Transcript: Chow Yun fat an excellent actor from Hong Kong Confucius Confucius said: "It is my fault not the farmer's. I should not let you do this. You are a knowledgeable scholar, while he is a badly educated farmer. You two speak different languages. Using reasons that the listener can not understand to persuade him is like feeding wide beasts with precious sacrifice, playing elegant music for flying birds." So Confucius had his stableman go to the farmer's place again. The stableman said to the farmer: "Your farm in the east, and I live in the west. We don't know each other, but our crop looks the same. How can the horse know the crop is yours or mine?" The farmer was fully convinced and happily returned Confucius's horse. One day, Confucius went out for a tour. While he were having a rest, his horse run away and ate a farmer's crop in the field. The angry farmer caught the horse and locked it in his yard. After knowing what happened, Confucius asked Zi Gong to retrieve his horse. Li, correct behavior, or propriety, good manners, politeness, ceremony, worship. Do you know his character? Yi, of honesty and uprightness reciprocity, altruism, consideration for others, and Confucius’ early version of the Golden Rule, “what you don't want yourself, don't do to others." Walking to the farmer's house, Zi Gong very politely asked him to return his teacher's horse. But to his surprise, the man had no response but a word "no". Disappointedly, he went back to Confucius and began to complain of the farmer's rudeness. Confucius’ Five Virtues “To be able under all circumstances to practice five things constitutes perfect virtue; these five things are gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness and kindness.” Confucius taught five virtues a gentleman should practice every day to live a healthy, harmonious life: Confucius traveled around the countries to publicize the Confucianism. A well-known diplomatist These are just some little parts of Confucius. Thank you~ Confucius, a Chinese thinker and social philosopher doing one's best, conscientiousness, loyalty Ren is the virtue of benevolence, charity, and humanity; This enormous influence persisted until the nineteenth century, when the impact of the West created revolutionary changes in China. Then, in the twentieth century, the Communist Party seized power in China. It was their belief that, in order both to modernize China and to eliminate economic injustice, it was necessary to make radical changes in society. As the ideas of Confucius were highly conservative, the Communists made a major effort to eradicate his influence, the first such effort since Shih Huang Ti, 22 centuries earlier. Yì may be broken down into zhong
Transcript: Confucius' Analects Where: Eastern China When:551-479 B.C. Authors: Confucius' disciples Language: Chinese Disciples of Confucius Three thousand the disciples Seventy-two worthies Confucius' ten QI dismissed like socrates threat minister and nobel defamed him CHEN WEI not wanting involvement in politics deliver his duty to his student being teacher LU Cofucianism involves the beliefs of: Tao and Teh Yin and Yang Tao=Nature "The Way" Comings and goings, and well as beginnings and endings, are ever present in life. Every "being" has its own "Way" or nature, which it follows. Teh=the ability to follow one's own nature reverence for ancient rituals, ancestry, and authority: Book 1 #11 "The Master said, "Observe what a man has in mind to do when his father is living, and then observe what he does when his gather is dead. If, for 3 years, he makes no changes to his father's ways, he can be said to be a good son." (Lawall 823) leading by virtue: Book 2 #19 "...Confucius answered, "Raise the straight and set them over the crooked and the common people will look up to you. Raise the crooked and set them over the straight and the common people will not look up to you." (Lawall 823) performing to the best of one's ability in all circumstances-following one's nature, or Tao: Book 6 #12 "Jan Chiu said, 'It is not that I am not pleased with your way, but rather that my strength gives out.' The Master said, ' A man whose strength guves out collapses along the course. In your case you set the limits beforehand.' " (Lawall 824) wisdom: Book 6 #22 "Fan Ch'ih asked about wisdom. The Master said, 'To work for the things the common people have a right to and to keep one's distance from the gods and spirits while showing them reverence can be called wisdom...' " (Lawall 824-825) Distinction The Analects' are unique from other world literature we have read thus far in class "Wisdom comes in fractions and fragments; the burden of full understanding is placed on the reader" (Lawall 821) 3.9 "The Master said to Tzu-kung, 'Who is the better man, you or Hui?' 'How dare I compare myself with Hui? When he is told one thing, he understands. When I am told one thing I understand only two...' " (Lawall 824) ideological system Political -If a country wants to flourish the first thing is not to make laws for the public but to enhance the king's morality "guide them by edicts, keep them in line with punishments and the common people will stay out of trouble but will have no sense of shame. Guide the by virtue, keep them in line with the rites, and they will, besides having a sense of shame, reform themselves" Economic -When we face an advantage/profit, the first thing people have to consider is our morality The Master said, "Riches and honors are what men desire. If they cannot be obtained in the proper way, they should not be held. Poverty and meanness are what men dislike. If they cannot be avoided in the proper way, they should not be avoided. "If a superior man abandon virtue, how can he fulfill the requirements of that name? "The superior man does not, even for the space of a single meal, act contrary to virtue. In moments of haste, he cleaves to it. In seasons of danger, he cleaves to it." Aesthetic To use literature and art as a political method for changing society. chi tsze-ch'ang said, "in a superior man it is only the substantial qualities which are wanted;-why should we seek for ornamental accomplishments?" tsze-kung said, "alas! your words, sir, show you to be a superior man, but four horses cannot overtake the tongue. ornament is as substance; substance is as ornament. the hide of a tiger or a leopard stripped of its hair, is like the hide of a dog or a goat stripped of its hair." Education -Relate all the things they learned together -people can be affected by others, -If we want to live in a better world we have to change ourselves first. The Master said, "When I walk along with two others, they may serve me as my teachers. I will select their good qualities and follow them, their bad qualities and avoid them." Suppression of Confucianism Analects did not preach Mandate of Heaven. "Tsze-kung said, 'The Master's personal displays of his principles and ordinary descriptions of them may be heard. His discourses about man's nature, and the way of Heaven, cannot be heard.' Analects 5.13. "The Master said, "To work for the things the common people have a right to and to keep one's distancefrom the gods and spirits while showing them reverence can be called wisdom. ' " (Lawall 824-825) Rulers should be virtuous. "The Master said, 'The rule of virtue can be compared to the Pole Star which commands the homage of the multitude of stars without leaving its place.' " 2.1 (Lawall 823) Otherwise, the people have right to rebel, as granted by Heaven. " '...when there is no trust, the commom people will have nothing to stand on.' " Works cited: Bahm, Archie J., and Confucius. The Heart of Confucius; Interpretations of Genuine Living and Great
