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Critical Thinking

Transcript: The better the quality of question, the more the brain is challenged to think. yes and no answers In depth questions activate more of the brain. What is it called when things keep falling back towards the earth? What would life be like on earth without gravity and could we survive? When we reframe and restate concepts into questions, we encourage a free flow of creativity and critical thinking. Predetermined questions and answers can limit risk taking, critical thinking, and higher level problem solving. We also get alot of valuable information when we listen and analyze wrong answers to questions. If we are only listening for the expected answer, we may miss other possibilities or interpretations. Alternatives to traditional question asking: Let students generate the questions to be asked. Students ask each other questions. Students are asked to link ideas to other subjects. Link questions to personal feelings Question Activity From a brain-based perspective, the most effective way to teach thinking skills is to incorporate real-world problems under authentic (or simulatied) conditions. Every brain is unique 1. Students with learning delays more time, explicit instruction, more class support 2. There are gender differences. Bad Stress- Little or no Motivation Our Mind, Body, and Feelings are all involved in the thinking process...there is no seperation. Our genes influence alertness, memory, and sensory acuity, and all significant intelligence factors Cognitive Enrichment Possibilites are nurtured or neglected by the decisions we make each day. Primary Factors That Influence Thinking and Cognition Promoting Thinking The best way to strengthen learner motivation is to provide meaningfulness, learner choices and emotional support while affirming the individual. Ideal Learning Environment: Equal amount of challenge and stess with empowerment and support. Effort was made to expand the cities infrastructure The Maturing Brain food choices people physical exercise mental exercise sleep Questions Overcroweded Conditions and stress Problem Solving What is Critical Thinking? Is Critical thinking a natural occurance or something that must be learned? In today's world, why is it valuable for students use critical thinking? What primary factors influence our thinking? 4. Will /Motivation 5. Lifestyle Choices If our needs are met there is a deep sense of success. If our needs are not met there is a deep sense of failure. These sucesses and failures become programmed in our brains. As we grow up we see ourselves as powerful problem solvers or powerless. Skills that should be emphasized: Self managing focus and attention Having the ability to locate and prioritize resources. Making distinctions in relevance, similarities, order and differences. Being able and willing to ask for help (social confidence). Reading and summarizing content. Being able to speak, draw, or build non-linguistic representaitons. Setting goals and using feedback Having self -awareness of persnal nutrition and health Generating and testing hypotheses. Developing working memory capacity. Being able to organize or map out ideas and information. Showing persistence and follow through in the face of adversity. New York inundated with immigrants Critical Thinking The Brain is designed to solve problems. 1. Healthy brains are born with the capacity to learn critical thinking skills, but they are not automatic. 2. Thinking skills must be taught 3. Critical thinking skills take time to learn. When the environment is conductive to learning, positive motivation naturallly follows. Critical Thinking: Using higher order thinking skills such as application, analyzing, evaluating and synthesising or creating to solve problems. 2. Genes Stress/success/empowerment loop propells New York to one of the world's largest cities Learners are more likely to integrate new learning and implement changes when direct teaching is followed by discussion. By discussing what has been learned the participants make the learning their own. Brain based learning advocates: 1. Direct teaching 2. Discussion time 3. A reflection exercise 4. Confirmation of the learning. Thinking is the process...intellegence in the product. The Problem Solving Brain The Thinking Process: the brain accesses prior representations (pictures, words, internal movie clips, symbols, mental models, procedural knowledge, experiences, feelings, touch sounds, or scenes) for understanding or creates a new model if one does not exist. Workers gained skills Environmental factors can influence brain maturation. 1. Expect a wide range of student performance. 2. The frontal lobe is responsible for planning, judgement, decision making, working memory and other critical thinking skills. 3. The arts, visual thinking, experiements and constructing can all help develop the frontal lobe The Adaptive Brain 1. It is the quality of interaction with the environment that sculpts the thinking learner's brain. 2. The brain needs

