Transcript: Symptoms/Signs How does the Virus Target Cells? - Was first described in 1976 - First case occurred near the Ebola River in the Congo - Sore Throat - Fever - Dry, Hacking Cough - Weakness - Severe Headache -Dehydration -Rashes - Red Eyes - Internal and External Bleeding Whom is Affected? Mode of Action - Belongs to the Filoviridae family - Five types of Ebola, that cause different viral infections - Attacks all cells of the body - Causes small blood clots - The virus enters the host cells cytoplasm - Filovirus releases transcriptase - Changes -ssRNA into +ssRNA - RNA is a template for new viral genonmes How to Protect Yourself Impact on Human Population Dynamics Ebola Virus - Medical Professionals can wear goggles and protective clothing - Others can attempt to keep areas more sanitary - A Filovirus that causes Ebola hemorrhagic fever; carried by animals - Outbreaks in not only humans but also primates such as gorillas, chimpanzees etc. - Closely linked to Marburg Virus (discovered in 1967) - Five strains of Ebola virus, known as Ebola-Zaire, Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Côte d’Ivoire, Ebola-Reston, and Ebola-Bundibugyo Treatment Introduction - Person to Person - Person to bodily fluids (of an infected individual) - Contact with an infected animal - No cure - Bleeding problems will require transfusion of platelet cells - Fluids within the body are maintained at a steady balance - Patients must be constantly rehydrated Origination of Virus - Anyone who comes into contact with an infected organism - This includes; medical professionals, the elderly, the young, animals etc. Mode of Transmission - Occurs more frequently in Africa (Uganda, Congo etc.) - First transmission was thought to be from an infected animal History - Lack of cure makes for low survival rate - Those who obtain this viral infection have a high chance on not surviving - Can threaten populations that live in unsanitary areas
Transcript: Background The Ebola virus was known after the first recognized EVD (Ebola Virus Disease) outbreak in 1976 at a hospital in Zaire run by Belgian nuns. It is named after the Ebola River in Zaire, Africa, close to where the first outbreak was noted by Dr. Ngoy Mushola in 1976 The virus comes from the Filoviridae family, strikingly similar to the Marburg virus. A second, virus very similar to Ebola was identified in Reston, Virginia which affected monkeys Shipped over from the Philippines, and was named Ebola-Reston. Hemorrhagic Fever is what Ebola is classified as. Among humans, the virus is transmitted by direct contact with infected body fluids such as blood. Since Ebola is so unpredictable, it is impossible to detect very many trends that it causes. Ebola first appeared out of nowhere in 1976 and disappeared until 1989 (Draper 6). It is possible to say that since this disease can be transmitted from monkeys to humans, that Ebola will probably reappear in places where there are significant monkey populations in Asia and Africa. Demographics The Ebola virus is unpredictable in the sense that anyone can become infected by the virus, as long as they come into contact with infected blood. So far mainly Adult males and females have contracted the deadly virus. The outbreak in Sudan showed a lower fatality rate—50%—compared to the 90% mortality rate of the Zaire strain. In 1990, a second, similar virus was identified in Reston, Virginia amongst monkeys imported from the Philippines, and was named Ebola-Reston. Biochemical Changes Coagulation of blood is the largest biochemical change of the victims body. It cause blood to clot inside of the blood vessels which causes them to burst and cause innerbleeding The organ systems involed are the Cardiovascular system, the Excretory and the digestive system. These three systems get shut down as the disease spreads and worsens over time. Symptoms Symptoms are variable too, but the onset is usually sudden and characterised by high fever, prostration, myalgia, arthralgia, abdominal pains and headache. These symptoms progress to vomiting, diarrhea, oropharyngeal lesions, conjunctivitis, organ damage (notably the kidney and liver) by co-localized necrosis, proteinuria, and bleeding both internal and external, commonly through the gastrointestinal tract. Death or recovery to convalescence occurs within six to ten days. Cures and Treatments No specific treatment has been discovered, and no vaccine exists. A vaccine is barely in the developmental stages. Ebola is known to exist in humans and a few monkey species can be infected. To develop the vaccine, monkeys are used but it can not be tested on humans except in outbreak environments so the vaccine must be tested over and over again to try and meet strict government regulations. Also, in the development of a vaccine, the access and cost for people of poor nations and the transportation efficiency of it must be considered in the vaccine proccess as well. For now all that people infected with a strain of Ebola can do is wait and be treated for the obvious symptoms like the high fever. Conclusion! I chose to research the Ebola virus because I found it whilst doing a different project a few years ago and just reading about it then left an impression on me and made me want to learn more and more about it. I'd say the most interesting thing about this disease is just how fast it can shut down your body. The most important source i used to do my project was a website called crystalinks.com this website was a huge knowledge factory for me. When will there be a cure is a question i have about this strange disease. Dont touch bodily fluids! Bibliography http://www.crystalinks.com/ebola.html http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11798241 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebola Ebola Virus
