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Transcript: The Dark Tetrad Regression analysis showed that direct sadism uniquely predicted cyber-trolling on YouTube and other forum sites. Direct Sadism β = .44 Direct Sadism r = .40* Permanence Target mass audience Anonymity Time Convenience What about Cyber-Trolls? What is “trolling”? Study 2: Does Sadism Map Onto Core Characteristics of Cyber-Trolls? Psychopathy They are impulsive thrill seekers Narcissism They are egotistical and self-centered Machiavellianism They are strategic manipulators Sadism Seek opportunities to hurt people Direct vs. vicarious sadism A Psychological Study Direct Sadism β = .56*** Trolling Thanks for listening! Conclusion Cyber-Trolls: Just harmless pranksters? Cyber-Activities and the Law Study 1 Just Harmless Pranksters? Multiple regression analysis showed a strong, unique relationship between direct sadism and trolling. Machiavel -lianism Study 1 Someone who intentionally posts inflammatory material on the internet Someone who posts inappropriate remarks for their own amusement The elicited reactions reinforce cyber-trolling and nefarious amusement Dark tetrad personalities reported greater enjoyment of cyber-stalking on Facebook than others Narcissism r = .46** What are the personality and internet activities of cyber-trolls? No previous studies There are 4 suspects: Dark Tetrad (psychopathy, narcissism, Machiavellianism, sadism) Future Research Narcissism β = -.11* β = .44, SE = 0.68, t(100) = 2.05, p = .05 Cyber-Trolls β = .03 Cyber-bullying is defined as: “… a type of harassment using new technology. Whether it is criminal harassment depends on the facts of a case. Cyberbullies use social media (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), blogs, texting, instant messaging, and other internet avenues to engage in deliberate, repeated, and hostile behaviour intended to harm, embarrass, or slander someone. Although their work is public, cyberbullies are often anonymous and it is often harder to identify and stop them.” Cyber-bullying may also be defamation The Criminal Code (section 300) outlaws publishing a defamatory libel – material published, without lawful justification or excuse, likely to injure the reputation of any person by exposing them to hatred, contempt or ridicule, or designed to insult the person. Study 2: Are Cyber-Trolls Sadists? Cyber-Trolls: Who are they? Cyber-Trolls: Also Cyber-Bullies? Vicarious Sadism r = .33* Cyber-Activities and the Law Cyber-Trolls: Characteristics There is no specific legislation for cyber-bullying or cyber-trolling Civil Law Defamation: slander or libel Unsafe environment Responsibility for any consequences that perpetrator might reasonably have guessed would happen Criminal Law Harassment Defamatory libel Anywhere on the internet! Internet forums Imageboard, social news or entertainment sites (e.g., 4Chan, Reddit, 9Gag) Comment sections of various websites (e.g., news outlets) Social media websites (e.g., Facebook, Youtube) There is no specific legislation for cyber-bullying or cyber-trolling Civil Law Defamation: slander or libel Unsafe environment Responsibility for any consequences that perpetrator might reasonably have guessed would happen Criminal Law Harassment Defamatory libel Cyber-Trolls: A Psychology Study Cyber-Trolling and Bullying Facilitated by Technology Legal Implications: The Debate Cyber-Trolls: Also Cyber-Bullies? Results Study 1: Dark Personalities and Social Media Usage Trolling scale items: “I have sent people to shock websites for the lulz.” “I like to troll people in forums or the comments section of websites.” “The more beautiful and pure a thing is, the more satisfying it is to corrupt it.” The End Gaming Griefers Grief tourists Cyber-Trolls: Also Cyber-Bullies? Judith Donald (1996) Someone who engages in identity deception and manipulation Whitney Phillip’s (2012) Four Pillar Theory of Trolls Self-identify as trolls Vernacular language (e.g., plox, sauce, lulz) Trolling for the “lulz” (troll reward, troll food) Anonymity Vicarious Sadism Big Issues β = .19** Criminalize cyber-bullying or Educational Campaigns against Bullying Trolling is motivated by sadistic pleasure-seeking This may have important legal implications, especially in cases of extreme harassment with tragic outcomes Trolling indicates broader anti-sociality Technology has facilitated the damage that Dark Personalities can do Permanent damage Narcissists, direct sadists and vicarious sadists expressed greater enjoyment of cyber-trolling on YouTube than others. Cyber-Trolls: Where are they? Psychopathy β = .06 But there are other types of cyber-trolls… The case of Amanda Todd

