Transcript: What traits evolved here What traits evolved here What traits evolved here What traits evolved here A pine marten has a long, lithe body with a brown coated fur and a like yellow patch on its neck. Pine Marten Martes martes European Marten Standing live trees and plenty of woody debris, including snags, stumps, branches and downed logs offer winter cover, resting, and den sites. Pine Martens need/needed better bone and muscle structure for powerful strength, long tail to aid in balancing, and well sharp claws. Mustelids Mustelids have elongated bodies, short legs, and thick fur. Within a large range of variation, the mustelids exhibit some common characteristics. Mustelidae Their feet have less webbing than those of other otters, which makes their paws more flexible. Their strong teeth and paws are well-suited to cracking the shells of clams and mussels. Aonyx cinerea Oriental small-clawed otter American Pine Martens live in the some of the United States and in Canada. "Habitat of martens stretches from the northernmost forests of Alaska and Canada to northern New Mexico, from California to Newfoundland" (https://animalia.bio/american-marten). American Marten Caniformia characteristics Plantigrade paws with five nonretractile claws and thick fur. Caniformia elongated and pointed canines with a conical shape called tusks which are used to kill prey Carnivora Carnivora characteristics African clawless otter Aonyx capensis Their dense, short fur insulates their bodies when they are swimming, their webbed back feet provide them with power, and their strong tails act as rudders. Ursus thibetanus Ursus thibetanus (bears) have big heads, small eyes, very short tails, and pretty small legs. Also very sharp claws made for hunting. Ursidae Feliformia characteristics Feliformia Long bodies, short legs with retractile claws, and usually long tails. Asiatic Black Bear A keen sense of smell. Strong curved claws for climbing trees and ripping logs. Strength for turning over rocks and logs to get colonial insects and strength for bending branches to reach buds, catkins, leaves, and fruit. Ursus thibetanus Suricata suricatta They have dark patches around their eyes to protect their eyes from the sun, as well as a dark tip on their tail. Meerkats are known for their upright stance. Meercats Martens Martens are fast, agile and excellent climbers. They have semi-retractable claws to aid in climbing. They can climb down trees face first by rotating their hind feet nearly 180 degrees. Marten Martes martes Pine martens are mostly active at night and during dusk. Their preferred nesting sites are hollow trees, and one individual has a few nests within its home range. Martes martes Lutrinae lutrinae Lutrindae's are fully amphibious carnivores with adaptations to aquatic life that include palmed hindpaws, thick waterproof fur, and a particular conformation of the surface of the retina shared by hippos and whales.
Transcript: Different types of Fins The Flying Snake Types of Fins: Continued... Penguin evolved from having wings to flippers. The Ichthyosaurs are marine reptiles of the ancient world that had fins. By: Amari Brown and Barry Grant Birds vs Bats The Flying Frog Convergent evolution is: -The process where organisms, not closely related, evolve traits that are similar to each other due to having to adapt to a similar environment or ecological niche. Bat wings are closer to human hands then bird wings In the bat wing five bone structures spread that are similar to that of a human hand Bird wings are more of a rigid bone structure Bats have much more flexible flying methods than a bird What is Convergent Evolution? Not all fins are the same They are different structures that provide the function to swim Sharks have five different type of fins that help it to swim with The dolphin have a similar structure to sharks with only dual pectorals, a dorsal, and a fluke (tail) fin. There are northern flying squirrels and southern flying squirrels. They are usually called “gliding squirrels” They “glide” to another tree Use this to escape from predators Convergent Evolution Presentation They “glide” to escape predators and to save energy Chrysopelea snakes live in Southwest Asia Many snakes began to adapt to their surroundings by learning how to glide The Flying Squirrel They are able to glide Live where the environment is moist enough and insects are available to eat. They glide whenever they feel threatened.
