Transcript: Producing Youth Citizens 3. Relationships between volunteers and the left-behind children 1. NGOs as a discursive formation 2. Youth volunteers: motivation/self-perception Doctoral Dissertation Research --- Shijing Zhang Three Questions Three Questions 3 Questions Contributions to Blue Letter Project Current and Future Roles of Chinese Grassroots NGOs
Transcript: Start with high spring stiffness After 10 consecutive steps without stepping off the beam, the level of assistance will decrease High, Medium, Low, None Image Retrieved From: http://www.paloalto.va.gov/sci_therapy.asp Subjects -2 Factors (main effects): 1. Age (Younger and Older) 2. Adaptive Assistance (With or Without) -Interaction effect Age*Assistance Other Measurements Sarahbelle Barreyro, Jillian Gerbracht, Heather Lyons, Supamas Tseng, Jeff Wood Doctor of Physical Therapy Program San Diego State University Materials Adaptive Assistance Walk heel to toe with hands placed over the abdomen If the subject falls off the beam, subject will wait 5 seconds before stepping on again 2.5 cm wide, small wooden blocks attached to form a beam Effects of Physical Assistance on Motor Learning of Beam Walking in Younger and Older Adults Day 1 Pre-training: 3 min without assistance Training Period: 30 min with or without assistance (depending on group) Post training: 3 min without assistance Day 2 Retention Test: 3 min without assistance Treadmill speed set at 0.22m/s Dribble goggles will be worn Instructed to walk on the beam for as long as possible without stepping off Procedures “Transforming society by optimizing movement to improve the human experience.” --APTA Vision Statement for the physical therapy profession http://www.apta.org/vision/ Analysis Experimental Measures Movement: “The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another….movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts.” 1. Optimal challenge point (Guadagnoli & Lee, 2004; Choi et al, 2008) 2. Age? (Coats 2013; Riva et al, 2013) 3. Task specificity (Kawato, 1999) Hypothesis - Young Background - Inability to Complete Proposed Task - Task Difficulty - Other characteristics that may affect performance - Performance vs Learning - Type I Error Procedures Treadmill-mounted balance beam (beam-mill) Procedures Hypothesis - Older Adults To examine the effects of adaptive assistance on motor learning of a challenging walking task in older and younger adults. 60 able bodied participants 4 groups of 15 subjects Force plates EMG electrodes Dribble goggles Orthopedic Shoes Lite Gait Spring Assist Device [Measure during the pre-test] - [Measure during the post-test] Timeline Learning: “Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.” Potential Pitfalls Procedures Internal Model What factors affect motor learning? Hypothesis -Interaction Two-Way ANOVA Errors per minute Center of Mass variability EMG co-contraction index Performance gain (Dependent Variable) --PubMed MeSH Database, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/68007858 and http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/68009068 Purpose Qualysis Track Manager **Somatosensory Testing** 1. COP Variability during SLS 2. Two-Point Discrimination T-Test for both to determine if older group has somatosensory deficits. Intrinsic Motivation Inventory Age Young Assist Young Unassist Older Assist Older Unassist
Transcript: Interactive whiteboard facilitiates assertions (85%) Interactive Whiteboard -Used the most @ 48% TTLs are not your average teachers - application process TTL learning community is a safe culture to take risks - logistics = 45% of the 42% of coded comments that were logistical/social/off-topic Is it common practice to have a logistics facilitator? Problems Identified Recommendations for Further Study What would I do the same? Not try to translate the Elluminate interactions - maybe look at interviewing teachers to get perceptions after a synchronous online discussion Pick teachers for the study population that are not associated with a large school district Summer time was not an ideal time to hold the sessions due to schedule challenges Logistical and social comments dominate the conversation Types of Critical and Integrative Thinking Channels of Communication Is 29% a normal or an unusally high or low percentage of evidence of critical and integrative thinking in a 90-minutes discussion - face2face, asynchronous, or synchronous? Limitations The communication channel of Audio yielded the most evidence of critical and integrative thinking Off-Topic/Social/Logistical: Sharing a comment that is not directly related to the current discussion Content Question: Making a request for information that is related to the content Reflect/Think Aloud: Sharing thoughts that are introspective in nature or indicate a spontaneous comment arising from the conversation Key Findings Case Studied - 29% of coded comments What would I do differently? 29% of coded comments showed evidence of critical and integrative thinking, with 33% of those displaying more than one type Coding Rubrics Where did I deviate from the plan? - collaborative lesson plan design - 79% of critical and integrative thinking comments occurred in audio channel 99% Inter-Rater Reliability RQ1: In a synchronous online conversation that is action orientated using a multi-channel interface (audio text, and interactive media), what sort of talk occurs in each channel, specifically, does each channel facilitate a different function of communication? Functions of Communcation 4% IM facilitates off-topic/social/logistical comments (53%) with majority being logistical (49%) Audio facilitates assertions (44%) and is critical if you want to build logical reasoning comments (95%) Instant Messaging Essential Role of Audio Audio Instant Messaging Interactive