Transcript: Where we thought before we said a word Human Decision Making Ex. You guys go away. My computer broke, it was acting fine before you two showed up. To the end Ex. That girl just had an abortion, I can't believe she just murdered a human being. Ex. Using the restroom when you need to go! Ex. Making a new meal and what items you think will make it taste best. Basic Four Test Argument Worthiness Truthfulness: If the statement is true By: Kandice Snarr and Elizabeth Harrison Communications 1310 section 2 Matt Barton November 29, 2012 False Cause System 1: Nature System 2: Self-Monitoring Appeals to Emotion Ex. You are worthless, you can't do anything right. Ex. Relevance: If it is even goes along with what you are talking about Logical Strength: If the reason is true, then the conclusion is most likely true Ad Hominem Attacks From the Beginning Fallacies Video Fallacies Non-Circulatory: If the argument doesn't keep going around in circles. Snap Judgments When we spoke before we thought
Transcript: Critical Thinking The Problem Solving Process The Assignment You will be given an aspect about college life and a side of the issue to argue. With your group, you will come up with a short presentation supporting your stance (5 minutes). Once your group and the opposing group have given your presentation, you will be asked questions challenging your side of the argument. BE PREPARED. After all presentations have been made, the class will determine which side of the argument wins the argument. The groups that win will receive extra credit. You will also need to submit a one page paper discussing the view you are asked to support. In this paper, discuss whether or not you agree with this position. 5) Solve the problem and evaluate the results 4) Evaluate and analyze all possible solutions 3) Research and develop a varitey of solutions 2) Find the root 1) Identify the symptoms
Transcript: The better the quality of question, the more the brain is challenged to think. yes and no answers In depth questions activate more of the brain. What is it called when things keep falling back towards the earth? What would life be like on earth without gravity and could we survive? When we reframe and restate concepts into questions, we encourage a free flow of creativity and critical thinking. Predetermined questions and answers can limit risk taking, critical thinking, and higher level problem solving. We also get alot of valuable information when we listen and analyze wrong answers to questions. If we are only listening for the expected answer, we may miss other possibilities or interpretations. Alternatives to traditional question asking: Let students generate the questions to be asked. Students ask each other questions. Students are asked to link ideas to other subjects. Link questions to personal feelings Question Activity From a brain-based perspective, the most effective way to teach thinking skills is to incorporate real-world problems under authentic (or simulatied) conditions. Every brain is unique 1. Students with learning delays more time, explicit instruction, more class support 2. There are gender differences. Bad Stress- Little or no Motivation Our Mind, Body, and Feelings are all involved in the thinking process...there is no seperation. Our genes influence alertness, memory, and sensory acuity, and all significant intelligence factors Cognitive Enrichment Possibilites are nurtured or neglected by the decisions we make each day. Primary Factors That Influence Thinking and Cognition Promoting Thinking The best way to strengthen learner motivation is to provide meaningfulness, learner choices and emotional support while affirming the individual. Ideal Learning Environment: Equal amount of challenge and stess with empowerment and support. Effort was made to expand the cities infrastructure The Maturing Brain food choices people physical exercise mental exercise sleep Questions Overcroweded Conditions and stress Problem Solving What is Critical Thinking? Is Critical thinking a natural occurance or something that must be learned? In today's world, why is it valuable for students use critical thinking? What primary factors influence our thinking? 