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Experiment Presentation

Transcript: "What is the most effective form of media in communicating information?" #ConcernedStudent1950 #PrayForParis 1. Agree to a consent outlining the general idea of the experiment and prompting the participant to say “yes” or “no.” 2. The participant is presented with one of the three levels of our independent variable, Facebook post, Online news article, Textual paragraph 3. The participant is asked to read the information on the screen 4. Then the participant will click an arrow to move to three different sections of questions a. The amount of time that the participant spent reading the material is measured from the time they get onto the page with the medium of information, to the time that they click the arrow to move to the next section. Results Participants & Materials In 21st century society... The average time spend with major media per day is about 12 hours (Statistica 2015) About 6 hours a day is spent online, 1.72 of those hours being on social media (Statistica 2015) 58% increase in social media use among adults in the past 10 years Facebook is the top search tool for conveinence of information (Campbell & Craig 2014) 20% of the world is active on Facebook (Statistica 2015) Austin Fischer & Jaclyn Tortora Thursday, December 10, 2015 Methods: Procedure Continued Discussion 5. The participant will then be asked 4 multiple choice questions about the material that they read to measure how much information from the source that the participant absorbed. 6. Then, the participants will see a Likert scale that will measure how likely the participant is to engage in in certain behaviors after reading the information. 7. The participant will answer demographics highlighted in previous slide Literature on Topic Dr. Steven Young Conducted separate one way ANOVAs for each of our dependent measures Likelihood to Elicit a Response versus the Medium of Media: F(2,26) = .850, p = .440 Level of Interest versus the Medium of the Media F(2,26)= .207, p = .814 Level of Absorption versus the Medium of Media F(2,24)= .990, p = .388 Results show that none of the p-values are less than .05 and so the differences between each group are nonsignificant. Methods Facebook messages directly influence political self-expression, information seeking and voting behavior of users and their friends (Bond 2012) Those who actively consume news by personalizing and re-contextualizing on social networking sites, were found to be politically more engaged citizens (Choi 2015) Facebook is fundamental and crucial for delivering information above other media sources The ALS Ice Bucket Challenge was able to raise 35 times more funding than traditional methods IVs: 3 levels Facebook Post Textual Paragraph Online News Article DVs: 3 levels Interest Level Likelihood to elicit a response Absorption 34 Responses Adjusted population to 27 Convenience sampling method Participants were gathered from Facebook Other Research Methods classes No compensation Demographic Info 14 M, 12 F, and 1 Other participant 16 white, 2 African American, 3 Hispanic/Latino, 7 Asian and 3 Other Average age - 21.04 23 CUNY/SUNY Students, 4 not More Background Background We hypothesize that the most effective medium for receiving information, out of the three possible forms studied (plain text, online news article, Facebook post), will be the Facebook post. Inspiration for Research Research Question Literature on Topic Methods: Procedure Results Continued Conducted t-tests to see if there were to be a difference, how much that difference would be Likelihood to Elicit a Response News Article (M = 2.25, SD = .61) versus the Textual Paragraph (M = 2.56, SD = .67) t(20)= 1.130, p =.272 Facebook Post (M = 2.68, SD = .92) versus the Textual Paragraph t(14)= .286, p =.779 News Article versus the Facebook Post t(14)= 1.108, p = .287 Level of Interest News Article (M= 37.13, SD= 19.95) versus the Facebook post (M = 37.03, SD = 19.23) t(14)= .010, p= .992 Facebook post versus the Textual Paragraph (M = 32.68, SD = 13.84) t(14)= .518, p = .612 News Article versus the Textual Paragraph t(20)= .608, p = .550 Level of Absorption News Article (M= 2.80, SD= .79) versus the Textual Paragraph (M= 2.20, SD= 1.20) t(18)= 1.299, p = .210 Facebook post (M= 2.80, SD= 1.10) versus the News Article t(13)= .000, p = 1.000. Facebook post versus the Textual Paragraph t(13)= .921, p = .374 Media Source on Communication Effectiveness Our results were nonsignificant across the board The hypothesis was not supported Facebook posts are no more effective at distributing information than news or text Our research cannot be applied to existing literature, likert design flaws and focus on chipotle Room for improvement Change the gauge of participant interest Alter the Likert scale, pilot test