Whiteboard Participant Feedback Tools (clap, smile, thumb down, and polling feature) Impact of lesson plan design: 85% of the whiteboard coded comments were assertions - in two parts of the lesson plan participants were asked to add their thoughts to the whiteboard so that ideas could be grouped to form the basis for further discussion 25 instead of 30 TTLs 5 instead of 2 sessions Fine-tuned the wording on my critical thinking research question (#2) Took much longer than expected Definitions 29% of coded comments showed evidence of critical and integrative thinking 33% of those comments showed evidence of 2 or more types of critical and integrative thinking Research Questions Unexpected Findings RQ2: What proportion of a synchronous online conversation using audio, text, and interactive media is occupied by critical thinking? Participant feedback tools facilitate off-topic/social/logistical comments (77%) with majority being social in nature (57%) 95% of BLR were in Audio channel 87% Inter-Rater Reliability - IM was 48% of coded comments Did not address overcoming barriers to synchronous online and instead focused on impact once connected Did not address differences in online synchronous tools Did not address impact of lesson plan design 25 Technology Teacher Leaders (TTLs) employed by the Anchorage School District in Anchorage, Alaska Age range: 37-59+ 7-25 years teaching experience TTL Program: Total of 213 teachers 7 years (12-42 each year) Teams of 2-4 teachers/school Intentional CoP 1 year plus (Once a TTL ~ Always a TTL) 5 graduate credits PD + resources = impact student learning I really liked how the critical thinking provided context to the functions and channels I felt very supported throughout the process Audio Literature Review Highlights Participant Feedback Tools Reflections Both problems continue to be voids in the literature Significance of the Study Rubric uses evidence of linguistic markers found in communication RQ1: An instant message backchannel exists A logistics facilitator is needed Synchronous online communicaiton supports social learning constructs Functions of Communication: Assertion: Making a statement of belief or experiences Build Logical Reasoning: Identifying a series of steps or propositions that may be linked to models Endorsement: Agreeing with a statement made by someone else often providing an example from personal experience Instant messaging and audio are key channels of communication In order to analyze the qualitative importance of each communication channel, we need to RQ 1:
Transcript: The decline of geography in Bolton's primary schools and the role politics has in the decline. "64% of teaching was either satisfactory, unsatisfactory or poor, whilst only 36% was good. very good or excellent." (Catling et al, 2003) "in approximately one in ten primary schools visited , geography was more or less disappearing." (OFSTED, 2011) "More than 100 secondary schools do not enter a single pupil for a GCSE exam in the subject" (The Independent, 2011) "only some 50% of primary school teachers feel confident teaching geography." (Rawlinson, 2003) my observations are at risk of my bias "Both practical and classroom" "not seen as a main subject by other teachers." Observation Joseph McQuaid Qualitative St John's Q) Do you enjoy doing geography? A) "We don't really do geography." Study Area What are children's perceptions of geography in their schools? Do they enjoy it? Geography is still there, but only through the use of 'topics'. 'Topics' include geography, history, art and others !? "Closure of several University geography departments, the decline in number of geography students wishing to enter teaching and a diminishing of the subjects status in English schools" (Rawlinson, 2003) Thank You Geography is no longer seen as a main subject in the National Curriculum in Bede Burn Primary school (cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr teachers may not be totally honest Students feel like they do not study geography, and teachers feel they are teaching geography when teaching the topic (geography of the olympics). St Teresa's St John's the Evangelist St Columba's OFSTED, (2011), Geography declining in schools, NR2011-04, Manchester [OFSTED]. OFSTED, (2008), Geography in schools – changing practice, 070044, Manchester [OFSTED]. OFSTED, (2011), Report Summary, Geography, learning to make a world of difference, 090224, Manchester [OFSTED]. political side of the research government spending on education and OFSTED reports new curriculum? qualitative St Columba's Teacher's lessons are "not good enough in half of schools." (Telegraph, 2011) Adey, K., Biddulph, M., (2001) 'The Influence of Pupil Perceptions on Subject Choice at 14+ in Geography and History', Educational Studies, 27: 4, 439 — 450 BBC, (2011), Geography declining in many English schools – OFSTED [Online], available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-12359446 [27/02/2011]. Boyle, Bill and Bragg, Joanna(2006) 'A curriculum without foundation', British Educational Research Journal, 32: 4, 569 — 582 Butt, Graham , Weeden, Paul , Chubb, Steven and Srokosz, Anne(2006) 'The State of Geography Education in English Secondary Schools: An Insight into Practice and Performance in Assessment', International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, 15: 2, 134 — 148 Castree, N., Fuller, D., Lambert, D., (2007), ‘Geography without borders’, Boundary crossings, 31, 129 – 132. No specialism (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr limitations Indepth interviews Students not even sure what geography is!? Asking individual children at Bede Burn: Brainstorm research questions "I'm trying to bring geography into my class everyday." Quantitative & Qualitative (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr Observations Q) What do you learn in geography? A) "What, like places? We're doing about pharaohs in Egypt at the moment." References Geography and History taught together Taught as topic: Egypt, Olympics Not aware of geography lesson If Children don't realise they are doing Geography they will never develop a love for the subject. problem? Questions to pupils every teacher in each school = 6 teachers per school Conclusion Government are very irrational methodology Results Rawlinson, S., Essex-Cater, L., Bolden, D., and Constable, H., (2003) 'Have Geographers Lost Their Way? Issues relating to the recruitment of geographers into school teaching', Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 27: 1, 39 — 56 Rose, J., (2009), ‘Independent review of the Primary Curriculum: Final Report’. Stannard, K., (2003), ‘Earth to academia: on the need to reconnect university and school geography’, Area, 35.3, 316 – 322. The Telegraph, (2011), Geography lessons ‘not good enough in half of schools’ [Online], available: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/8301240/Geography-lessons-not-good-enough-in-half-of-schools.html [27/02/2011]. The Telegraph, (2011), without geography, the world would be a mystery to us [online], available: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/8301966/Without-geography-the-world-would-be-a-mystery-to-us.html [27/02/2011]. literature review St Teresa's Primary Geography? So far ... Is the decline of geography significant in primary schools today? Q) Top 5 subjects? A) "Literacy, Science, PE, Art, Maths." Rachael Locker's bum stinks (cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr Ask students how they feel about geography in their schools using sticky notes to involve students words or pictures Geography graduate teacher Interview with geography graduate teacher, St
Transcript: 99.3 per cent of UK businesses are made up of fewer than 50 employees each. Aims Identify long-term threats Establish if SMEs' are at a greater risk than larger organisations Identify the true cost of cybercrime for SMEs' Objectives Assess quantitative data from existing studies Compare findings of SMEs' and larger organisations Assess theories and assumptions from existing literature Provide an argument as to why existing research is flawed or of limited us Conduct Primary research within a select few SMEs' Pull together direct costs with other costs that are more difficult to measure Assumptions for SME’s are at a greater risk to cybercrime than larger business. SME’s are at a greater risk due to a lack of resources SME’s are at a greater risk due to a lack of knowledge SME’s are at a greater risk due to a lack of concern Assumptions against Larger organisations are at a greater risk to cybercrime More staff therfore more internal threats Reasons for differences different methodologies different countries research methods are flawed Themes managerial style correlation risk assessment consumer confidence Conclusions Qualitative data must be gathered Different research approach Customers must also be surveyed Suvery SMEs' Large sample will be required Identify respondents knowledge make comparisons between knowledge and incidents Survey Customers Large sample required Identify their knowdge of cybercrime threats assess if those with more knowledge act differently Conclusions Users that are less knowledgeable are less cautious all existing research is limited new method of survey must be produced Assumptions Research Aims and Objectives Key Findings Cybercrime: the threats posed to SME's Existing Literature Why are SMEs' important? Existing Research Do you only use wll-known sites? How familiar are you with Phisinhg? What is an SME?
Transcript: Lit. Review part duo No Research has been done about the problem Some research has been done about the problem There is an abundance of related litrature An abundance of research has been done Anyone intending to do research involving people should: The Content This section of the proposal must contain a set of questions to be answered. They must be more specific than the general problem statement. Think of this as a "filter" or "lens" you see data through. AKA the theoretical orientation, framework or simply the Backing An Overview and Background This helps build an argument for solving the problem "This study will examine..." Your problem is good to go for research! By Pierre Arellano How to know when it’s ok to research your problem It is important to consult the research in your field to see what has already been done. 2) Thoroughly understand the implications of ethical concepts such as risk, no intent to harm, informed consent, and the right to withdraw The Problem Ethics "I want to explore..." Personal Milestone! Should be specific and concrete 3) Adhere to the formal ethical protocols of the university 1) Don't be naive concerning issues of power and privilege Sigh of Relief! Not much to say really, just give a brief overview of what you are going to cover. Accomplishment! Many of proposals conclude with a plan showing estimated timelines Really Important Tell the reader how the problem will be approached in a detail. It is critical to a proposal to narrow down the problem and come up with specific questions. The quality that your research will be judged "The problem this study will address is..." (If you have the chance, pick something you want to research) The introduction should lead into your problem. Introduction Conclusion In your proposal you should have: 1) Justification for why the problem you have constructed is worth researching. 2) Justification for why the methods you chose are appropriate to the questions the problem generates 3) Must show why the information that your research will generate is needed. 