Critical thinking

Transcript: Introduction To Critical Thinking. Key Terms Assumptions. Claims Examples Reasons. Counter assertions Consistency. Validity. Supposition. Conclusions. Evidence supports reasons with data, examples or statements There are problems with data evidence, one needs to look at it, not only from the view of the writer as the same piece of data can be interpreted many different ways, especially if the writer has a vested interest and so presents the data with a certain "spin" to highlight some aspect of it and therefore work to their gain. Counter arguments Argument Indicators. Beliefs. Fallacy. Argument Contradictions. Credibility Corroboration. Reputation. Ability to observe Vested interest. Expertise Neutrality. This refers to the setting of the evidence, for example, did the eyewitness have direct view or were they impeded and therefore is the evidence as credible? Bias Selectivity. Sources. Evaluating an argument Identify a conclusion Find the reasons to accompany that conclusion Are the reasons relevant to the conclusion? Is there anymore evidence that could be useful to the conclusion? Is there any evidence to support the reasons? Is this evidence credible? Make a difference? Who funded the research? Staements that are made without supporting reasons. Error in reasoning. Assessing things used to illustrate a principle Vested interest can lead to bias in evidence, the evidence given tilting towards one side of the argument without much regard to the other, biased evidence lowers it's credibility against others. Supporting statements for a conclusion aim to persuade the reader to accept it A personal conviction, may be true or false. The relationship between reasons and the conclusion A belief presented with reasons for accepting it, when lots are presented, take the last to be the main conclusion and the prior, intermediate Non committal statements, e.g. "suppose.."; not tying down the speaker to a view Sample size does the witness have a good ability to observe? Eye witness evidence or hearsay? These both affect the credibility, eyewitness accounts generally being seen as more credible than hearsay accounts. If two or more claims can be true at the same time then they are consistent, if not, not. Is it reputable? a belief that is taken for granted or a claim without a reason Claims with reasons, a claim on its own is not an argument as it might just as well be a statement of opinion or fact, it is not trying to get anyone to beleive anything Do the pieces of evidence corroborate? or do they contradict? Even worse is there no corroborative evidence but counter arguments? These all affect credibility a reason that would support an opponents argument, not a fully fledged counter argument in its own right The source of the information also affects it's credibility, for example, it can be primary (eyewitness) or secondary (heresay) or maybe it comes from a source which is altogether unreliable or with a known vested interest, this needs to be taken into consideration when assessing credibility of evidence. Does the party gain anything from the outcome of the decision? Will this affect the impartiality of evidence given? Does the party have a motive for the decision to swing to one side? An impartial witness would have no motive to lie If the person has a certain aptitude for the field in question; is an expert, his or her views are more credible if his expertise is relevant to the evidence. This also applies in regards to experience Arguments put forward against the main conclusion Context. Evidence is selected for everything, its impossible to know and put down everything, however, sometimes evidence is selected purposefully to show one side of the argument and not the other, this can be a form of bias brought upon by a vested interest and lowers credibility of the statement Does the witness have a certain reputation? For impartiality? Lies? Their reputation will affect credibility of evidence given. Where a claim is said to be true and false. Words used to show reasons supporting conclusions. Was the sample representative of the population?

Critical Thinking

Transcript: Critical Thinking Skills: 1. Interpretation 2. Analysis 3. Evaluation 4. Inference 5. Explanation 6. Self-regulation Why Bother? Critical Thinking 4. Inference means “to identify and secure elements needed to draw reasonable conclusions; to form conjectures and hypotheses; to consider relevant information and to educe the consequences flowing from data, statements, principles, evidence, judgments, beliefs, opinions, concepts, descriptions, questions, or other forms of representation.” The man was defeated and ashamed. This is the reason Socrates was a great philosopher and held in such high esteem. "Well," concluded Socrates, "if what you want to tell me is neither True nor Good nor even Useful, why tell it to me at all?" 5. Explanation as being able to present in a cogent and coherent way the results of one’s reasoning. This means to be able to give someone a full look at the big picture: both “to state and to justify that reasoning in terms of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, and contextual considerations upon which one’s results were based; and to present one’s reasoning in the form of cogent arguments.” In ancient Greece (469 - 399 BC) Socrates was widely lauded for his wisdom. One day the great philosopher came upon an acquaintance who ran up to him excitedly and said, "Socrates, do you know what I just heard about one of your students?" "Wait a moment," Socrates replied. "Before you tell me I'd like you to pass a little test. It's called the Triple Filter Test." "Triple filter?" "All right," said Socrates. "So you don't really know if it's true or not. Now let's try the second filter, the filter of Goodness. Is what you are about to tell me about my student something good?" "No, on the contrary..." 'Teach people to make good decisions and you equip them to improve their own futures and become contributing members of society, rather than burdens on society.' Peter A. Facione "So," Socrates continued, "you want to tell me something bad about him, even though you're not certain it's true?" The man shrugged, a little embarrassed. Socrates continued. "You may still pass the test though, because there is a third filter - the filter of Usefulness. Is what you want to tell me about my student going to be useful to me?" "No, not really" Critical Thinking 1. Interpretation is “to comprehend and express the meaning or significance of a wide variety of experiences, situations, data, events, judgments, conventions, beliefs, rules, procedures, or criteria.”2 2. Analysis is “to identify the intended and actual inferential relationships among statements, questions, concepts, descriptions, or other forms of representation intended to express belief, judgment, experiences, reasons, information, or opinions.” 3. Evaluation as meaning “to assess the credibility of statements or other representations which are accounts or descriptions of a person’s perception, experience, situation, judgment, belief, or opinion; and to assess the logical strength of the actual or intended inferential relationships among statements, descriptions, questions or other forms of representation.” critical thinking is thinking that has a purpose (proving a point, interpreting what something means, solving a problem), but critical thinking can be a collaborative, noncompetitive endeavor. "That's right," Socrates continued. "Before you talk to me about my student let's take a moment to filter what you're going to say. The first filter is Truth. Have you made absolutely sure that what you are about to tell me is true?" "No," the man said, "actually I just heard about it and..."

