Transcript: The Endocrine System The Endocrine system consists of all of the glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream. These hormones act on organs specific to that hormone. (Hormones act like chemical messengers.) The major endocrine glands in the human body include: Hypothalamus gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Pancreas Adrenal glands Pineal gland Gonads Together, all of the glands produce hormones that control; Growth and Development Metabolism (Which includes digestion, elimination, breathing, blood circulaton, and the ability to maintain body temperature.) Sexual functions Reproduction Mood The Endocrine system works with all of the body systems to help the body function. It works with the reproductive system to control gamete formation(a cell that fuses with another cell to reproduce). It works with the respiratory system to control breathing rate. The skeletal system and Endocrine system control bone growth. It can control muscle metabolism in the muscular system. It works with the excretory system to control water conservation in the kidneys. High levels of cortisol can be an immunosuppressant in the immune system. The digestive system relys on the insulin hormone to regulate how fast the sugars are broken down. The nerves in the nervous system tell the glands when to release chemicals, and where to send them too. The Endocrine system and cardiovascular system need each other to function. The endocrine system relys on the circulatory system to move hormones throughout the bloodstream. The Endocrine System has many diseases that affect it. The three most common diseases are Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes. Addison's disease affects the adrenal glands, causing them not to provide sufficient steriod hormones. This disease causes abdominal pain and weakness, fatigue, lightheadedness, muscle weakness, fever, and low blood pressure. Cushing's syndrome is a hormone disorder caused by high levels of cortisol in the blood. This syndrome can develop from taking glucocorticoid drugs. It can cause a tumor to grow in the pituitary gland that produces large amounts of ACTH, which elevates cortisol. This disease affects humans, dogs, and horses. Type 2 Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is characteried by high blood glucose. People with type 2 diabetes are at risk for heart attacks, strokes, diabetic retinopathy, and kidney failure. While the Endocrine system has many diseases, it also has many treatment options. Treatments for Addison's disease include cortisol tablets for the rest of the patient's life, and fludocortisone as a replacement for missing aldosterone. Cushing's syndrome can be treated by slowly tapering patients off of steriods, or the pituitary adenoma's can be removed by surgery. Type 2 Diabetes can be managed by doing aerobic exercises, resistance training, and a diabetic diet. People can also take metformen or insulin to help manage glucose levels. An alternate option is having gastric bypass surgery to eliminate the need for medications. It is important to keep your Endocrine System healthy. To do so, these are some tips you can follow: Keep minor endocrine diseases under control. (diabetes, hormone imbalances, etc) Know your family history. Understand the precautions to take in order to prevent things. (Type 2 Diabetes can be prevented if you know it is in the family.) Maintain a healthy diet. (This helps ward off Type 2 Diabetes, Kidney disease, Blindness, etc.) Minimise the stress in your life. (Stress can cause hormone imbalances because of overproduction.) Doctors recommend that you get 6-8 hours of sleep each night to help keep things balanced. Get plenty of exercise. Keep in touch with your doctor. Keep in touch with your endocrinologist if it is known that endocrine diseases run in your family. 5 Fun Facts It is responsible for producing 30 distinct hormones. The Endocrine system controls human behavior. It plays a role in pregnancy by stimulating contractions during labor. The Endocrine system has no ducts. Therefore; the hormones it produces are released directly into the bloodstream. The hypothalamus is the one that makes you feel hunger and thirst. It also helps control body temperature.
Transcript: Endocrine system Major Function and how it Works blah blah blaaaah blah blah blah and blah .....etc. The main role of the endocrine system is to relay chemical messages through the body, by releasing hormones directly into the bloodstream, which transports the hormones to organs and tissues throughout the body. In conjunction with the nervous system, these chemical messages help control *physiological processes such as nutrient absorption, growth, cell control, etc....
