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Convergent Evolution Powerpoint

Transcript: Different types of Fins The Flying Snake Types of Fins: Continued... Penguin evolved from having wings to flippers. The Ichthyosaurs are marine reptiles of the ancient world that had fins. By: Amari Brown and Barry Grant Birds vs Bats The Flying Frog Convergent evolution is: -The process where organisms, not closely related, evolve traits that are similar to each other due to having to adapt to a similar environment or ecological niche. Bat wings are closer to human hands then bird wings In the bat wing five bone structures spread that are similar to that of a human hand Bird wings are more of a rigid bone structure Bats have much more flexible flying methods than a bird What is Convergent Evolution? Not all fins are the same They are different structures that provide the function to swim Sharks have five different type of fins that help it to swim with The dolphin have a similar structure to sharks with only dual pectorals, a dorsal, and a fluke (tail) fin. There are northern flying squirrels and southern flying squirrels. They are usually called “gliding squirrels” They “glide” to another tree Use this to escape from predators Convergent Evolution Presentation They “glide” to escape predators and to save energy Chrysopelea snakes live in Southwest Asia Many snakes began to adapt to their surroundings by learning how to glide The Flying Squirrel They are able to glide Live where the environment is moist enough and insects are available to eat. They glide whenever they feel threatened.

Evolution Project: Taking Flight Template

Transcript: Switek, Brian. "New Candidate for World's First Bird." National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 30 May 2013. Web. 13 Feb. 2015. Filamentous Feathers Eight specimens ~150 million years ago Bavaria, Germany Thin Walled Bones Bipedalism was one of the first adaptations that would allow for flight Theropods Birds Advantages and Disadvantages of Bipedalism 'The First Biped' Long Second Digit "Dinosaurs: Two Legs or Four?" The Guardian. The Guardian, 07 Feb. 2007. Web. 11 Feb. 2015. Archaeopteryx Throughout the era of dinosaurs species evolved or lost the bipedal stance Dinosaurs The saurischian or "lizard hipped" dinosaurs are characterized by hips composed of three elements, long and flexible necks, and grasping hands with a long second digit. The saurichians fall into two major groups. The saurapoda were large herbivores while the theropoda were bipedal carnivores. Birds are descendents of the theropoda. Why longer arms? 90-million-year-old fossil Located in central Germany A 'bolosaur' names Eudibamus cursoris Hypothesized to have evolved a bipedal stance to escape from predators (speed) Majority of the original dinosaur species were bipedal There are two main hypothesizes as to how the evolution of feathers came about. 1) To escape predators... - Feathered arms allowed fast running bipedal bird-dinosaurs to jump and glide in the air. 2) To glide between trees.... - Perhaps an arboreal specimen took to the air to travel between trees Larger legs represent a heavier animal. Length of arm bones represent the amount of force the wings can generate. Therefore, a larger arm-to-leg ratio suggests improved flight Likely the last fully developed feature of flight, a longer arm-to-leg ratio improved the flight of early dinosaur-birds This feature is included in a diverse group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. Thin walls in hollow bones with internal bony strats to counter buckling. Developed 240 million years ago, 100 million years before archaeopteryx developed flight. Early evidence of this characteristic found in North America, Europe, Africa, and Australia. This feature's initial purpose was to enable the animal to be more swift and agile. It also increased the structure of skeleton without adding additional weight. Flight feathers were the final step in flight. The evolution of such feathers Feathers Sazhin, Michael. "Evolution of Flight University Lecture." Evolution Of Flight. Trained Parrot, 21 Mar. 2012. Web. 11 Feb. 2015. The maniraptora or "hand snatchers" appeared during the Jurassic period. The group includes birds and their close non-flying dinosaur relatives. This species is similar to Archaeopteryx, but has shorter wings. Because of that, and because its fossil was dated to 16mya, scientists believe it is a more primitive bird. The longer arm bones of Archaeopteryx would have given them a competitive advantage. Bipedal Stance Considered by many to be the 'first bird', Archaeopteryx had fully developed flight feathers Theropods which means "beast footed" are a group of saurischian dinosaurs. Early theropods appeared near the end of the carnian age during the Triassic period. They were carnivores including the T. Rex. Birds are believed to have evolved from such species Aurornis xui Why? To escape, or to feed? allowed species to take to the air... The furcula is the structure formed by the fusion of the clavicles, aka the wishbone. This feature is unique to theropods and appeared early in the lineage. In dinosaurs this fusion probably served as an anchor for large pectoral muscles. Similarly in birds, the furcula attaches to wing muscles and is crucial in flight. Saurischians While many species have been studied in a quest to reveal why the digits evolved how they did, more research is needed to confirm a meaningful pattern First seen in compsognathus, oviraptorosaurs. Dinosaurs first developed this trait with no intention of flying. Filamentous feathers are hollow, short shafts with barbs when found all over the body. However, could also be 10-15 cm and found on head, neck, and tail. Developed 230-200 million years ago, and found in Colorado and Utah. The shorter feathers that are all over the body were most likely developed for temperature regulation and insulation. The feathers that were placed on specific parts of the animal were used to display color and pattern, potentially leading to a traits that were used for sexual selection. Mackovicky, Peter J, and Currie J. Philip. "Discovery of a furcula in tyrannosaurid theropods and its functional and phylogenetic implications." Geological Society of Denmark. Geological Museum, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2015. <>. Monroe, M. H. "Maniraptora 'Seizing Hands'." Biology of Australia. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2015. <>. Smith, Dave. "Theropod Dinosaurs." UMCP Berkeley. N.p., 19 July 2005. Web. 17 Feb.