Transcript: PowerPoint Today It is stored in an Internet "cloud" so you can access it anywhere for free. What's so great about it? (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr How it Started THE EVOLUTION OF POWERPOINT What's next? In 1987 Evolution of PowerPoint Microsoft purchased Presenter for $14 million dollars cash. Meet PowerPoint 1.0 It has dramatically changed the world. More than 30 million PowerPoint presentations are created each day. For some presenters and some of those they present to, it can be a miserable experience. PowerPoint will be 25 years old next year Let's Learn More Forethought, Inc. (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Prezi.com live tiles... Is this where PowerPoint is headed?
Transcript: How many years do the first canidae live Foxes Who is the cladogram of fennec fox What traits evolved here What traits evolved here 125,000-10,000 years Present 38-24mya Where dose the fennec fox live Fennec fox Vulpes zerda Fennec fox Who is cladogram to Why did the animal that cladogram the fennec fox disappeared from work. Genus Vulpes Genus Blanford's fox Blanford's fox Vulpes cana Habitat Southwest Asia Topic The fennec fox is the smallest canid 1.5-3.5 Ibs the females range in head-to-body size from 34.5 to 39.5 cm (13.6 to 15.6 in) with a 23-25 cm (9.1-9.8 in) long tail and 9-9.5 cm (3.5-3.7 in) long ears, and weigh 1-1.9 kg (2.2-42 Ib). Fennec fox Vulpes zerda Fennec fox Fennec foxes interesting are their ears and their teeth and their eyes and swim. Kit fox measures about 32 inches in length (of which 12 inches is the length of its tail). It stands 12 inches high at the shoulder, and weighs about 5 pounds. The female is a little smaller. The San Joaquin kit fox is the smallest canid species in North America (but the largest kit fox subspecies). Vulpes macrotis Kit fox Blanford's fox Vulpes cana blanford's fox Family Canidae Family Class Mammalia Class Class Class Order Fennec fox Vulpes zerda Class Phylogenetic Phylognetic Canines Gray wolf Canis lupus Canies Phylogenetic Vulpes Vulpes Canids Canidae Canids Arctic fox Arctic fox Vulpes lagopus Kingdom and class Arctic fox and kit fox Kingdom and class Arctic fox Vulpes lagopus Arctic fox Kit fox Kit fox Vulpes macrotis The kit fox kingdom is animal Canids Genus Canis Gray fox Gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus Gray wolf Gray wolf Canis lupus Species Vulpes Vulpes Species Blanford's fox Vulpes cana Blanford's fox How do the fennce fox get it's scientific name? Fennec fox Vulpes zerda Fennec fox Why dose fennec fox live in their habitat? Why did the animal evolve some of its major traits? Phylum Chordate Phylum
Transcript: The Evolution of Rap and Hip Hop By Adrian Sienko Modern Rap Logic J. Cole J. Cole Kendrick Lamar Kendrick Lamar Drake Drake Kanye West Kanye West Modern Rap Song Music Clip 90's "Golden Age" Rap" Nas Notorious B.I.G. Notorious B.I.G. Tupac Tupac Jay-Z Jay-Z DMX DMX 90's Rap Song Music Clip 80's "Early" Hip-Hop Grandmaster Flash & The Furious Five Kurtis Blow Kurtis Blow Public Enemy Public Enemy N.W.A N.W.A Eric B. and Rakim Eric B. and Rakim 80's Early Hip Hip Song Music Clip 70's and the origins of Hip Hop The Sugarhill Gang DJ Kool Herc DJ Kool Herc Rock Steady Crew Rock Steady Crew Afrika Bambaata Afrika Bambaata Coke La Rock Coke La Rock 70's Hip Hop Song Music Clip 60's Soul and R&B Ray Charles The Temptations The Temptations Sam & Dave Sam & Dave James Brown James Brown Aretha Franklin Aretha Franklin 60's Soul Music Song Clip Music Clip 50's Classic R&B and Pop Fats Domino Little Richard Little Richard Elvis Presley Elvis Presley Chuck Berry Chuck Berry Buddy Holly Buddy Holly 50's R&B Music Clip Music Clip
Transcript: Switek, Brian. "New Candidate for World's First Bird." National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 30 May 2013. Web. 13 Feb. 2015. Filamentous Feathers Eight specimens ~150 million years ago Bavaria, Germany Thin Walled Bones Bipedalism was one of the first adaptations that would allow for flight Theropods Birds Advantages and Disadvantages of Bipedalism 'The First Biped' Long Second Digit http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/evograms_06 "Dinosaurs: Two Legs or Four?" The Guardian. The Guardian, 07 Feb. 2007. Web. 11 Feb. 2015. Archaeopteryx Throughout the era of dinosaurs species evolved or lost the bipedal stance Dinosaurs The saurischian or "lizard hipped" dinosaurs are characterized by hips composed of three elements, long and flexible necks, and grasping hands with a long second digit. The saurichians fall into two major groups. The saurapoda were large herbivores while the theropoda were bipedal carnivores. Birds are descendents of the theropoda. Why longer arms? 90-million-year-old fossil Located in central Germany A 'bolosaur' names Eudibamus cursoris Hypothesized to have evolved a bipedal stance to escape from predators (speed) Majority of the original dinosaur species were bipedal There are two main hypothesizes as to how the evolution of feathers came about. 