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E-waste Presentation

Transcript: Background What happens to the old one? Send it to a third world country. One man’s trash is another man’s problem DIOXINS Dose Response Assessment Risk management and communication E-Waste Thanks. eProps to you. conclusion The materials need to be refined and conditioned in order to be sold as secondary materials as well as being able to be properly disposed of in their final destination. Chloracne- skin lesions Hepatic toxicity- altered liver function Considerations Long term exposure EPA 0.006 pg/kg bw/day Population 150,000 and estimates ~ 80% of families engaged in the e-waste recycling program. NOAEL: 16 ng/kg; Identified safety factor: 3.2 Tolerable body burden: 16/3.2 = 5 ng/kg. Corresponding serum lipid level: Assume 25% body fat: 5/0.25 =20 ppt LOAEL – 1.3 pg/kg daily That’s 10 parts per trillion. Most people will not deal with dioxins from burning plastics. It is in food. Animal studies animal studies bamboo cell phones? Measure effects on: These are all types of dioxins, or dioxin-like compounds. Range of maternal body burdens associated with LOAELs in animal studies: 28-73 ng/kg. Identified safety factor: 10. Tolerable body burden range: 28/10 to 73/10 = 2.8 to 7.3 ng/kg Corresponding serum lipid level: Assume 25%body fat: 11-29 ppt range of tolerable serum levels Why send it away? Stakeholders Exposure Issues Sum of these allows estimation of TEQs Genetic damage to plant and animal life. Ingestion Air borne concentrations are high 65-2765 pg / cubic meter = 1.7 pg/kg/day Proper Recycling Hazard/Toxicity 3rd worlders the workers All ages. That includes children. unborn babies In tissue distribution and absorption Metabolism Elimination Half-lives adopted in 1995 outlawing the transfer of hazardous waste from developed countries to developing counties. Breast milk Faqi et al (1998) What’s the threat? Basel Ban Amendment Current problem 1 0.1 0.0001 0.1 0.0001 0.1 0.01 What are Dioxins? WHO JECFA: Tolerable body burden: NOAEL/safety factor. Legislative mandates Guiyu Air Hard to choose Manufacturer responsibility This is common for developing countries because they are inexpensive, however 25-75% of electronics are obsolete - Expensive and difficult to process - Laws in the US and worker safety - Carcinogenicity of the materials Unsafe practices This is where computers go to die These materials can leak out into soil, water, and the atmosphere - Soil, water are needed for crops - People need air. (fresh) = 3400 pg/kg bw x 0.693 _________________ 0.5 x 2740 days (7.5years) Incineration Dioxins – air particle concentrations: 65-2765 pg / cubic meter* remember, 65 pg/m^3. The removal of key components from e-waste materiasl that help to avoid dilution of contamination of toxic substances. A class of hundreds of chemical contaminants Open Burning Aluminum, plastics, PCBs, zinc, flame retardants in plastics. Safety factor: 90. Yields tolerable intake of 1.3 pg/kg/day. MRL set at 1 pg/kg/day. Serum lipid level associated with intake of 1 pg/kg/day is about 10 ppt, assuming 7.5 year half-life of elimination and 60 percent absorption. A group of North American qualified and certified recyclers pursuing the highest standard of environmental and social responsibility when it comes to recycling electronic products Individual dioxins are attributed their own Toxic Equivalence Factor (TEF) No Federal mandate to recycle e-waste. Many states have set up mandatory electronics recovery programs. Disposal – Treated as hazardous waste Also the gas emissions are filtered in this process to lower the environmental impact Bw – body weight Pg – Picogram = 10^-12 grams. A nanogram is 10^-9 They will be accountable for all recycling processes for all of the toxic materials Dust settling Have manufactures be responsible for the recycling of their specific products, this will lead them to make longer lasting and safe products Landfills signed in 1992 by 169 countries to regulate trade of international trade of hazardous waste. Uncertainty factor = 9.6 LOAEL = 33* ng/kg/bw Half-life in humans = 7.5 years *LOAEL determined from Faqi et al (1998) (European Commission Scientific Committee on Food) NOAEL body burden of 20 ng/kg; 3.2-fold safety factor. Tolerable body burden: 20/3.2 = 6.25 ng/kg Corresponding serum lipid level: Assume 25% body fat: 6.25/0.25=25 ppt tolerable serum lipid level How to calculate risk? Toxic metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium Choosing a human study Canada 10 pg/kg bw/day Problems? - Rapid technology change - Planned obsolescence Think apple computers. Good for 3-4 years, then kaput! Third world countries Lack of environmental laws Valuable metals in the electronics 2,3,7,8-TCDD 1,2,37,8-PeCDD OCDD 2,3,7,8-TCDF PCB 77 (3,4,3’,4’) PCB 126 (3,4,5,3’,5’) PCB 169 (3,4,5,3’,4’,5’) Shredding Dust is generated in the mechanical and manual dismantling process - Inhaled into the system When was the last time you bought a new computer, or a new cell phone? Thus a 9.6 = uncertainty factor Dose-added is