Evolution Powerpoint by Chase Davies

Transcript: Vestigial Structures intro to evolution! Evolution Powerpoint by Chase Davies We also know a lot about fossils from their layers in the earth. The deeper in the earth they are, the farther back the fossils date. This allows us to compare ancient organisms to present day organisms. We have learned that the bird and archeopteryx have similar feathers and teeth even though they lived in completely different time periods! We discovered this by comparing their organic macromolecules. There are 6 of them, they are; carbon hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphate and sulfur. We also can compare the common elements they share (92 of them overall) or their proteins sequences and amino acid sequences. Although proteins seem pretty simple and straight forward, there are tens of thousands of different types, but just 20 amino acid types. Did you know that all life uses amino acids to code for proteins? Homologous Structure- The characteristics in two separate organisms that similar because the characteristics were inherited from a common ancestor who had shared the characteristic Analogous Structure- Organisms that evolved separately (meaning not from a common ancestor) but have a similar structure because they evolved the serve the same function Homologous and Analogous structures support the Theory of Evolution because two different organisms evolved with similar characteristics to have the the best chance of survival A vestigial structure is a part of an organism that no longer serves a purpose. Vestigial structures support theory of evolution because an organism with the vestigial structures share a common ancestor with an organism that needs the homologous structure. two examples of vestigial structures are the tailbone in humans the ependix in humans theory- an explanation incorporated with observations, laws,inferences and successful hypothesis evolution- the biological process of change where new species and organisms arise from preexisting species(this process happens to organisms, not individuals)! common ancestor- the most recent species that had evolved from two other species natural selection-certain forms of an organism in a whole population that will survive and reproduce more than others who are not as well adapt to their environment fossil- the remains of ancient life homologous and analogous structures Comparative Anatomy is the study of comparing and contrasting the similarities and differences of different organisms. Comparative Anatomy shows that lots of organisms share a common ancestor. A common way of comparing the similarities and differences of different organisms are comparing their bone structures. Embryology is the study of embryos. Embryology is evidence of evolution because it shows that related organisms develop in similar ways using the same genes. fun fact: all wing arms and flippers all start out as arm buds in vertebrae embryos! fun fact #2: all vertebrae embryos develop from a cmmon development plan because they have all descended from a common ancestor! evidence of evolution.. evidence of evolution Embryology gene flow- 2 different populations genes movement speciation- a process where 2 new bioloigcal species arise geographic isolation- this happens when a natural barrier influences and prevents the gene flow between populations genetic drift- a random, non -specific change in a populations llele frequenciy vocab words to know continued.. vocab words to know.. Comparative Anatomy The Theory of Evolution the well supported belief that all organism descend from a common ancestor. This is essentially saying all living things in this world are related. So... who discovered this? Charles Darwin. Darwin was a naturalist who explored the Galapagos Islands and traveled for 5 years! From his travels, he gathered information about fossils, made precise observations and made lots of drawings- especially of finche.Fron his findings, wrote the book "Origin of Species" and concluded that all living things are related. But there was one problem with this! At the time, Darwins findings were controversial because most of the human population believed man created god. To some people, what Darwin was doing was unorthodox. So what does fossils tell us? the Age of Fossils- Some organisms have structures to track how long they have been alive ex) the amount of rings on a tress trunk tells the age Organisms Behavior- ex) A trilobites fossil remains are often curled up. We infer that this is to hide and protect themselves from predators Organisms History- All organisms have evolved. During this the organisms behaviors and functions change. Fossils also tell us that the environment has changed. We can tell this by comparing the fossils features and what they are used for in the environment, and if they are using the same features to survive currently, as they were a million years ago.