Transcript: The endocrine system consists: These glands produce different types of hormones that evoke a specific response in other cells, tissues, and/or organs located throughout the body. The hormones reach these faraway targets using the blood stream. Like the nervous system, the endocrine system is one of your body’s main communicators. But instead of using nerves to transmit information, the endocrine system uses blood vessels to deliver hormones to cells. Hormones It is located at the base of the brain just below the hypothalamus. The pituitary gland is the most important part in the endocrine system. The pituitary gland secretes hormones on the basis of the emotional and seasonal changes. The hypothalamus sends information that is sensed by the brain to pituitary triggering production hormones. The endocrine system is a collection of 'glands' that produce hormones. These hormones are very important for regulating metabolic processes, growth of the body and sexual development. Glands The endocrine system consists: Glands Hormones Glands The major glands of the endocrine system are Pituitary Gland Glands produce hormones. These glands release the hormones into the blood stream and are transported to the various cells and body parts. Posterior lobe Hormones Hormones The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones. 1. Hypothalamus 2. Pituitary gland 3. Parathyroid gland 4. Thyroid gland 5. Adrenal glands 6. Pancreas 7. Ovaries (in female body) 8. Testes (in male body) Glands Hormones A collection of specialized cells that are located in the lower central part of the brain is called the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is the main link between the endocrine system and the nervous system. The nerve cells of the hypothalamus control the pituitary gland by stimulating or suppressing the hormone secretions. Anterior lobe ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Hypothalamus Pituitary Gland is divided into two parts Chemical messengers created by the body. They transfer information from one set of cells to another to coordinate the functions of different parts of the body. Endocrine System
Transcript: The body's glands These structures are Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas ovary and testis. These glands control the growth and development of the body also metabolism and reproduction. Hypothalamus: makes hormones that control the pitiuitary gland. Pituitary gland: produces hormones that regulates the amount of calcium in the blood. Thymus: During childhood, the thymus produces T cell developement. Adrenal glands: Releases epinephine and norepinephine which helps the body deal with stress. Pineal gland: Releases a hormone that helps with daily sleep-wake cycles and rythmic activities. Thyroid- Produces Thyroxine which regulates the metabolism. Pancreas: Produces Insulin and glucogen which helps regulate the levels of glucose in the blood. Ovary: The hormone Progesterone helps develope female secondary characteristics and for the development of eggs. Also prepares the uterus for the fertilized egg. Testis: The hormone Testosterone helps develope sperm and the developement of male secondary sex characteristics. The activity of the Hypothalamus: Influenced by the levels of hormones in the blood and by sensory information collected by the other parts of the central nervous system. The Close connections between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland means that the nervous and endocrine systems can act together to help coordinate body activites. The Thyroid gland has a major role in regulating bodys metabolism. Thyroxine is made up of the amino acid tyrosine and the mineral iodine. If the thyroid gland produces too much thyroxine a condition called hyperthyroidism occurs. Hyperthyroidism results in nervousness, elevated body temperiture, increased heart and metabolism rates, and increased blood pressure, and weight loss. Hypothyroidism on the other hand results in too little thyroxine resulting in lower metabolic rates and body temperature, lack of energy, and weight gain are characteristics of this conditon. In some cases Hypothyroidism is associated with goiter, an enlargement of the thyroid gland. Pituitary gland: essential to good health. controls many other endocrine glands which is located in the hypothalamus in the brain. If the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone the body grows too quickly and a condition called gigantism results. If too little GH during childhood causes a condition known as pituitary dwarfism, which can be treated by administering growth hormone. Parathyroid glands: all four parathyroid glands are found on the back surface of the thyroid gland. Parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH regulates the calcium levels in the blood by increasing the reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys and by increasing the uptake of calcium from the digestive system. Adrenal Glands: These glands help the body prepare for and deal with stress. Adrenal Cortex- the cortex produces more than two dozen hormones called corticosteroids. The hormone aldosterone regulates the reabsorption of sodium ions and the excretion of the potassium ions by the kidneys. Adrenal Medulla- Regulated by the sympatheitic nervous system. The Adrenal Medulla produces the "flight or fright" response to stress. These hormones increase heart rate, blood pressure, and blood flow to the muscles. Airway passages open wider allowing more oxygen intake. The pancreas: releases Insulin and glucagon to help keep the level of glucose in the blood stable. Insulin stimulates cells in the liver and muscles to remove sugar from the blood and store it as glycogen or fat. Glucagon stimulates the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose back into the blood. When the pancreas produces too little insulin, a condition known as diabetes mellitus occurs. The reproductive glands: Ovaries-The hormone Progesterone helps develop female secondary sex characteristics and developement of eggs. Also prepares the Uterus for the fertilized egg. Testes- The hormone Testosterone helps in producing sperm and development of male secondary sex characteristics. Thymus- During childhood this gland produces T cell Development. Pineal gland: Releases a hormone that helps with daily sleep-wake cycles and rythmic activities. Time for an activity! 1) tell me how much you've learned. Endocrine System By Michelle R. and Sadie G.