Fault Tree Analysis

Transcript: FAULT TREE Analysis What is a Fault Tree Analysis? What is a Fault Tree Analysis? A fault tree analysis (FTA) is a deductive failure analys... A fault tree analysis (FTA) is a deductive failure analysis method that models the pathways within a system that can lead to failures or undesired results. It is a top-down method which starts at a single point and then branches out downwards to display different states of the system using logic symbols. A fault tree analysis (FTA) is a deductive failure analysis method that models the pathways within a system that can lead to failures or undesired results. It is a top-down method which starts at a single point and then branches out downwards to display different states of the system using logic symbols. Benefits of Fault Trees Benefits of Fault Trees A fault tree creates a visual record of a system that shows the logical relationships between events and causes lead that lead to failure. It helps others quickly understand the results of your analysis and pinpoint weaknesses in the design and identify errors. How FTAs are Used How FTAs are Used Fault tree analysis is useful in engineering, especially in industries where failure can have huge consequences such as nuclear power or aeronautics. However, fault tree analysis can also be used during software development to debug complex systems. How to Make a Fault Tree: Steps to Fault Tree Analysis How to Make a Fault Tree: Steps to Fault Tree Analysis Define the undesired event: the primary fault or failure being analyzed Deduce the event's immediate causes Keep stepping back through events until the most basic causes are identified Construct a fault tree diagram Evaluate your fault tree analysis

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Transcript: (Alamy), (VectorStock), (VectorStock), (Freepik), (Freepik), (Gstudio) (Rowling) Implications Low Carbon Emissions Lower Future Cost Sustainable Limitations Location Dependent Manufacturing Cost Competes for Space (axel2001) (Dehner) (Idoko) Implications Cause of Noise Pollution Low Carbon Emissions Less Overall Cost Sustainable Efficient (Lim) Limitations Location Dependent Production Costs (Freepik) (Rehman) Implications Low Carbon Emissions Provides Flood Control Sustainable Consistent Reliable Limitations River Flow Dependent High Implementation and Maintainence costs Limited Location (Tommaso.sansone91) A History of Fossil Fuels (Sutka) Implications No Carbon Emissions Not Location or Time Locked High Power Output Limitations Finite Resource Public Opinion Waste Disposal (Zuozuozuozuo) Industrial Revolution Invention of Coal Generator Coal Mining Boom Implications Renewable Provides Jobs Reliable Reduces Waste (Freepik) (Newman) Limitations Inefficient Large Leads to Deforestation Emits Carbon Dioxide (Ívarsson) Implications Renewable Small Low-Carbon Low-Maintenance Limitations Can lead to seismicity High initial costs Location Specific (Wanicon) (Merrick) 04: Energy Sources (Perini) 01: History The Delicate Balance Between Fossil Fuels and Renewable Energy By Lincoln Boswell, Beniel Eugene, Randy Nguyen, and Caleb Cherinet Fossil Fuels Usage What's The Issue? 90%+ of carbon dioxide emissions 80% of the US's energy Hybrid Renewable Solution 2023 Statistical Review of World Energy Implications (Wilde) Fossil Fuels Dominate Energy Production (Pleul) High Energy Production Meets Demand Low Carbon Emissions Resources Ecosystem Impact (Krapf) (Axpo Services) (Getty) Limitations Space Money Carbon Emissions Harm the Environment (Davis) (Guccione) Climate Change is Hurting the Economy Nuclear Solar Wind Hydroelectric Environmental Impacts (Dohm) 02: Exigency 05: Solution Wildlife Agriculture Human health Natural Disasters (Generated by Img2Go) Economical Impacts Renewables can save five billion dollars Carbon costs 7.9/KwH in damages How can the utilization of fossil fuels in the United States effectively be reduced while minimizing any undesirable consequences or aftereffects? Fossil Fuels are the Primary Contributor to Climate Change Climate Change's Consequences are Catastrophic Changing to Alternative Energy Sources is Imperative (Abbot) 03: Question 06: Conclusion (By robokoboto)

Tree Template.