4. Will /Motivation 5. Lifestyle Choices If our needs are met there is a deep sense of success. If our needs are not met there is a deep sense of failure. These sucesses and failures become programmed in our brains. As we grow up we see ourselves as powerful problem solvers or powerless. Skills that should be emphasized: Self managing focus and attention Having the ability to locate and prioritize resources. Making distinctions in relevance, similarities, order and differences. Being able and willing to ask for help (social confidence). Reading and summarizing content. Being able to speak, draw, or build non-linguistic representaitons. Setting goals and using feedback Having self -awareness of persnal nutrition and health Generating and testing hypotheses. Developing working memory capacity. Being able to organize or map out ideas and information. Showing persistence and follow through in the face of adversity. New York inundated with immigrants Critical Thinking The Brain is designed to solve problems. 1. Healthy brains are born with the capacity to learn critical thinking skills, but they are not automatic. 2. Thinking skills must be taught 3. Critical thinking skills take time to learn. When the environment is conductive to learning, positive motivation naturallly follows. Critical Thinking: Using higher order thinking skills such as application, analyzing, evaluating and synthesising or creating to solve problems. 2. Genes Stress/success/empowerment loop propells New York to one of the world's largest cities Learners are more likely to integrate new learning and implement changes when direct teaching is followed by discussion. By discussing what has been learned the participants make the learning their own. Brain based learning advocates: 1. Direct teaching 2. Discussion time 3. A reflection exercise 4. Confirmation of the learning. Thinking is the process...intellegence in the product. The Problem Solving Brain The Thinking Process: the brain accesses prior representations (pictures, words, internal movie clips, symbols, mental models, procedural knowledge, experiences, feelings, touch sounds, or scenes) for understanding or creates a new model if one does not exist. Workers gained skills Environmental factors can influence brain maturation. 1. Expect a wide range of student performance. 2. The frontal lobe is responsible for planning, judgement, decision making, working memory and other critical thinking skills. 3. The arts, visual thinking, experiements and constructing can all help develop the frontal lobe The Adaptive Brain 1. It is the quality of interaction with the environment that sculpts the thinking learner's brain. 2. The brain needs
Transcript: Does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. Massive losses of brain tissue early in life may have minimal long-term effects Within days, newborns can recognize their mother's odor and voice Critical Thinkers Ask Questions By: Abby Markus-Longland Psychology's critical inquiry has been open to surprising findings. What is Critical Thinking? Critical Thinking AP Psychology Unit 2 How do they know that? What is this person's agenda? Is the conclusion based on anecdote and gut feelings, or on evidence? Does the evidence justify a cause-effect conclusion? What alternative explanations are possible? Critical inquiry has convincingly debunked popular presumptions. Sleepwalkers are not acting out their dreams Opposites do not generally attract
Transcript: Introduction To Critical Thinking. Key Terms Assumptions. Claims Examples Reasons. Counter assertions Consistency. Validity. Supposition. Conclusions. Evidence supports reasons with data, examples or statements There are problems with data evidence, one needs to look at it, not only from the view of the writer as the same piece of data can be interpreted many different ways, especially if the writer has a vested interest and so presents the data with a certain "spin" to highlight some aspect of it and therefore work to their gain. Counter arguments Argument Indicators. Beliefs. Fallacy. Argument Contradictions. Credibility Corroboration. Reputation. Ability to observe Vested interest. Expertise Neutrality. This refers to the setting of the evidence, for example, did the eyewitness have direct view or were they impeded and therefore is the evidence as credible? Bias Selectivity. Sources. Evaluating an argument Identify a conclusion Find the reasons to accompany that conclusion Are the reasons relevant to the conclusion? Is there anymore evidence that could be useful to the conclusion? Is there any evidence to support the reasons? Is this evidence credible? Make a difference? Who funded the research? Staements that are made without supporting reasons. Error in reasoning. Assessing things used to illustrate a principle Vested interest can lead to bias in evidence, the evidence given tilting towards one side of the argument without much regard to the