4) Most important, act ethically Theoretical Perspective It’s not so much about finding the problem so much as constructing and developing it over time. The first step of the doctoral journey Justification- why are you researching this problem This is important in a proposal because it is another way a researcher makes his or her findings intelligible to an academic audience and open to scrutiny. Questions Doctoral Dissertation Proposal (If this is the case it's ok, maybe you can see the problem with a different "lens") Method Important: make sure to address the problem as clearly as possible. Information from "The Qualitative Doctoral Dissertation" by Brent Kilbourn This is important when it comes to interpreting the data in a qualitative study. What should a proposal include? You want to tell the reader what the problem is right away. Literature Review Don't It does not have to be complete but it has to be complete enough to convince a potential committee member or supervisor that the researcher has done his or her homework and that the problem is worth researching and hasn't been addressed. Plan and Timelines Doctoral Dissertation Proposal Do Introduction Problem Theoretical Perspective Questions Literature Review Methods Ethics Plan and Timelines
Transcript: Presenting: Amir A. Kadir Supervised by : Prof. Y. Zeiri Exhaled Breath Analysis as a Medical Diagnostic Tool Many of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted from the human body. Major sources of VOCs include: Breath Sweat Urine Feces Vaginal secretions VOCs emitted from different areas of the human body vary with: Age Diet Sex Genetic background Physiological status Pathological processes, such as infection and endogenous metabolic disorders, can influence our daily odour fingerprints by producing new VOCs or by changing the ratio of VOCs that are produced normally. Such Metabolic processes on the respiratory tissue are expected to be accompanied by Dissolution Production Release of new VOCs, some of which might be detected in the exhaled breath. Several Physical systems can be invovlved in trauma pathphysiology. Elevated Oxidative stress considered as inflammatory mediator in the development of trauma. The effect of oxidative stress on target molecules in the respiratory system, especially in lung tissue, was found to cause DNA oxidative damage of the alveolar epithelial cells It is believe that stress in life changes your DNA, which makes it more difficult to produce proteins that nurture the brain Data received from GC as retention time and peak area. Avoiding non-linear shifting of similar peaks in different samples we used Matlab software. Removing background and blank peaks from the target data. Clustering samples was assessed using principal component analysis (PCA) AIMS Another focous in this proposed study is to test the changes associating with rats trauma model on the composition of VOCs in exhaled breath. Data Pre-Processing & Analysis Example of patient's GC 1. Finishing analysing rest of the patients' samples. 2. If clustering is achieved for bacterias and viruses, will try further sub-analysis 3. GC-MS will be used to identify distinction VOCs 4. Further search for bio-markers in rats' urine and feces to assess Trauma. 5. Further pathological impairments will be assessed in the future such as Epilepsy and Alzheimer's. 1) Creating data base of bacterial and viral cultures VOCs Cells undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis) as an initial response to infections by viruses. The cellular response against viral infection includes production of inflammatory and anti-viral cytokines, as well as the induction of apoptosis. Rt. of suspected peaks Testing exhaled breath composition of rats before and after exposure to a process that could lead to trauma and attempt to find typical bio-markers that can indicate disease and trauma. Department of BioMedicine Ben Gurion Uni. of The Negev Pathogen Sampling 3) Trying to understand what biochemical processes stands behind production of the VOCs found specific to bacterial or viral infection. VOCs Associated with Trauma Major part of the study referes to detection and identification of infection biomarkers in exhaled breath. Viral Infections in collaboration with Prof. Hagit Cohen in collaboration with Prof. David Liberman 2. Developing a new novel tool for diagnosing Trauma. We built a system of two parts; 1st - collects patient's breath, patient breath into a mask for 20 minutes. 2nd- parallel part, collects room's air Both parts are connected to a pump to pump the sampled breath/room air, to a dry ice trap, where the sample vail is placed. Underlying Mechanisms Bacterial Infections 1. Assessing wether exhaled breath VOCs Analysis may provide a new novel tool for distinguishing between bacterial and viral infection in the respiratory system. Pathogenesis Sample Collection Resperatory System Diseases Hypothesis Patients System Rats System 1. The ability to invade tissues: Invasiveness, which encompasses mechanisms for colonization , ability to bypass or overcome host defense mechanisms, and the production of extracellular substances which facilitate invasion. 2. The ability to produce toxins: Toxigenesis. Bacteria produce two types of toxins called exotoxins and endotoxins. Analysis method Gas Chromatography Introduction 2) After classification of the subjects, results will be compared with clinical and laboratory results. Tools & Methods We built a Novel system for collecting rats' breath. Rat's breath togather with the air supplied to the cell, are collected into a sample vail placed in a dry ice trap. Patients Data Analysis After PCA FUTURE WORK one side of the vacutainer goes into the culture sample, the other side in a vail after being vacumed Example of Rats GC
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