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Critical Thinking

Transcript: By Stephen Smith 000601471 Kanchana Hewage 000643311 Jake Rushe 000614068 Jasmine Abbey 000613596 How many people must be there if all but two are named Tanvir, all but two are called Jermaine, and all but two are called Lisa? Fallacies of Relevance Use of language Definitions adapted from Free dictionary, 2012 Critical thinking is rational, skilful appropriate thinking Four elements of critical thinking: statements, arguments, premises and conclusion 7 Standards of critical thinking include clarity accuracy, precision, relevance and fairness Barriers to critical thinking: human limitations, language use, inadequate logic psychological and sociological flaws Fallacy is a an argument which contains a mistake in reasoning Popular/ common fallacies: personal attack loaded question, bandwagon, appeal to pity, flattery, celebrity etc. Blooms Taxonomy Speed of creativity, 2010 FunTrivia (n.d.) Can you spot the fallacy? [Online] Available at: (Accessed 14 March 2012) Mandm (2011), Fallacy Fridays available at: (accessed 13/03/2012) Mmcelhaney (2011) ad Misericodiam: appeal to pity- Apologetics 315 available at: (accessed 13/03/2012) Puzzles4you (n.d.) Critical Thinking Puzzles. [Online] Available at: (Accessed 14 March 2012) Sen, Madhucchanda, 2010, An Introduction To Critical Thinking, India, Pearson Education Publisher Dorling Kindersley . Pp. 2- 14 Speed of Creativity , 2012, critical thinking,, accessed: 05/03/2012 Taylor, S. (2011) The Education Fallacy available at: (accessed 13/03/2012) 1vigor, 2012, Core critical thinking skills, 1vigor,, accessed 03/03/2012 According to ‘The thinker's guide to intellectual standards’ , Intellectual standards are: “The standards necessary for making sound judgements or for reasoning well, for forming knowledge (as against unsound beliefs), for intelligent understanding, for thinking rationally and logically.” Elder, L and Richard P, 2008 Definition Presenting an argument that may in itself be valid, but does not address the issue in question FAllACY PUZZLE 2 Basic human limitations Critical thinking characteristics References Maria has been working at her current job for more than 30 years at the same wage. She desperately wants a raise so she approaches her boss to ask for one. She says, "You are one of the kindest people I know. You are smart and good-looking and I really love your shoes." What type of fallacy is this? Analytical Hierarchy Process “In order to reach a decision we must create a list of prioritized options” Saaty, T (2008) When we were deciding who should work on each part of the presentation one of our group members made a list of what must be included and then ensured each person had a fair share of the work. The priority was with the theory but closely followed by participation from the class so the interactive games were also an important part of the presentation. Critical thinking is: Non Linear Multifaceted Has more than one solution Entails subtle interpretation and evaluation Has multiple criteria Contains elements of uncertainty Reflects self regulation Demands effort!!! (Craver, Kathleen W. 1999) Brainstorming “Brainstorming within a group is a powerful method of finding ideas. It brings together the team and gives them motivation.” Chapman, A (2009) When we were choosing the name for our game-show we sat and discussed the possible names by saying them out-loud as they ideas came to us, then listed the best options , then we informally voted for what we thought was the catchiest. Elder, L and Richard P, 2008 Barriers of Critical thinking According to Linda Elder and Richard Paul From the Foundation for critical thinking, the standards for critical thinking are as follows CLARITY ACCURACY PRECISION RELEVANCE DEPTH BREADTH LOGIC FAIRNESS FAllACY PUZZLE - PUZZLE 5 Fallacies of Relevance (contd.) Answers in Genesis (2009), Logical Fallacies: The Fallacy of Reification available at: (accessed 13/03/2012) Christian Logic (2011), The Fallacy detective available at: (accessed 13/03/2012) Collins English Dictionary (2010), Collins Publications London 75Th Edition Craver, Kathleen W. 1999, Using Internet primary sources to teach critical thinking skills in history, United States, Greenwood Publishing Group, pp. 2-3. DiSpezio, M (1996) Critical Thinking Puzzles. [e-book] New York: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. Available through:

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