Transcript: ENDOCRINE SYSTEM The principle glands are: 1. Pituitary gland - Secretes growth hormones, progesterone, estrogen, thyroxin, testosterone and adrenaline. 2. Adrenal glands - Seperated into two parts: the cortex and the medulla. The cortex produces three types of hormones: gluococorticoids to help the body to cope with stressful situations; mineralcorticoids which react similarity to the glucococorticoids but also affect sodium and water balances within the body and androgens, male sex hormones, which are only produced in small amounts. The medulla produces adrenalin - epinephrine and noredrenalin - norepinephrine which help the body in fight or flight response. 3. Islets Of Langerhans in the Pancreas - Irregular clusters of endocrine cells scattered throughout the tissue of the pancreas that secrete insulin and glucagon. Also called islands of Langerhans. 4. Thyroid - A large ductless gland in the neck that secretes hormones regulating growth (Thyroxine) and development through the rate of metabolism; it takes the inorganic iodine, derived from food, present in the blood. Stores thyroxine and thyroglobulin. Releases thyroxine when stimulated to do so by the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted by the adenohypophysis (Pituitary gland). 5. Parathyroid - A gland next to the thyroid that secretes a hormone (parathyroid hormone) that regulates calcium levels in a person's body. 6. Thymus - The thymus is composed of two identical lobes and is located anatomically in front of the heart and behind the sternum. A specialized organ of the immune system, the only known function of the thymus is the production and "education" of T-lymphocytes (T cells), critical cells of the adaptive immune system. 7. Ovaries - Two organs in the female reproductive system that produce ova and secrete estrogen and progesterone 8. Testicles - Two oval organs that produce sproduce spermatozoa and secrete androgens, enclosed in the scrotum behind the penis. 9. Hypothalamus - Controls the rate of secrestions in these target glands through cells sensitive enough to sense hormone changes in the blood. When sensing a lack of hormones, it releases substances to enhance hormone secretion (Negative feedback mechanism). 10. Intestinal tract glands - Secrete gastrin, secretin and cholecystokinin; are endocrine glands because of their secretions passing directly into the circulatory system. 11. Kidney - Peptide angiotensin is found in the blood stream and is effective in causing high blood pressure and it's presence is primarily the result of kidney activity. This hormone is an enzyme from the kidney (renin) and is resposible for initiating chemical changes in a protein in the blood stream causing enventual production of the hormone.The red blood cell formation is influenced by a hormonal agent, erythropoietin with the kidney being involved again. Section nine. ENDOCRINE GLANDS HOMEOSTASIS Glucineogenesis (abbreviated GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids. It is the formation of glucose from protein within the liver. Glycogenolysis (also known as "Glycogenlysis") is the conversion of glycogen polymers to glucose monomers. It's the metabolic process in which glycogen is broken down. Homeostasis is the maintaining of a constant internal body temperature by changing the physiological activities of cells. A hormone may stimulate changes in the cells of an organ or groups of organs, called target organs; a hormone may also directly affect the activity of all cells in the body. Type 1 diabetes - Occurs when the pancreas is unable to produce insulin, which is a hormone that ensures body energy needs are met. This form of diabetes is most commonly diagnosed in children and adolescents, but can occur in adults as well. Type 2 diabetes - A condition in which the body either makes too little insulin or cannot properly use the insulin it makes to convert blood glucose to energy. Type 2 diabetes may be controlled with diet, exercise, and weight loss, or may require oral medications and/or insulin injections. Hypoglycemia is when the insulin level is too high, causing a lack of glucose in the blood while Hyperglycemia is when there is a lack of insulin in the body, causing a higher level of glucose in the blood. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening illness with diabetes mellitus. DKA is caused by the a lack of insulin. Whenever the body feels that there isn't enough insulin, it begins to burn stored fat in order to compensate; however, this creates ketoacidosis. The most common cause of this disease is non-compliance with insulin therapy. The symptoms of DKA are ketone bodies present in the blood with a high blood glucose level. It is common to see a patient that is excessively thirsty and with a ‘fruity’ odor on the patient’s breath. To treat DKA, it is important to supply the body with much needed insulin in order to