Experiment presentation

Transcript: The experiment: Observing more subjects for a longer period of time has the potential to yield more accurate results in future research. By: Daniel Aboagye http://www.stat.purdue.edu/~mhonerla/stat301/Chapter_7.pdf Controls On average, people walked 7.9 seconds faster when alone When humans are in exposed situations... Time of day Strength in Numbers Independent weather t= 38.2 - 46.1 = -5.23 1.51 df= (10-1)+(10-1) = 18 The data shows that humans traveling in groups walk more slowly than individuals traveling alone. age of subjects Conclusion Do they walk faster in groups? variance of source population = 83.6 + 120.9 (10-1)+(10-1) = 11.36 The Question: Variables Number of people in the group Results When humans are traveling in groups they walk more slowly, as there is less risk of attack from predators--conversely, when alone, they walk faster to avoid attack. Compare Only adults were sampled. Children and the elderly were left out of the pool. Dependent location Ways to improve the experiment: Larger sample size longer distance In groups: Number of subjects = 10 Mean = 46.1 SSb = 120.9 The results support the hypothesis Experimenting with Behavioral Genetics T-Test Methods 43s, 47s, 39s, 42s Groups of 2 49s, 50s Standard deviation of sampling distribution: 11.36 + 11.36 = +/- 1.51 10 10 Or when they are alone? Number of people in group day of the week record the time it takes 10 people who are walking alone to walk 20 meters The Hypothesis Materials Used: 20 unknowing subjects (or groups of subjects) 1 stop watch a 20 meter stretch of pedestrian pathway Thank you for your time. *photos taken from stock photo galleries of iphoto.com Data Seconds to walk 20 m Significant beyond the .025 level. variation is not due to chance alone Groups of 4 48s, 46s, 50s, 47s record the time it takes 10 groups of 2 or more people who are walking together to walk the same distance Alone The time it takes to walk 20 meters alone: Number of subjects = 10 Mean = 38.2 SSa (sum of squared deviations) = 83.6 35s, 40s, 43s, 38s, 40s, 37s, 42s, 34s, 35s, 38s Groups of 3 Works Cited

Experiment Presentation

Transcript: nature - parents Previous research has been done on factors that may act either as facilitators or barriers towards healthy eating by J Shepherd (2005). This study provides a sound basis towards healthy eating behaviours. Field et al (2008) that ‘Among females, frequent dieting, high level of concern about weight, and trying to look like same-sex persons in the media were predictive of increased risk of starting to binge eat frequently’. self-report measures bias (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr by Isabelle Mercer questionnaire design screener question closed ended questions likert scale quantative data creating questionnaire (wording) Fields, J. A. (2008). Family, Peer and Media Predictors of becoming eating disordered. Archives of Pedeatrics & Adolscent Medicine, 574-579. J Shepherd, A. H. (2005). Young people and healthy eating: a systematic review of research on barriers and facilitators. Health Eduction Research, 239-257. J. Croll, D. N.-S. (2001). Healthy Eating: What does it mean in adolescent. Journal of Nutritional Education, 195-197. Budapest method Procedure Participants Discussion Hypotheses: Men will be less likely to choose a healthier option of milk and are more likely to consume ready meals than women. Women are more likely have a higher ‘5 a day’ fruit and vegetable count and are more likely to be vegetarian than men. San Francisco cultural differences Results doing our own experiment!!! All p's at Sussex Uni Confidential + anonymous Equal gender Little research into gender - students Eating differences between genders Notes Stockholm lifestyle Differences in healthy eating patterns of male and female students Attidtudes towards eating (cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr (cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr A self-report pen and paper questionnaire was then administered consisting of questions on a range of dietary choices and beliefs. The questionnaires were distributed to students on campus during or after lectures. Once informed consent was gained it was be explained to them that the questionnaire is voluntary with the right to withdraw at any point during the study. Health concerns opportunity sample ethics researcher bias countered small sample dieting method Research Media perception participants Participation was voluntary and all participants remained anonymous and all information collected was kept confidential. There was a total of 20 participants studying at the University of Sussex. The average age of the participant was 20.8, with a range of 18 to 25 From a young age the majority of society learns the principles of healthy eating. We can see this in research by Croll (2001) ‘Adolescents have a significant amount of knowledge regarding healthy foods and believe that healthy eating involves moderation, balance, and variety’. Hypothesis supported !!! Procedure (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr Body Image References students Important Details Brainstorm

