is very important! The pressure energy of a fluid is due to the pressure acting on the fluid. (Smith 2014) = This basically means that fluids can flow! For example: (King, Prager & Carlson 2009) The amount depends upon: mass velocity And by assuming that no energy is gained or lost by the fluid during its flow, So if the fluid loses kinetic energy, the potential and pressure energy will increase so that the total stays the same Let's look at an example of how Bernoulli's equation can be applied to this Since fluids move from high to low pressure, this enables the fluid to be pumped from one region to another. WHY? The sum of Pressure energy Potential energy Kinetic energy at P1 The amount depends upon: mass velocity This equation is know as: References (1) Aragon, L 2011, Glass of iced lemonade, Sweet Clipart, viewed 15th October 2015 <https://www.sweetclipart.com/glass-iced-lemonade-401> The Mechanical Energy Equation Now we can easily calculate the pressure needed to push the water up. Smith, T 2014, Impeller, Learn Engineering, viewed 14th October 2015 <https://www.learnengineering.org/2014/01/centrifugalhydaulic-pumps.html> Now we can easily calculate the pressure needed to push the water up. Yap, J 2012, Drinking water with a straw, Omninox, viewed 14th October 2015 <https://www.omninox.org/blog/how-does-drinking-water-with-a-straw-work/>
Transcript: The ability of the body to maintain a stationary position on the surface of water. When swimmers move through a fluid environment, they will experience resistance. This occurs as a result of friction between the body's surface and the fluid. DRAG FORCE : force that opposes the forward motion of a body or object, reducing its speed or velocity. It is resisting force because it acts in opposite to whatever is moving through it. The force that attracts objects to the centre of the Earth. Fluid Resistance Drag Force in Swimmers FLUID MECHANICS Centre of Buoyancy the centre of gravity of a volume of water displaced by an object when it is immersed in that water. How to reduce drag force: - Streamlining body by wearing tight fitting clothes made of Lycra - Special helmets in sports such as cycling - Wind-resistant clothing - Elimination of body hair by caps/shaving Bouyant force LIFT FORCE: A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it. Lift is the component of this force that is perpendicular to the oncoming flow direction.In water, it is called a hydrodynamic force. Gravity upward force produced by the fluid it is submerged into. Flotation
Transcript: MECHANICS FLUID Fluids Fluid mechanics study of bla bla bla What is Fluid Mechanics? fluid is bla bla bla
Transcript: The study of forces that develop when an object moves through a fluid medium. Two fluids of interest: - Water - Air In some cases, fluid forces have little effect on an objects motion (e.g Shot put) In other cases, fluid forces are significant - badminton, tennis, swimming, cycling etc Major fluid forces of interest: - Buoyancy - Drag - Lift Resistive force acting on a body moving through a fluid (air or water). Two types: – Surface drag: depends mainly on smoothness of surface of the object moving through the fluid. • shaving the body in swimming; wearing racing suits in skiing and speedskating. – Form drag: depends mainly on the cross-sectional area of the body presented to the fluid • cyclist in upright v. crouched position • swimmer: related to buoyancy and how high the body sits in the water. • The drag force acts in a direction that is opposite of the relative flow velocity. – Affected by cross-section area (form drag) – Affected by surface smoothness (surface drag) • The lift force acts in a direction that is perpendicular to the relative flow. – The lift force is not necessarily vertical. Lift • Represents a net force that acts perpendicular to the direction of the relative motion of the fluid • Created by different pressures on opposite sides of an object due to fluid flow past the object – example: Airplane wing (hydrofoil) Fluid Mechanics: Fluid Mechanics Drag and Lift Drag Fluid Forces
Transcript: Oiller Momentum Equations & Dynamics Forces Introduction+ Bernouli's equation Flow Measurement Venturi Meter Fluid Dynamics Fluid Mechanics Energy Loses through Pipe Lines Pressure Force Pressure Time for Emptying Tanks + Dynamics of rotating of cylinder liquids Similarity & Dimension Analysis Nozzle Meter Orifice Flow Meter Fluid Statics Collar Pitot Tube Introduction Steady flow of incompressible fluids in pipes