Transcript: Sudan Ebola virus Zaire Ebola virus Tai Forest Ebola virus Bundibugyo Ebola virus Reston Ebola virus Four out five of these cause disease in humans. Ebola Reston causes disease in non-human primates. ex. monkeys, baboons, etc. By: Chelsea Almanzar Ebola is transmitted through direct contact with blood or other body fluids of infected people or animals. It can also be spread through close contact with deceased Ebola infected body. Classifications of Ebola The Ebola virus was discovered in 1976 as a cause of outbreak of disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is also known as hemorrhagic fever. "Ebola Virus Infection ." Ebola Virus Infection. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2013 "Ebola Virus." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/ebola/qa.htm Discovery of Ebola Single stranded RNA Enveloped helical Vary from 800-1000 nm in length Bibliography a bacteria, a fungus, a virus, a parasite Disease Causing Organism Ebola is .... How can Ebola virus be prevented? Staff, Mayo Clinic. "Definition." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 18 June 2011. Web. 27 Oct. 2013 http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/216288-overview#aw2aab6b2b2 Avoid traveling to places of outbreak Wash hands frequently Avoid bush meat Avoid contact with infected people Follow infection control procedures Don't handle remains Fact: since 1976 there have been about 1850 cases of Ebola and more than 1200 deaths have been reported. How is Ebola treated or cured? Signs and Symptoms There is no antiviral medication for Ebola. As a result treatment consists of good hospital care such as providing fluids, maintaining adequate blood pressure, replacing blood loss and treating other infections that might have occurred. Ebola Virus "5 Things You Should Know about Ebola." Fox News. FOX News Network, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. Early signs: High fever Pharyngitis (sore throat) Maculopapular rash Bilateral conjunctival infection Later findings: Expressionless facies Bleeding from intravenous (IV) •Myocarditis and pulmonary edema Fact: Ninety percent of Ebola virus victims do not survive through the disease. Morphology and Physical Characteristics How is Ebola transmitted?
Transcript: Ebola Virus Forms There are five forms of Ebola virus known to us. They are Ebola-Zaire, Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Ivory Coast, Ebola-Reston, and Ebola-Bundibugyo (graphic aid). Ebola-Sudan is known for being very hot, or spreadable, with a lethality rate of 53% in 2001. (unreliable source/fact opinion) Ebola-Ivory Coast is also known as Tai Forest virus. It has a lower lethality rate and there has been only one known outbreak, in Tai Forest. Ebola-Reston is only found in nonhuman primates and occasionally pigs. It does not manifest symptoms in humans. Ebola-Zaire is one of the most commonly occuring forms of Ebola (table). Its overall lethality is 83% (Wikipedia). Ebola-Bundibugyo (THAT'S a fun word to say) is the newest form of Ebola, discovered in 2007 in Bundibugyo, Uganda (table). Its lethality rate is (predicted) about 34% (Wikipedia). Treatments At this time, there is no FDA-Approved treatment for Ebola virus (TSO). However, there was a study on how a near-lethal Ebola injection creates a response. after recombinant nematode anticoagulant protein c2 (rNAPc2) is injected. (Venn Diagram) (Before you ask, no, I am not entirely sure what recombinant nematode anticoagulant protein c2 is. Ask Peter Jahrling what it is.) Apparently rNAPc2 prolonged the macaques' survival. There was a 33% suvival rate, and those that did survive were still alive and healthy after 9 months. (magazine) With rNAPc2, perhaps there is hope for treating Ebola! Protection As of today, Ebola virus has no identifed source in nature. HOWEVER! Don't get panicky yet, because scientists do have hypotheses as to where it does come from. Contact with nonhuman primates, bats, or other Ebola virus risk factors is not to be encouraged. Ebola is native to Africa (skim and scan), so be careful handling any monkey (cause and effect) from any part of Africa. If you do decide to work with Ebola in the lab, be sure to wear protective suits and use Biosafety Level-4 containment. Do not handle Ebola if you do not have this level of training! If you have the misfortune to be in Africa during an outbreak, avoid the use of dirty needles. These will spread around the virus like NO TOMORROW. Not-so-fun Fact: The reason why African hospitals use dirty needles is because they do not have the money to get new ones (Treatment, Scope, Organization). Advise all medical staff to use barrier nursing, and discourage traditional burial embalmings or traditions involving the dead body. Whatever you do, do NOT. EVER. TOUCH. a dead Ebola body. Avoid direct skin-to-skin contact, or contact with bodily fluids. And above all, if you yourself become ill, please, don't touch anyone, breathe on anyone, puke on anyone, bleed on anyone, or resist medical treatments in any way. Symptoms