Transcript: - Consumers of the inpatient mental health services available through Alfred Health. - Residents of the South Eastern suburbs of Melbourne and surrounding areas. - Family members: Parents, siblings, cousins, aunts and uncles. - Workers; employers and employees - Students. - Friends. Interior Design Sensory Box Occupational Enablement Sonya Vargas (La Trobe Unversity supevisor) Kate Dunne, Jonathan Smith, Anton Horvat, Freya Coker (Alfred Health project sponsors) Health workers from external agencies Consumers Office of the cheif psychiatrist , (2002) References Population (Masters Home Improvement, 2014) What did we learn from health workers from Alfred Psychiatry and external agencies? Patient rooms High Dependency Unit (HDU) Key Items: - Patients in an acute stage of mental illness which makes it difficult for health workers to engage. - Limited resources available for participation in meaningful activities. - Security and safety concerns in a restrictive environment. Implementation Incorporate sensory approach into policy documents Evaluate outcomes Share manual with other agencies Additional Research (Masters Home Improvement, 2014) Law, M., Cooper, B,. Strong, S., Stewart, D., Rigby, P. & Letts, L. 1996. The Person-Environment-Occupation Model: A transactive approach to occupational performance. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. 63(1): 9-23. Masters Home Improvement, 2014 [image]. Retrieved 19 November from: Masters Home Improvement, 2014 [image]. Retrieved 19 November from: Masters Home Improvement, 2014 [image]. Retrieved 19 November from: Inter-Ikea Systems B. V., 2014 [image]. Retrieved 19 November from: 1) Mental health research - Physical environment. 2) Time management - Project planning. 3) Stakeholder conflict - Ethical considerations. 4) Resources - Technology and transport. 1) General maintenance. 2) Increase available space. 3) Introduction of natural elements. 4) Decorate the space. 5) Decrease the institutionalised feel. Pavi Karthikeyan, Izabella Mambort & Hannah More What is a sensory room? What evidence is there? Warm blue tones or earthy colours Soothing or personal artwork for display Carpet floor Vs Lino Indoor plants These environmental recommendations are currently guiding modifications of the Alfred HDU Future project recommendations Limitations Outdoor area has a positive effect on the well-being of patients in the HDU. Current outdoor area under-utilised and minimally supportive of occupational engagement. Modifications to the Physical Environment of the Alfred Acute Inpatient Psychiatry Service (High Dependency Unit) to Improve Consumer Occupational Enablement and Well-being Are there any questions? HDU Common Area Sensory Room Findings: Lack of structured OT input Boredom Lack of sensory and occupational opportunities Agression and use of restrictive interventions Comprehensive or increased levels of individual care High staff to patient ratio Low stimulus environment Safety and security is a priority Minimal OT input - lack of resources Therapeutic environment Decreased supervision Occupational therapy input Recommendations Processes Homely design Vs Institutionalized feel Promote emotional wellbeing and provide feeling of comfort Interviews Health workers at the Alfred and at external agencies Low Dependency unit Short term: Short-term Recommendation: Recommendations Interior design/Decoration Phase 1: Initiation Phase 2: Scoping and planning Phase 3: Implementation of information gathering Literature review Person Leading upto Project..... Alfred Psychiatry Long-term Recommendations: Environment Environment Design: Time spent in the room Supervision Assess each consumer's sensory preferences Training for staff Interior design (Masters Home Improvement, 2014) (Law, Cooper, Strong, Stewart, Rigby & Letts, L. 1996) (Inter-IKEA Systems B.V, 2014) Growing body of evidence Recovery oriented approach Feedback from Alfred Consumers Acknowledgements Ambient Features Interior Design Decoration Sensory Room Seclusion Room Exercise Equipment Outdoor areas Social Features Architectural Features Evidence-based and appropriate interventions for use in a HDU environment, including sensory interventions Prior ethical approval for students to interact with consumers Adaptable Findings PHYSICAL: Inpatient High-Dependency Unit (HDU) of The Alfred Hospital. SOCIAL: Mental illness is a taboo subject, one that is not usually addressed openly in society. CULTURAL: Mental illness is a 'hidden disease', which can be masked by a variety of factors. SOCIOECONOMIC: Underfunded in