Transcript: Gas 1) The principle states that an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy 17 pins were attached to the sheet balloon pops after a longer period of time pressure is distributed over a larger area Sources molecules are closely bound together by molecular forces holds its shape fixed volume particles cannot move, they have fixed places particles vibrate cannot be compressed particles are close to each other only one pin on he sheet 17x bigger pressure than on the first one balloon pops immediately 1atm normal atmospheric pressure at sea level Fluid Mechanics occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers velocity, pressure remain the same no turbulences more ideal, creates less resistance glass doesn't hurt feet glass pieces move so that the pressure is equalized pressure is distributed over a large are Archimedes' principle: states that any body partially or completely submerged in a fluid experiences an upward, buoyant force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body Flowing fluids Depends on: density of the object lift on airplanes wing Life: was born in Syracuse on the island of Sicily in 287 BC, son of an astronomer and mathematician called Phidias Atmospheric pressure Types of Flow molecular force is weaker than in a solid takes up the shape of the container fixed volume cannot be compressed particles go to the lowest possible position horizontal surface particles roll on top of each other particles are close to each other Cause: atmospheric gases are affected by Earth's gravitational pull they have weight atmospheric pressure is caused by the weight of air above you 1) Laminar flow Buoyancy Changes: atmospheric pressure changes with altitude Phenomena related: ear popping as we go up or down Archimedes Density: [kg/m^3] density of water: 1 g/cm^3 Notebook Pictures: google images, notebook https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/state.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressure http://www.daleswater.co.uk/what-is-an-artesian-well/ http://archimedespalimpsest.org/about/history/archimedes.php http://www.britannica.com/science/Archimedes-principle http://www.britannica.com/science/Bernoullis-theorem https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernoulli%27s_principle http://www.britannica.com/science/laminar-flow http://www.britannica.com/science/turbulent-flow Artesian Well by Blanka Cause: force of gravity the weight of water is above you Calculation: pressure increases by 1atm for going down 10m Depends on: depth of object molecular force is very weak fills the container takes up the shape and volume of the container particles are far from each other particles are freely flying and colliding zig-zag motion Brownean motion can be compressed 2) Hydrostatic pressure 2) Turbulent flow Pressure (symbol: p) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. p~F, 1/A [ N/m^2 = Pa (pascal)] 1atm=1 bar= 10^5 Pa Phases of Matter artesian groundwater is the same as any other type of groundwater the difference is how it gets to the surface doesn't require a pump to bring the water to the surface if enough pressure in aquifer, it forces water to the surface Aquifer: geologic layer of permeable and impermeable rocks it provides source for the artesian well roofs lifted in hurricanes substances with lower density than the fluid will flow on top, substances with higher density will sink to the bottom Solid (pressure under water) p= F/A curving balls when spinning fluid undergoes irregular fluctuations, mixing speed of the fluid is continuously changing most kinds of fluid flows are turbulent eg.: blood flow, currents, lava flow etc. Buoyant force is the lifting force acting on all objects submerging (partly or entirely) in any fluid (liquid or gas) Pressure Bernoulli's principle it is the principle of energy conservation basis for many engineering applications Experiments Liquid Phenomena related
Transcript: Propulsion is the means of creating force leading to movement or the force that drives a body forward. Buoyancy The buoyant force is an upward force that is exerted against the underside of a floating body. Resistance Fluid Mechanics Propulsion Levers Fluid Mechanics Conclusion Newton's Second Law: " The acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the force acting upon the body or the amount of input force."