E waste presentation

Transcript: E-waste presentation E-Waste E-Waste E-Waste is the rejection and abandoning of Electronic devices and machines that are still able to be salvaged. Things such as phones, TVs and electronic toys make up most of this percentage. Recent discovery has said that only 12% of current e waste is being recycled and e waste sent to landfill equals about 70% of overall toxic waste. According to another survey in America, Americans dump phones containing $60 million dollars worth of gold per year. The subjects that will be discussed are effects on the environment, the waste of reusable minerals and metals. Issues of E-Waste Issues of E waste E-Waste has a lot of issues connected to it, but some of the biggest issues of E waste are its affects on the environment, the amount of people wasting and the amount of waste of reusable minerals and metals. E waste is a very harmful thing when it comes to the environment, and it can sometimes lead to death. Most electronics include zinc and copper which are hazardous to the environment and if it gets into the water stream and is ingested, it can affect the kidneys really badly. another effect is that since most e waste has gold and silver and other expensive minerals. if the amount of e waste per year is taken into account, there is a lot of gold being wasted. Why E Waste is an issue Why it should be dealt with E Waste is a really big issue for not only the environment, but for us humans too as there are many dangerous chemicals and materials in electronics, like led, mercury, glass and chromium, that can be harmful to our health. it is especially dangerous in third world countries were most e waste is thrown into a pile and burnt, sending poisonous fumes into the air and endangering the lives of the children and adults living there. Solutions for E-Waste. Solutions There are many different ways we can prevent E-Waste and its problems. Lots of people and companies have already started on decrease the amount of e waste being produced. An example of this would be companies like Telstra, which have set up electronic waste and broken electronics bins at most if there shops, which is supposedly sent to a recycling site. Another company has taken e waste and put it in a machine that separates all the different components of the electronic, and they use the plastic to make 3 d printed objects like limbs, and then extract the valuable materials like carbon fiber or gold and silver. This amazing machine was created b Prof. Veena Sahajwalla. The best Solution The best solution Though there are lots of great and convenient ideas for solving E-Waste, the best and most practical one would be Professor. Veena Sahajwalla's "Mini Factory" invention. This small machine separates the individual items by using a small but concentrated laser at the object, which creates a small explosions that has separated all the materials apart. the metals, glass, and the small coding boards. this invention turns the plastic into ammo for a 3D printer that prints things like prosthetic limbs.

E-Waste Presentation

Transcript: photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli This process makes the body equipped for fighting against the specific disease. This is because if the same organism enters the body, the immune cells will recognize it and will make an efficient resistance against it.The pros of vaccinations are: It can wipe out diseases and prevent them very well. Taking the measles vaccination makes you 35x less likely to contract the virus You only have to have the vaccinations once, although sometimes you have to have boosters that keep the level of the drug up in your body. Pros of antibiotics Unlike antibiotics that help the problem after it has arisen vaccinations are given in an injection form and are dead or damaged micro-organisms of the virus you are being treated for. vaccination prepares the body and improves the immunity to a particular disease. The micro-organism is usually killed by heat or chemicals. Vaccinations and antibiotics Cons of antibiotics Pros for vaccinations Antibiotics are taken orally, topically or injected. They are drugs that kill bacteria which is caused by microorganisms , in minor cases such as acne or in more serious cases like pneumonia (lung infection) Antibiotics are not as effective on viruses as they are not alive.Whereas living bacteria are living organisms that multiply daily. Antibiotics The pros of antibiotics are: You can take them at home Most people can take them, only 1 in 15 people have an allergic reaction The advantages of antibiotics include controlling diseases, easy of use, and low side effects. They are available from the NHS and are free for people under 18. They can save lives and are able to effectively kill bacteria within the body. The antibiotics work quite quickly. The pros of using antibiotics Some people have adverse reactions and can have mild side effects such as headaches , nausea and swelling and soreness around the injected area. Sometimes side effects of the virus you are trying to treat. Few people suffer from major side effects although there haven't been many studies or supporting information to link the two together. Cons for vaccinations Vaccinatons Side effects such as diarrhea they can kill the healthy bacteria in the body, leading to other infection within the body. Research