Evidence of Evolution Powerpoint

Transcript: In many countries, Doberman Pinschers are often one of the most recognizable breeds, in part because of their actual roles in society, and in part because of media attention. The Doberman is a dog of large size. Although the breed standards vary among kennel and breed clubs, the dog typically stands between 26 to 28 inches. Gray Wolf The German Shepherd is a breed of large-sized dog that originated in Germany.The German Shepherd Dog is respected and admired throughout the world for its versatility, intelligence, and loyalty.The early shepherd dogs of Germany were of several types suited to their environments. Cheetah By: Alex Rodriguez P.6 01-21-14 Mr.Kim Biology Tiger The earliest found remains of tigers come from China and they are dated at more than 2 million years old. These early fossil remains indicate that the tiger was much smaller then than it is today. German Shepard Doberman The gray wolf or grey wolf (Canis lupus) is a canid native to the wilderness and remote areas of North America, Eurasia, and North Africa. It is similar in general appearance and proportions to a German shepherd, or sled dog, but has a larger head, narrower chest, longer legs, straighter tail, and bigger paws. Gray wolves have a complex system of communication that includes a wide range of barks, whines, growls and howls. Conservation biologists are interested in cheetah cheating because it impacts the cheetah population's level of genetic variation. a genetically uniform population were exposed to a new pathogen and did not carry the gene versions necessary to fend off the disease, the population could face complete extinction. Evidence of Evolution Powerpoint

Evolution template

Transcript: I don't have time for this! King or Emperor controls money supply Taxation and debasement to build empires and fight wars The currency of France was debased every 20 months, for 200-years Value of metals in coins decline, so does inter-national trust 04 Soon USA owned more than half of global gold reserve World War II devastates global economies except US economy, because it's backed by gold. Other nations peg their currencies to US$, the most stable currency Dollars flowed into other countries, gold flowed into the USA Countries start debasing their own currencies with cheaper metals, only US dollar is backed by the Gold Standard By 1966 countries start noticing that USA is printing more money than they have in gold reserves, demand gold for their dollars - they demand their gold back President Nixon severs the US$ from the Gold Standard - the US dollar becomes the last currency to be backed by nothing but TRUST in AUTHORITY The History of Money 02 Trading perishables between neighbours Commodity moneys invented to enable trans-tribe trade: relatively scarce, easy to recognise, divisible, fungible and portable. E.g. Salt (Ancient Rome), cacao beans (Aztecs), Shells (Africa & China) 500 BCE: First coins minted in China and Turkey to provide durability and stability Conclusion: Money originated to enable market-economy POLITICAL 06 POWERS Most people's idea of 'money' is based on mythology not facts Bitcoin forces people to ask questions about the fundamentals of money Bitcoin is an attempt to use advanced technology to ressurect the original utility of money: a tool that enables the market economy 07 03 Income tax not sufficient to fund war Governments have to borrow against future taxes Enter = government bonds Governments borrow from merchant families and goldsmiths Sovereign debt and deficit spending is born 1694: The Bank of England is established to fund a war against France 15th Century AD: Merchants (e.g. the Medici) start exchanging cross-border paper IOUs Goldsmiths follow suit: make loans with paper IOUs linked to money in their stores Conclusion: Merchants and goldsmiths become first 'financiers', making money from debt OF THE GOLD STANDARD Bartering with goods and keeping tabs of tribal debts 05 AS MONEY RESURRECTING MONEY BITCOIN 1776: USA wins independence and their constitution grants government the exclusive right to coin money US currency tied to gold held in vaults Economy very volatile 1913: Federal Reserve Bank is founded to 'stabilise' the economy, create single currency, "expand and contract" supply of money (INFLATION & DEFLATION) 1929: During depression, Roosevelt decrees all citizens MUST sell their gold to government at fixed cost. Buys in gold reserves from other countries at higher price Bitstocks Training MONOPOLY TRIBAL SYSTEM DEBT CREATE YOUR OWN EVOLUTION CONCEPT ALL SEPARATED DESIGN ELEMENTS: Change size and color WAR NATIONAL DEBT TO ENABLE INTERFERE NATIONAL BANKING 01 THE END

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