Transcript: Spilling of fluid shows movement hence, Fluid Mechanics. You guys know a lot. I’m so glad we already talked about this since exams are coming up. Here’s an example on how to find the specific gravity. Find the specific gravity of lead if the density of lead = 11340 kg/m^3 and the density of water is 1000kg/m^3. For the solution of the problem, since the density of lead and water are already given, we can already substitute the formula for specific gravity which is equal to density of lead over density of water. 11340kg/m^3 over 1000kg/m^3 which leads us to an answer of 11.34. The SI unit for density is kg/m^3 and g/cm^3 for the CGS unit. Different substances have different densities. For example the density of water at 4 C is 1000 kg/m^3 or 1 g/cm^3. Hydrodynamics can be applied here. I learned a lot about fluid mechanics from you guys. Starting from the concepts about density, specific gravity and pressure, the important principles regarding fluids, like pascal’s principle, Bernoulli’s principle, and Archimedes’ principle. And now, I can say that I can differentiate fluid statics from fluid dynamics. One branch of fluid mechanics is fluid statics or hydrostatics. Fluid dynamics. Fluids in motion Camerawoman1: Claudine G. Baroidan Komiks Editor: John Patrick D. Agbayani Here, have a sip. Camerawoman2: Christelene R. Racacho Here’s another problem to find pressure. What pressure is exerted by the tip of a nail struck of a force of 20000N. Assume the tip of the nail is 1.5mm radius circle. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics Another topic to consider before we talk about fluid mechanics is specific gravity or relative density. It is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of the standard substance. Bonus Track: Love on Top Performed by: Chris Racacho Here are the conversion factors for pressure. 1 Pa = 1 N/m^2; 1 atm = 1.01325 x 105 Pa; 1 atm = 1.013 barr; 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr For the solution, first, find the volume of the block of wood by multiplying its dimensions, 10cm x 30cm x 5.5cm = 1650cm^3. Since the mass is given, we can directly substitute the formula of density. ρ p=m/v, is equal to 1240g / 1650cm^3 equals 0.75 g/cm^3. Yes. Well, fluids can be either liquid or gas. And another indication is fluids take the shape of the container when put inside it. Going back, pressure is the ratio of force to area. In symbols, we have P=F/A. Therefore, we can say that pressure is directly proportional to force and inversely proportional to area. The SI unit is N/m^2 and is given the special name Pascal, in honor of the French scientist, Blaise Pascal. Any substance that is less dense than water floats. Example, ice cubes added to a glass full of water. Then if a substance is denser, it will sink, just like a stone thrown in a body of water. When gravity pulls the water molecules downwards, they will fall. But if they’re in a container, the container will keep them from spreading out completely. Fluids take the shape of the container because they are stuck together to not go flying off like gases but not too tightly that they stay in a stiff shape like solids do. Let’s start with density. Density is the ratio of mass over volume. The symbol for density is the Greek letter ρp “rho,” ρ p=m/v. Stone thrown in a body of water. I have read something about that. I think that’s when we apply the laws of fluids. Cocson, Fernandez, Agbayani, Racacho, Baraoidan Okay. I’ll tell you what I know. But before that, let’s talk about density, specific gravity, and pressure. I’ve read that. An airfoil is shaped like an asymmetrical teardrop laid on its side, with the other end toward the airflow. As air hits the front of the airfoil, the airstream divides, part of it passing over the wing and the other passing under it. The upper surface of the airfoil is curved, however, whereas the lower surface is much straighter. As a result, the air flowing over the top has a greater distance to cover than the air flowing under the wing. Fluid Dynamics Right. So when you transfer the fluid in a box-shaped container, the fluid will take the shape of the box. When this stone hits the surface of the water and becomes airborne again but its losing speed with each bounce. The bounces increase as the speed drops so lack of hydrodynamics is really taking effect. Everything is happening to the point where momentum reaches a point where the stone sinks because of lack of buoyancy. Speaking about Pascal, we have Pascal’s principle, which states that the pressure in a container is transmitted undiminished throughout the container. An application of this is when you put a paste on your toothbrush. Specific Gravity Pressure? That’s a song right? I understand now. We just talked about aerodynamics, which is air, right? What about water? One more important thing, I haven’t told you about the Archimedes’ principle yet. This principle states that when an object is immersed in a fluid, the weight of the liquid displaced is equal to the weight
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