other, biased evidence lowers it's credibility against others. Supporting statements for a conclusion aim to persuade the reader to accept it A personal conviction, may be true or false. The relationship between reasons and the conclusion A belief presented with reasons for accepting it, when lots are presented, take the last to be the main conclusion and the prior, intermediate Non committal statements, e.g. "suppose.."; not tying down the speaker to a view Sample size does the witness have a good ability to observe? Eye witness evidence or hearsay? These both affect the credibility, eyewitness accounts generally being seen as more credible than hearsay accounts. If two or more claims can be true at the same time then they are consistent, if not, not. Is it reputable? a belief that is taken for granted or a claim without a reason Claims with reasons, a claim on its own is not an argument as it might just as well be a statement of opinion or fact, it is not trying to get anyone to beleive anything Do the pieces of evidence corroborate? or do they contradict? Even worse is there no corroborative evidence but counter arguments? These all affect credibility a reason that would support an opponents argument, not a fully fledged counter argument in its own right The source of the information also affects it's credibility, for example, it can be primary (eyewitness) or secondary (heresay) or maybe it comes from a source which is altogether unreliable or with a known vested interest, this needs to be taken into consideration when assessing credibility of evidence. Does the party gain anything from the outcome of the decision? Will this affect the impartiality of evidence given? Does the party have a motive for the decision to swing to one side? An impartial witness would have no motive to lie If the person has a certain aptitude for the field in question; is an expert, his or her views are more credible if his expertise is relevant to the evidence. This also applies in regards to experience Arguments put forward against the main conclusion Context. Evidence is selected for everything, its impossible to know and put down everything, however, sometimes evidence is selected purposefully to show one side of the argument and not the other, this can be a form of bias brought upon by a vested interest and lowers credibility of the statement Does the witness have a certain reputation? For impartiality? Lies? Their reputation will affect credibility of evidence given. Where a claim is said to be true and false. Words used to show reasons supporting conclusions. Was the sample representative of the population?
Transcript: Nobody knows babies like we do! Quality products . Good Customer service. Every Kid really loves this store.. BABYLOU ABOUT US About Us BabyLou was established in 2004. It has been more than a decade since we started, where we have ensured to take care of every need and want of every child and infant under one roof, true to the caption “NO BODY KNOWS BABIES LIKE WE DO”. Our benchmark is to provide 100% customer service and satisfaction and continue to deliver the same with a wide range of toys, garments and Baby Products. Play and Create We Are Best 01 02 03 Block games Building Blocks help Kids to use their brain. PLAY TO LEARN in Crusing Adventures Our Discoveries Enjoy a sunny vacation aboard a luxury yacht with the LEGO® Creator 3in1 31083 Cruising Adventures set. This ship has all the comforts you need, including a well-equipped cabin and a toilet. Sail away to a sunny bay and take the cool water scooter to the beach. Build a sandcastle, enjoy a picnic, go surfing or check out the cute sea creatures before you head back to the yacht for a spot of fishing. Escape into the mountains Disney Little Princes in Also available for your Babies..... Also... Out of The World… Our reponsibility BABYLOU…. Our Responsibility All children have the right to fun, creative and engaging play experiences. Play is essential because when children play, they learn. As a provider of play experiences, we must ensure that our behaviour and actions are responsible towards all children and towards our stakeholders, society and the environment. We are committed to continue earning the trust our stakeholders place in us, and we are always inspired by children to be the best we can be. Innovate for children We aim to inspire children through our unique playful learning experiences and to play an active role in making a global difference on product safety while being dedicated promoters of responsibility towards children.