1) To escape predators... - Feathered arms allowed fast running bipedal bird-dinosaurs to jump and glide in the air. 2) To glide between trees.... - Perhaps an arboreal specimen took to the air to travel between trees Larger legs represent a heavier animal. Length of arm bones represent the amount of force the wings can generate. Therefore, a larger arm-to-leg ratio suggests improved flight Likely the last fully developed feature of flight, a longer arm-to-leg ratio improved the flight of early dinosaur-birds This feature is included in a diverse group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. Thin walls in hollow bones with internal bony strats to counter buckling. Developed 240 million years ago, 100 million years before archaeopteryx developed flight. Early evidence of this characteristic found in North America, Europe, Africa, and Australia. This feature's initial purpose was to enable the animal to be more swift and agile. It also increased the structure of skeleton without adding additional weight. Flight feathers were the final step in flight. The evolution of such feathers Feathers Sazhin, Michael. "Evolution of Flight University Lecture." Evolution Of Flight. Trained Parrot, 21 Mar. 2012. Web. 11 Feb. 2015. The maniraptora or "hand snatchers" appeared during the Jurassic period. The group includes birds and their close non-flying dinosaur relatives. This species is similar to Archaeopteryx, but has shorter wings. Because of that, and because its fossil was dated to 16mya, scientists believe it is a more primitive bird. The longer arm bones of Archaeopteryx would have given them a competitive advantage. Bipedal Stance Considered by many to be the 'first bird', Archaeopteryx had fully developed flight feathers Theropods which means "beast footed" are a group of saurischian dinosaurs. Early theropods appeared near the end of the carnian age during the Triassic period. They were carnivores including the T. Rex. Birds are believed to have evolved from such species Aurornis xui Why? To escape, or to feed? allowed species to take to the air... The furcula is the structure formed by the fusion of the clavicles, aka the wishbone. This feature is unique to theropods and appeared early in the lineage. In dinosaurs this fusion probably served as an anchor for large pectoral muscles. Similarly in birds, the furcula attaches to wing muscles and is crucial in flight. Saurischians While many species have been studied in a quest to reveal why the digits evolved how they did, more research is needed to confirm a meaningful pattern First seen in compsognathus, oviraptorosaurs. Dinosaurs first developed this trait with no intention of flying. Filamentous feathers are hollow, short shafts with barbs when found all over the body. However, could also be 10-15 cm and found on head, neck, and tail. Developed 230-200 million years ago, and found in Colorado and Utah. The shorter feathers that are all over the body were most likely developed for temperature regulation and insulation. The feathers that were placed on specific parts of the animal were used to display color and pattern, potentially leading to a traits that were used for sexual selection. Mackovicky, Peter J, and Currie J. Philip. "Discovery of a furcula in tyrannosaurid theropods and its functional and phylogenetic implications." Geological Society of Denmark. Geological Museum, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2015. <http://2dgf.dk/publikationer/dgf_on_line/vol_1/furcola.htm>. Monroe, M. H. "Maniraptora 'Seizing Hands'." Biology of Australia. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2015. <http://austhrutime.com/maniraptora.htm>. Smith, Dave. "Theropod Dinosaurs." UMCP Berkeley. N.p., 19 July 2005. Web. 17 Feb.