Fault Tree Analysis

Transcript: Postulate top event (fault) Branch down listing faults in the system that must occur for the top event to occur Consider sequential and parallel or combinations of faults Use Boolean algebra to quantify fault tree with event probabilities Determine probability of top event Terms FTA is a deductive analysis approach for resolving an undesired event into its causes. Logic diagrams and Boolean Algebra are used to identify the cause of the top event. Fault tree is the logical model of the relationship of the undesired event to more basic events. The top event of the Fault tree is the undesired event. The middle events are intermediate events and the basic events are at the bottom. The logic relationship of events are shown by logic symbols or gates. It is concluded that mechanical systems/subsystems connected like condenser tube jammed and lube oil tank leak are found to be attributing to the plant unavailability. These components are the major contributing factors compared to the failure of other electrical systems and subsystems. For optimization of plant availability, it is observed that the quality of water and steam filters with proper valve regulation would remain very effective besides regular implementation of maintenance features. Effective maintainability measures, such as preventive and periodic maintenance, have to be practiced and monitored to optimize the plant performance. With regard to the electrical systems/subsystems, malfunctioning of the breaker and operating mechanism have contributed to the unavailability of power. This could be averted by periodic calibration of control and protective electrical systems. It is noted that availability features like an effective inventory level would reduce the long downtime. Optimizing the power output from the co-generation power plant would extend value addition for the entire mill and, hence, from the fault tree analysis, it is concluded that the effective maintenance techniques and availability features so recommended are implemented from time to time and reviewed periodically. Such an effort would derive tangible benefits and establish the commercial viability of incorporation of a co-generation power plant in any continuous process industries. Normally, the effectiveness or reliability of such co-generation power plants can be optimized based on meticulous planning and implementing of maintainability and availability features. Used in both reliability engineering and system safety engineering Developed in 1961 for US ICBM (Intercontinental ballistic missile) program Guide published in 1981 Used in almost every engineering discipline başlıca olay olan istenmeyen olayı belirleyin başlıca olaya sebep olabilecek tüm olayları belirleyin, bu aşamada istenmeye al olayları atlatma için önemlidir. nedensel olay ile baş olay arasındaki ilişkiyi or veya and logic gate ler ile olayları bağlayın nedensel olayların başka bir analiz gerektirip gerektirmediğini belirleyin Use logic gates to show how top event occurs Higher gates are the outputs from lower gates in the tree Top event is output of all the input faults or events that occur •Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is one of the most important logic and probabilistic techniques used in Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and system reliability assessment. •Fault Trees are deductive method for identifying ways in which hazards can lead to accident. •The approach starts with a well defined accident ,or top event, and works backwards towards the various scenarios that can cause the accident. temel olay şartlı olay gelişmemiş olay dışsal olay 'To design the system that work coreectly we often need to understand and correctly how they can wrong' Dan goldın, Nosa, Admınıstor, 2000 Representation of the fault tree for condenser unit and subsystems özel öncelik engelleme PRIMARY (OR BASIC) FAILURE • The failed element has seen no exposure to environmental or service stresses exceeding its ratings to perform. E.g., fatigue failure of a relay spring within its rated lifetime; leakage of a valve seal within its pressure rating. SECONDARY FAILURE • Failure induced by exposure of the failed element to environmental and/or service stresses exceeding its intended ratings. E.g., the failed element has been improperly designed, or selected, or installed, or calibrated for the application; the failed element is98671 overstressed/underqualified for its burden. in addition The symbols used when FTA First, we need to follow these steps When we look the uses of FTA Loss of power fault tree diagram Pie chart for plant unavailability BOOLEAN MATEMATİĞİ. Boolean Matematiği İngiliz matematikçi George Boole tarafından 1854 yılında geliştirildi. Sayısal devrelerin tasarımında ve analizinde. Unavailabilty of Plant fault tree diagram circle shape elliptical shape square shape trapezoid pentagon shape Fault Tree Analysis Faults and failures System and subsystem faults Primary and secondary failure Command fault ızgaradan hiçbir besleme olmamasına

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