Transcript: By Stephen Smith 000601471 Kanchana Hewage 000643311 Jake Rushe 000614068 Jasmine Abbey 000613596 How many people must be there if all but two are named Tanvir, all but two are called Jermaine, and all but two are called Lisa? Fallacies of Relevance Use of language Definitions adapted from Free dictionary, 2012 Critical thinking is rational, skilful appropriate thinking Four elements of critical thinking: statements, arguments, premises and conclusion 7 Standards of critical thinking include clarity accuracy, precision, relevance and fairness Barriers to critical thinking: human limitations, language use, inadequate logic psychological and sociological flaws Fallacy is a an argument which contains a mistake in reasoning Popular/ common fallacies: personal attack loaded question, bandwagon, appeal to pity, flattery, celebrity etc. Blooms Taxonomy Speed of creativity, 2010 FunTrivia (n.d.) Can you spot the fallacy? [Online] Available at: http://www.funtrivia.com/submitquiz.cfm?quiz=281476 (Accessed 14 March 2012) Mandm (2011), Fallacy Fridays available at: http://www.mandm.org.nz/2011/01/fallacy-fridays.html (accessed 13/03/2012) Mmcelhaney (2011) ad Misericodiam: appeal to pity- Apologetics 315 available at: http://mmcelhaney.blogspot.com/2011/04/fallacy-friday-ad-misericordiam-appeal.html (accessed 13/03/2012) Puzzles4you (n.d.) Critical Thinking Puzzles. [Online] Available at: http://puzzles4you.blogspot.com/ (Accessed 14 March 2012) Sen, Madhucchanda, 2010, An Introduction To Critical Thinking, India, Pearson Education Publisher Dorling Kindersley . Pp. 2- 14 Speed of Creativity , 2012, critical thinking, http://www.speedofcreativity.org/2010/07/05/critical-thinking-is-more-important-than-ever-amidst-internet-based-denier-propaganda/, accessed: 05/03/2012 Taylor, S. (2011) The Education Fallacy available at: http://lilt.ilstu.edu/staylor/course_related/education_fallacy.htm (accessed 13/03/2012) 1vigor, 2012, Core critical thinking skills, 1vigor, http://www.1vigor.com/brain-power/Clear-Thinking/index.html, accessed 03/03/2012 According to ‘The thinker's guide to intellectual standards’ , Intellectual standards are: “The standards necessary for making sound judgements or for reasoning well, for forming knowledge (as against unsound beliefs), for intelligent understanding, for thinking rationally and logically.” Elder, L and Richard P, 2008 Definition Presenting an argument that may in itself be valid, but does not address the issue in question FAllACY PUZZLE 2 Basic human limitations Critical thinking characteristics References Maria has been working at her current job for more than 30 years at the same wage. She desperately wants a raise so she approaches her boss to ask for one. She says, "You are one of the kindest people I know. You are smart and good-looking and I really love your shoes." What type of fallacy is this? Analytical Hierarchy Process “In order to reach a decision we must create a list of prioritized options” Saaty, T (2008) When we were deciding who should work on each part of the presentation one of our group members made a list of what must be included and then ensured each person had a fair share of the work. The priority was with the theory but closely followed by participation from the class so the interactive games were also an important part of the presentation. Critical thinking is: Non Linear Multifaceted Has more than one solution Entails subtle interpretation and evaluation Has multiple criteria Contains elements of uncertainty Reflects self regulation Demands effort!!! (Craver, Kathleen W. 1999) Brainstorming “Brainstorming within a group is a powerful method of finding ideas. It brings together the team and gives them motivation.” Chapman, A (2009) When we were choosing the name for our game-show we sat and discussed the possible names by saying them out-loud as they ideas came to us, then listed the best options , then we informally voted for what we thought was the catchiest. Elder, L and Richard P, 2008 Barriers of Critical thinking According to Linda Elder and Richard Paul From the Foundation for critical thinking, the standards for critical thinking are as follows CLARITY ACCURACY PRECISION RELEVANCE DEPTH BREADTH LOGIC FAIRNESS FAllACY PUZZLE - PUZZLE 5 Fallacies of Relevance (contd.) Answers in Genesis (2009), Logical Fallacies: The Fallacy of Reification available at: http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/2009/08/03/logical-fallacies-reification (accessed 13/03/2012) Christian Logic (2011), The Fallacy detective available at: http://www.christianlogic.com/products/item/the-fallacy-detective/ (accessed 13/03/2012) Collins English Dictionary (2010), Collins Publications London 75Th Edition Craver, Kathleen W. 1999, Using Internet primary sources to teach critical thinking skills in history, United States, Greenwood Publishing Group, pp. 2-3. DiSpezio, M (1996) Critical Thinking Puzzles. [e-book] New York: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. Available through:
Transcript: Critical thinking is very important, and you must learn how to use it Without being Creepy.............. There are 5 main points First Logic This is making sure it all fits together The second is fairness This means sharing your infor mation and considering other's views. The third is accuracy This is shareing your ideas with others, and considering their points of view The forth is relevance This is staying on topic The last is clarity You need to be understandable, and not cryptic. I hope you now have an idea of what critical thinking is. Critical! Critical Thinking Then fairness
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