Transcript: Hormones secreted by the endocrine system glans regulate the body's growth, cell growth metabolism , and sexual development. The hormones can affect multiple organs. Stimulates the secretion of pituitary hormones Controls body temperature, hunger, thirst fatigue, and sleep. Growth Hormone: stimulates growth of bones and tissues Thyroid Stimulating Hormone: ensures the thyroid is creating enough hormones to stay in balance Adrenocorticotropin hormone:: Stimulates the adrenal gland and promotes steroid hormones Luteinizing hormone: controls production of sex hormones Metabolism is the rate at which food is converted into energy. Secretes parathyroid hormone controlling the of calcium in the bones and blood Adrenaline: provides you with quick energy used to respond to danger or stress. Testes: produce testosterone, responsible for sexual development, and make sperm. Ovaries: produce estrogen, progesterone as well as store eggs. Insulin: decreases the amount of glucose and other sugars in the blood to maintain a survivable blood-sugar level Glands of the Endocrine System Hypothalamus Pituitary Gland Thyroid Gland Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Glands Reproductive Glands (Gonads) Pancreas Hypothalamus Gland Pituitary Gland Hypothyroidism- under activity of metabloism Diabetes- when insulin doesn't regulate blood sugar levels, allowing the amount of sugar in the blood to run high. The Endocrine System Thyroid Cancer- cancerous tumors, usually benign, but can cause major imbalance of hormones. Endocrine System Disorders Type II Diabetes- blood cells resist the effects of insulin, rendering it useless. It occurs in two forms: Hypoglycemia- low blood sugar caused by too much insulin Hyperglycemia- too much sugar in blood from too few insulin, or insulin being ineffective Located in the lower part of the neck below the voice box, it monitors the body's metabolism and growth rate. Two glands on top of the kidneys that produce adrenaline, the fight or flight hormone, for use in emergencies The body system that regulates most body functions. It does this through the use of ductless glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream Reproductive Glands Hyperactive Gland- causes the bones to weaken and causes the production of kidney stones due to build u of calcium Hypoactive Gland- Decreases the amount of calcium in the blood and increases phosphorus levels, resulting in convulsions. In males the sexual reproductive glands are the testes, in women it is the ovaries, both equally responsible for procreation. Pancreas Problems Hypoglycemia- signaled by lack of concentration, drowsiness, headache and blurred vision. Treatable by consuming anything high in sugar like soda or pixie sticks. Pancreas Thyroid Gland Problems Hyperthyroidism- over activity of the body's metabolism Thyroid Gland Diabetes First Aid Controls the levels of minerals, calcium and phosphorus, that are in the blood. Located on the back of the thyroid gland. The Endocrine System is made up of a number of different glands. These include: The Endocrine System Purpose Referred to as the "master gland" it controls all the other glands in the body by secreting hormones vital for healthy living. Th Pituitary Gland is responsible for: Parathyroid Gland The largest Gland in the body, it makes hormones which help you digest food and it produces insulin. By Jason Bradley Hyperglycemia- signaled by fruity odor, vomiting, thirst, lack of conscience. Treatable with exercise and eating food. Found in the central part of the brain, its main purpose is to regulate the pituitary gland. There are three types of problems the endocrine system may face: 1) Hypoactive Gland- too little hormones produced 2)Hyperactive Gland - too much hormones produced 3) Cancer- tumors on endocrine glands affecting their ability to secrete hormones Goiters- an enlargement of the thyroid gland, often a precursor to more serious problems The Endocrine System is dependent on a balance of hormones. If one or more glands do not keep the hormonal balance it can lead to severe problems. Type I Diabetes- Caused by an insulin deficiency when the body does not produce insulin, results in extremely high blood sugar levels Adrenal Glands Parathyroid Gland