Transcript: huddle Mrs. Rossi huddle to crowd together crowd huddle separate
Transcript: Vestigial Structures intro to evolution! Evolution Powerpoint by Chase Davies We also know a lot about fossils from their layers in the earth. The deeper in the earth they are, the farther back the fossils date. This allows us to compare ancient organisms to present day organisms. We have learned that the bird and archeopteryx have similar feathers and teeth even though they lived in completely different time periods! We discovered this by comparing their organic macromolecules. There are 6 of them, they are; carbon hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphate and sulfur. We also can compare the common elements they share (92 of them overall) or their proteins sequences and amino acid sequences. Although proteins seem pretty simple and straight forward, there are tens of thousands of different types, but just 20 amino acid types. Did you know that all life uses amino acids to code for proteins? Homologous Structure- The characteristics in two separate organisms that similar because the characteristics were inherited from a common ancestor who had shared the characteristic Analogous Structure- Organisms that evolved separately (meaning not from a common ancestor) but have a similar structure because they evolved the serve the same function Homologous and Analogous structures support the Theory of Evolution because two different organisms evolved with similar characteristics to have the the best chance of survival A vestigial structure is a part of an organism that no longer serves a purpose. Vestigial structures support theory of evolution because an organism with the vestigial structures share a common ancestor with an organism that needs the homologous structure. two examples of vestigial structures are the tailbone in humans the ependix in humans theory- an explanation incorporated with observations, laws,inferences and successful hypothesis evolution- the biological process of change where new species and organisms arise from preexisting species(this process happens to organisms, not individuals)! common ancestor- the most recent species that had evolved from two other species natural selection-certain forms of an organism in a whole population that will survive and reproduce more than others who are not as well adapt to their environment fossil- the remains of ancient life homologous and analogous structures Comparative Anatomy is the study of comparing and contrasting the similarities and differences of different organisms. Comparative Anatomy shows that lots of organisms share a common ancestor. A common way of comparing the similarities and differences of different organisms are comparing their bone structures. Embryology is the study of embryos. Embryology is evidence of evolution because it shows that related organisms develop in similar ways using the same genes. fun fact: all wing arms and flippers all start out as arm buds in vertebrae embryos! fun fact #2: all vertebrae embryos develop from a cmmon development plan because they have all descended from a common ancestor! evidence of evolution.. evidence of evolution Embryology gene flow- 2 different populations genes movement speciation- a process where 2 new bioloigcal species arise geographic isolation- this happens when a natural barrier influences and prevents the gene flow between populations genetic drift- a random, non -specific change in a populations llele frequenciy vocab words to know continued.. vocab words to know.. Comparative Anatomy The Theory of Evolution the well supported belief that all organism descend from a common ancestor. This is essentially saying all living things in this world are related. So... who discovered this? Charles Darwin. Darwin was a naturalist who explored the Galapagos Islands and traveled for 5 years! From his travels, he gathered information about fossils, made precise observations and made lots of drawings- especially of finche.Fron his findings, wrote the book "Origin of Species" and concluded that all living things are related. But there was one problem with this! At the time, Darwins findings were controversial because most of the human population believed man created god. To some people, what Darwin was doing was unorthodox. So what does fossils tell us? the Age of Fossils- Some organisms have structures to track how long they have been alive ex) the amount of rings on a tress trunk tells the age Organisms Behavior- ex) A trilobites fossil remains are often curled up. We infer that this is to hide and protect themselves from predators Organisms History- All organisms have evolved. During this the organisms behaviors and functions change. Fossils also tell us that the environment has changed. We can tell this by comparing the fossils features and what they are used for in the environment, and if they are using the same features to survive currently, as they were a million years ago.
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