Experiment Presentation

Transcript: I asked them to write down why they believed so... Who responded? Using Surveymonkey.com I then created my survey. Later I presented my survey to my peers and I received 56 responses. 10.7%- believed that they were going to marry their first love. 51.8% knew they were not. 10.7 still believe that they will marry their love. 26.8% said they never had their first love Background Information Reality 12 and under= 49.1% 14 and under= 27.3% 15 and under= 10.9% 16 and under= 1.8% 17 and under= 1.8% 18 and under= 1.8% Other= 7.3% "Is 12 Too Young to Start Dating?" CBSNews. CBS Interactive, 07 July 2010. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. <http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-500165_162-6520486.html>. Method- How I did it Now what about the person they are dating now? I believe more people will state that they started in a relationship due to peer pressure. How many regret dating that certain person? Mari Rivera's Experiment Why does this interest me? My responses- Age groups 17.9%=Yes 12.5%= No 12.5%= Possibly 46.4%= They are not dating!!!!!!! 10.7%= Believe they are forever alone. Throughout the project I began to question... I first had to create a hypothesis Method- How I did it? Reality This was one of my best responses... As a child you can often feel lonely and the need to have someone with you. As others do, this is simply just hormones and youth experiences. We feel the need to have what we don't really need, and that is the feeling of "love". Some kids at home struggle to gain attention from parents and fill in the void by simply finding a new someone who will give them attention. Other times they simply think they are in "love" with the person, they are way off. Then there is peer pressure, where you see someone who has a person with them and most kids might have a person with them, so they too feel the need the need to have a person with them. There to tell them they are "pretty" or to simply just be of comfort. People will agree that others feel the need to start dating at a young age... WORK CITED WORK CITED The little girl starts telling me how she and her boyfriend are already making out and are wanting to do more sexual stuff. At first I thought she was only kidding but no she was not...AT ALL! So this is where my journey begins... Do young people feel the need to be in a relationship? Why do they? Why does this interest me? If people are in relationships did they actually believe that they were going to marry their patner? I believe people are psychologically pressured to start dating. This is caused due to media, hormones, and peer pressure. 37.5% said that they first started a relationship due to the belief that they actually had chemistry... 35.7% wanted one to feel important and loved by someone... 12.5% believed they wanted a realationship due to hormones... 5.4% wanted a relationship just so they can put it on Facebook. My Hypothesis My Predictions My Response My Prediction Only 8.9% have stated to be in a relationship due to peer pressure... I then began to ask myself... Sadly I couldn't find the answer http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/04/us/middle-school-students-focus-of-anti-violence-effort.html?pagewanted=all For my summer job I worked for the Candy Cane Day Care on Rucker Boulevard. The age group I watched were the 3-4 year olds. One day a little girl came up to me talking about her supposed relationship with a little boy. Me just believing it She only meant holding hands kept the little conversation going. This is where the creepiness begins.... Method- How did I do this? People feel the need to be in a relationship at a young age. 55.4% - females 44.6% - males Now why do we believe that everyone is dating? I was correct! 73.2% agree that people feel the need to start dating! 26.8% did not agree. 66.1%=15-16 14.3% = 17-18 7.1% = 13-14 and 21-30 3.6%= 41-100 1.8% = 19-20 Response A study, commissioned by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and released this spring, showed that three-quarters of students had already had a boyfriend or girlfriend. One in three said they had been victims of psychological dating violence; nearly one in six said they had experienced physical dating violence. Almost half said they had been touched in an unwanted sexual way or had been the target of sexual slurs How young is to young? VIDEO TIME :D 18.2% = yes 12.7%= no 69.1= not really I then had to decide which questions I should write. http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-500165_162-6520486.html Reality

Experiment Presentation

Transcript: Urchin in dark box Background In dark (control): Covered 18%, partially covered 9%, and uncovered 73%. In dimmed light (holes): Uncovered 91%, partially covered 9%, never appeared completely covered. In partial light (mesh): Covered 62%, uncovered 38%. Appeared uncovered much less often than in the 2nd tank. In sunlight: covered themselves 68% of the time, uncovered 32% of the time. 1. Obtain green sea urchins and other materials. 2. Set up cardboard boxes. a. Tape one up completely. b. Punch holes in one. c. Put mesh over one tank. d. Leave two open. 3. Put cardboard boxes over respective tanks with sea urchins. 4. Observe and record data. (If lights are off, wait at least 15 minutes.) The data seen in the experiment supported the hypothesis. As the amount of light the urchins were exposed to increased, the more they covered themselves with few outliers. Taxonomy Error Basic Description Intertidal zone Rocky or kelpy Northern water of Pacific and Atlantic Depths up to 1200 meters Above 81° latitude line If the light intensity increases, then the green sea urchins will cover themselves more. Box with holes Variables Independent- intensity of light Dependent- reaction of sea urchins Control- completely covered sea urchins Green sea urchin covering self with rocks and algae Experimental Set-Up Constants Urchin covered in mesh How do varying light intensities affect the covering behavior of green sea urchins? Major sensory organ Longer than spikes in test PAX6 protein used in eye and sensory organs for other organisms Used to trap food, stick to surfaces, move slowly, respiration, chemoreception, and light sensing Conclusion Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis Green Sea Urchin Age Size Dead sea urchins Test preference for how they cover themselves Test how quickly they cover themselves under different light Test other functions of the tube feet such as chemoreception by changing salinity Test effect of pollution on covering behavior with debris Food: kelp, seaweed, mussels, sand dollars, whelks, barnacles, periwinkles, dead fish, cannibalism Predators: crabs, mammals, sea stars, fish, wolf eels, birds, humans Nocturnal Exoskeleton called the "test" Water vascular system: food, movement, breathing 50 to 60 mm diameter on average Hypothesis Habitat Further Experiments yay :) Sea urchins are known to cover themselves with surrounding objects in light to help them camouflage and escape from predators. In the second box, moved away from light spots. In the 3rd tank (mesh), appeared uncovered much less often than in the 2nd tank (holes). Although, 2nd uncovered more often than in 1st tank, but the overall trend shows the urchins covering more often in more light. Uncovered urchins Question Phylum: Echinodermata Genus: Strongylocentrotus Species: droebachiensis Results Sam Beaulieu, Sam Burke, Connie Kim Procedure Green Sea Urchins' Reactions to Varying Light Intensities Life support system Tube Feet Discussion Species and organisms Water temperature Sea table Covering materials Light source

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