E-waste Presentation

Transcript: E-waste is a serious problem in developing countries like India, Ghana and china etc because of the toxic chemicals found in e-waste. The only reason countries like Ghana, India and China are affected by e-waste is all down to money. It costs 20 US dollars to recycle electronic devices in the US, but it costs just 2 US dollars in India to recycle E-waste in India! Why is e-waste a problem? E-Waste!!!!! But to retrieve these valuables safetly it cost lots of money and equipment which is not available in developing countries. So what is the solution Examples of E-waste in India E-Waste Everyday items like toasters and laptops have the potential to become e-waste.As most of them contain valuable elements like gold,copper and silver. In Mustafa Bad, a remote part of east Delhi, a narrow street is home to tiny workshops filled with hard workers. Inside, dozens of people, many of them children, spend tiring hours picking through the remains of old computers and mobile phones - hoping to find reusable parts to sell on for a tiny fee. According to the United Nations, 20-50 million tonnes of electronic waste - or e-waste - is produced every year. A large amount of it goes to recycling plants like this. E-Waste in China A massive e-waste landfill in Guiyu, in southern China's Guangdong province, is much more than a graveyard for old computers, says an investigative US writer based in Shanghai. E-waste is short for electronic waste. Electronic waste is discarded electronic devices that are no longer wanted, or needed by the consumer. no body knows,

E-Waste presentation

Transcript: E- Waste Types of E-Waste Types of E-Waste Major appliances - refrigerators, washing machines, dryers, etc. Small appliances - vacuum cleaners, irons, blenders, fryers, etc. Computer and telecommunication appliances - laptops, PC's, phones, etc. Consumer electronics - video/audio equipment, musical instruments, etc. Lighting devices - incandescent light bulbs, fluorescent tubes, lamps, etc. Electrical and electronic tools - drills, saws, gardening devices, etc. Vending machines What E-Waste includes E-Waste includes: - non ferrous and precious metals - alloys - glass - ceramics - organic polymers with toxic content - and other substances like stabilizers, fillers and pigments. Effects of E-Waste The Negative Effects on Air The Negative Effects on Air The air pollution caused by e-waste impacts some animal species more than others, which may be endangering these species and the biodiversity of certain regions that are chronically polluted. Over time, air pollution can hurt water quality, soil and plant species, creating irreversible damage in ecosystems. The Negative Effects on Soil When large particles are released from burning, shredding or dismantling e-waste, they quickly travel into the ground to the soil. The amount of soil polluted depends on a range of factors including temperature, soil type and soil composition. These can remain in the soil for a long period of time and can be harmful to the soil and plants. Animals and wildlife relying on nature for survival will end up consuming these affected plants, causing internal health problems. The Negative Effects on Soil The Negative Effects on Water After soil contamination, heavy metals from e-waste, such as mercury, lithium, lead and barium, then leak through the earth even further to reach groundwater. When these heavy metals reach groundwater, they eventually make their way into ponds, streams, rivers and lakes which creates toxic water. This is unsafe for animals, plants and communities even if they are far away from a site. The Negative Effects on Water The Negative Effects on Humans The Negative Effects on Humans Electronic waste contains toxic components that are dangerous to human health, such as mercury, lead and lithium. The negative health effects of these toxins on humans include brain, heart, liver and kidney damage. it can also effect the system of the body and how it functions. The growing of e-waste will only worsen if we are not conscious of the effect it causes on our environment. Facts about E-Waste - In 2009, discarded TVs, computers, peripherals (including printers, scanners, fax machines) mice, keyboards, and cell phones totaled about 2.37 million short tons. - E-waste represents 2% of America's trash in landfills, but it equals 70% of overall toxic waste. - 20 to 50 million metric tons of e-waste are disposed worldwide every year. - Cell phones and other electronic items contain high amounts of precious metals like gold or silver. - Only 12.5% of e-waste is currently recycled. Statistics surrounding E-Waste Images and examples showing the everlasting effects of E-Waste Images and examples of effects of E-Waste Countries that have implemented policies to minimize E-Waste? Governments, in countries such as Japan and the Netherlands, have implemented policies that focus on minimizing e-waste. Successful e-waste recycling systems in Japan and Finland pay special attention to small electronic wastes, which is especially relevant to consumers. Countries that have polices related to E-Waste Bibliography and websites https://www.dosomething.org/us/facts/11-facts-about-e-waste https://www.mariuspedersen.cz/en/about-marius-pedersen/services/58.shtml https://info.mayeralloys.com/ewaste-blog/5-shocking-environmental-effects-of-e-waste Bibliography