Ebola is clinically indistinguishable from Marburg (cause and effect), another Filovirus, and several other hemorrhagic fevers. The incubation period, or time from infection until you begin showing symptoms, is about 12.7 days (skim and scan). Ebola begins like influenza, symptoms including fever, chills, muscle pain, joint pain, chest pain, and general discomfort. Nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia (not eating) follow. Breathlessness, sore throat, coughing, and hiccups also occur. The nervous system is also afflicted, with agitation, fatigue, headache, confusion, depression, seizures, and in some cases, coma. Ebola damages the brain and causes psychotic dementia (fact opinion). Despite having the name "hemorrhagic fever", those kinds of symptoms are infrequent, with most symptoms of this kind being bloody vomit, bloody coughing, black feces, nosebleed, vaginal bleeding, bleeding gums, bleeding from pores, and bleeding from ears. However, bleeding occurs more under the skin rather than out of it. Petechial symptoms include bruising, purpura (red or purple discolorations on skin), maculopapular rash (red area with raised bumps), and hematoma (a localized collection of blood outside blood cells). Some reasons why someone could die from Ebola would be organ failure, blood loss, or dehydration (they would lose water puking). Photo Gallery No, ladies and gentlemen, the fun did not stop there! Thanks for watching! an example of bleeding pores For those with weak stomachs: doctors treating an ebola patient I would advise looking away until I say you can look again. It's... slightly unnerving. Ebola virus magnified By Cordelia Wheatley, 7th Period Ebola microbe plushie!!! an Ebola virus warning sign in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Transcript: The Ebola Virus There are five known strains of the Ebola Virus. Each of them are named after the location they were discovered. All of these strains cause they same symptoms but not all of them are fatile. Most of the different strains of this virus is carried by Monkeys and is transmited through the touch of bodily fluids The first strain that was discovred was the Zaire strain. This is the most leathl strain of the Ebola virus. This strain has a 90% mortality rate when a victum comes down with this strain. The first out break of Ebola was discovered in 1976. The outbreak occured in the Zaire river vally so they named in the Zaire Ebola. This outbreak was one of the most deadly outbreaks of this virus. There have been other outbreaks of the Ebola Zaire strain. But none of these other outbreaks have been as deadly as the first because no one new what the virus was when it was first discorvered The incubation period for Ebola is usually five to eightteen day it could be anywhere from 2 days to 21 days. The first sign of this virus is a rapid on set fever, muscel pain, Malaise (discomfort), headach, and inflammation of the pharynx. After six days vomiting up blood is the next sign and individuals may develop maculopapular rash with bleeding at needle sites and bodily orifices. Bleeding through eyes, ears, and mouth is rare but it can happen and it is the last symptom that occurs before hypovolemic shock sets in. There is no known cure for Ebola as of right know. The End After the blood has started to ceep out of the body the victum enters hypovolemic shokck, (massive loss of blood from the body. That how this virus finally kills its victums. Ebola messes with your endothelial cells, the cells that line the interior of your blood vessels. This causes blood to seep out all of the orifices on your body.
Transcript: Symptoms fever, headaches, joint and muscle aches, sore throat, and weakness followed by diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain, and a red rash,red eyes,hiccups and internal and external bleeding. No standard treatment patients receive supportive therapy Balancing the patients fluids and electrolytes. maintaining their oxygen status & blood pressure. Treating them for only complicating infections. Ebola is an severe,disease that is caused by coming in contacted with the virus, and is often- fatal to humans and nonhuman primates. Treatment Definition Travel to Africa- you are at a greater risk of getting the Ebola virus. Ebola virus Risk Factors The incubation period for Ebola virus ranges from 2 to 21 days. Duration
Transcript: Scientific/Common Name: Ebola Virus Disease Body Affected Treatment Bibliography The disease is transmitted through the direct contact of blood, body fluids and tissues of infected persons. It can also be transmitted through contact of already dead people and animals This is a nasty virus Locations of Ebola Ebola was first found in Zaire (now the Democratic-Republic of the Congo) but it is mainly present in central Africa Symptoms: Fever, headache, sore throat, weakness, diarrhea, and vomiting http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/ebola/qa.htm http://www.who.int/csr/disease/ebola/en/ "Ebola" Dr. William T. Close 1995 Prevention: No cure, and no real treatment except for therapy groups that keep blood and fluid levels in check. Transmission: Ebola Virus Kole Musgrove There is also rashes, internal/external bleeding and red eyes No real methods of prevention except stay away from Ebola risk areas and wear protective clothing if in contact with a victim of Ebola
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