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Transcript: About The endocrine system is a ductless system that secertes a hormone that regulates body functions. http://www.encognitive.com/node/1129 long, tapered gland which lies across and behind the stomach secretes digestive juices which break down fats, carbohydrates, proteins and acids secretes bicarbonate, which neutralizes stomach acid as it enters the duodenum secrete hormones which regulate the level of glucose in the blood cells of pancreas secrete hormones like insulin into the blood Adrenal Glands smaller, inner region is part of the sympathic nervous system and is the body's first line of defense and response to physical and emotional stresses inner, reddish brown layer makes two types of hormones and takes all its instructions from the nervous system, producing chemicals which react to fear and anger and are sometimes called "fight or flight" hormones. Pituitary Gland Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands Ovaries forms part of the immune system in upper part of chest behind breast bone made of 2 lobes enlarges until puberty and then begins to shrink made of lymphoid tissue amount of these hormones produced by the body can vary from month to month and year to year depending on many factors including stress, nutrition and exercise if estrogen becomes dominant over progesterone, cramping, bloating, depression, irritability, migraine headaches, insomnia, epilepsy, miscarriages, infertility, hypoglycemia, chronic fatigue syndrome, heart palpitations and other cardiovascular disorders may occur. food supply may carry extra estrogen like in meat with animal growth hormones, causing girls to be physically and sexually developed at younger ages Pancreatic cancer has the worst prognosis of all the types of cancer. This is probably because of the spongy, vascular nature of this organ and its vital endocrine and exocrine functions. Pancreatic surgery is a problem because of the soft, spongy, tissue it consists of that make it extremely difficult to suture. outer region secretes hormones which have important effects on the way in which energy is stored and food is used, on chemicals in the blood, and on characteristics such as hairiness and body shape cortex, or outer, yellow layer, takes its instructions from the pituitary hormone ACTH. The hormones secreted here are called "steroids" main types: those which control the balance of sodium and potassium in the body; those which raise the level of sugar in the blood; and sex hormones Pituitary Gland Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands almond shaped glands that lie on either side of the uterus and below opening of fallopian tubes produce eggs and sex hormones called estrogen and progesterone Thymus Gland Functions the hypothalamus is a way station between the body and the brain and sorts out messages going to and from the brain replies by nerve impulses and sometimes with needed hormones pituitary gland then makes the needed hormones these are then circulated in the blood to a variety of the body's tissues, including other endocrines, such as the adrenal gland more hormones just like the ones the pituitary glands are made and sent throughout body the parathyroid glands are four small oval bodies located on either side of and on the dorsal aspect of the thyroid gland they control the level of calcium in the blood not enough calcium will cause twitching, spasms, convulsions and even death too much calcium may cause a weakening of muscle tone and kidney stones Pancreas Functions transform lymphocytes (white blood cells developed in the bone marrow) into T-cells (cells developed in the thymus these cells are transported to various lymph glands to aid in fight against disease and infection swelling of the lymph glands and fever indicate the fighting of invaders Functions secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream divided into two distinct organs one to two inches in length and weigh only a fraction of an ounce secretes more than 3 dozen hormones sits on top of kidneys listen to pituitary glands controls the rate at which the body produces energy from nutrients If the body does not get enough iodine, the thyroid gland cannot produce a proper amount of hormones for this conversion process which leads to a goiter, enlargement of the thyroid the thyroid secretes hormones which regulate energy, and emotional balance may rely upon its normal functioning when the rate of production is excessive, the results can be weight loss, nervousness, or even emotional disturbances when the rate of production is excessively low, a slowing of bodily functions may result Insulin regulates the use of glucose into all the body tissues except the brain. If the pancreas fails to produce insulin or secretes it in low quantities, the result is a serious disease called diabetes mellitus. If the ducts leading from the pancreas are blocked in some way, the digestive fluids build up in the pancreas and may then become activated so that they digest the pancreas itself! This condition is known as acute
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