E Waste presentation

Transcript: By Bridie Savage Health impacts of Techno trash Health impact of Techno trash What Is E-Waste? What is E Waste? E Waste is discarded electronic waste: Computers- latops etc. Mobile Phones Televisions E-Waste dumping grounds E Waste plants In places like Africa, in these E-Waste dumping grounds, they burn the waste to try and salvage any gold, copper and other useful materials. However these dumping grounds are not only in Africa, places like these can also be found in China, Phillipines, India and many other countries. Chemicals in the smoke from the burning & the effects of each chemical Chemicals found in E-Waste Lead is found in a variety of cell phone compotents such as circuit boards, batteries and as a stabilizer in PVC (poly vynil chloride) products. Exposure to lead can cause problems in the reproduction, blood and nervous systems. Lead Lead Mercury is found in cell phone batteries, crystal displays and circuit boards. A single cell phone contains up to 2 grams of Mercury. Exposure to Mercury can contribute to brain and kidney damage. Mercury Mercury Arsenic is found in the microchips of many electronic devices including mobile phones. When exposed to high doses of Arsenic, it is lethal. Low levels of exposure cause negative impacts on skin, liver, nervous and respiratory systems. Arsenic Arsenic Cadmium is used in mobile phone batteries. It is associated with deficits in their ability to think, learning, behaviour and neuromotor skills in kids. Cadminum has also been linked to kidney damage. Cadmium Cadmium Chlorine is a component of plastics used in cell phones specifically in Polyvinyl Chloride. Plolyvinyl Chloride (PVC) makes up approximately 30% of a phone. Exposure to Chlorine when improperly disposed of causes tissue damage and distruction of the cell structure. Chlorine Chlorine Bromine is a component in a group of fire retardant chemicals (brominated flame retardants). It is associated with cognitive and developmental deficits. Research has shown that bromine contributes to the disruption in the thyroid hormone balance, brain damage and cancer. Bromine Bromine Health Impacts of the techno trash Diseases After the rubbish is incinerated (burned), the smoke emmited from the fire when inhaled can be extremely dangerous. Diseases linked to inhalation of the smoke Diseases linked to inhalation of E-Waste smoke Lung cancer, respritory diseases and lung inflamation kindney cancer and kidney diseases. people exposed to this smoke also suffer from headaches etc. Not only are the toxic chemicals in the e-waste lethal to humans, they are also extremely hazourdous for the Environment (obviously). These chemicals, emmited from the e-waste (when the e-waste is not properly disposed of) can be extremely distructive for the environment and it's natural habitats. Environmental Impacts Conclusion In conclusion, Techno trash (or E-waste) is very dangerous when chemicals become exposed (via incineration or being taken apart) and is dangerous for both humans and our environment. Techno trash when disposed of incorrectly can be extremely leathal and the inhalation of the chemicals from the techno trash can affect our brain (desicion making, neuromotor skills etc.), destruct our cells in our body, give us cancer (lung and kindey) and can lead to respritory diseases. Conclusion

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