Transcript: Confucius’s family was very poor but also very important to him. Kong He was his father and Yan Zhengzai was his mother and he had two children name Kong Li and Kong Rao after marrying Quigan at age 19. His father, Kong He, died when he was very young. Confucius’s grandfather was Bo Xia and his grandson was Zisi. Kong was his family name. Confucius also believed a lot of things about the relationships of families. He believed that woman should obey their fathers in youth, obey their husbands in marriage, and obey their sons in old age. He also believed that the older the person, the more important they were. He believed that the oldest male in the house was in charge. He believed that families of many generations should live together as one family unit. That describes a few things about Confucius’s family and his ideas about family relationships. Background Confucius was a Chinese philosopher and teacher who lived during 551-479 BC and was born in the North China Plain. His beliefs had a great influence on Chinese life. He learned from the teachings of and looked up to wise people who had passed before him. He hoped to advance to an important government office but never succeeded because of his poor family so instead, he became a great teacher and philosopher. Confucius loved learning and was self taught. “Confucius” is the Latinized version of his name. The Chinese called him “Kong Fu Zi” or “Master Kong “because his real name was “Kong Qiu.” He is loved and respected by people all around the world. Confucius was an influential Chinese philosopher, teacher and political figure known for his popular aphorisms and for his models of social interaction Confucius Powerpoint: Ancient China Family
Transcript: The Importance of Character Memorize The Preamble The 5 Basic Human Relationships •Education is the means by which the individual learns that Li will require in a particular situation •Li is the way in which character is manifested •Cultivation of character itself is a significant component of education •They seek to develop what are called the “Five constant virtues” - Right attitude, right procedure, right knowledge, right moral courage, and right persistence •Put all together the practice of these virtues would lead to a new society based on justice and wisdom -Confucius The Five Basic Human Relationships 1. Ruler and subject: Benevolence in rulers, loyalty in ministers and subjects 2. Father and son: Kindness in the father, filial piety in the son 3. Husband and wife: Righteous behavior in the husband, obedience in the wife 4. Oldest son and younger brothers: Gentility in the oldest son, humility and respect in the younger siblings 5. Elders and juniors (friends): Humane consideration in elders, deference in juniors. •Confucius advocated a conception of the good man (chun-tzu) that emphasized the twin qualities of benevolence (ren) and propriety (Li). •The notion of Li is a very important in understanding Confucian thought •Li is not so much character as the means by which character is manifested •Li entailed both a knowledge of traditional practice and behavior, and a sensitivity that would allow their modification as required by contemporary circumstances •Li is like a balance wheel of conduct The Emphasis of the Family System * Each of the 5 basic human relationships are hierarchical. * Each member of the family is individually tied and obligated to the other in keeping with his or her station "Confucianism thus built a new moral interpretation of the world upon the oldest and soundest foundation, the family system. It could be fitted to the political system, thus ensuring that monarchy, as an apotheosis of paternalism, would be the only conceivable form of government. The government must, however, be restrained and guided by ethical teaching and exercised in conformity with high moral principles." (140) · Social order could be achieved through education · “A good education would change men for the better” · “By nature men are nearly alike, but through experience they grow wide apart” · He emphasized that socioeconomic status should not important in education · Education should prove who should be in command, who should lead the people · This would guarantee better governments in the future CONFUCIUS The Imperial Examination System Allison Clarke, Kwashee Totimeh, Liz O'Hearn, Vanessa Evans, Zack Eskin Consisted of tests at three district levels: the district examinations the provincial examinations the metropolitan examinations Each test increased in difficulty Each test required the student to have passed the preceding level - Duties and Implicit rights are represented between unequals in relationships - Mutual responsibility - Created a moral society - Society became very stratified based on these relationships We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union,establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. The Five Basic Human Relationships The Importance of Education in Relation to Government The Importance of Character Confucius and the Chinese Educational Heritage Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous.
Transcript: Confucius (Chinese: 孔子; pinyin: Kǒng Zǐ; (September 28 551 BC – 479 BC) He was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period. The philosophy of Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. Ethics One of the deepest teachings of Confucius may have been the superiority of personal exemplification over explicit rules of behavior. His moral teachings emphasized self-cultivation, emulation of moral exemplars, and the attainment of skilled judgment rather than knowledge of rules What do you think? your comparison.... Which way do you like more. Why? How do Confucian principles compare with modern Western values In a confucian system, the group is valued over the individual and relationships within that group are clearly defined. Who is Confucius? is important One of his most famous teaching was the Golden Rule (in the positive form) and Silver Rule (in the negative form): "What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others." “”“” Zi gong (a disciple of Confucius) asked: "Is there any one word that could guide a person throughout life?" The Master replied: "How about 'shu' [reciprocity]: never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself?" Analects XV.24, tr. David Hinton Comparison is important Confucius Modern Western values lies more along the lines of Individualism. is here
Transcript: Even though he died not very well known, his students spread his philosophy widely. One in particular, Mengzi, other wise known as Menicus, broadened the ideas of his philosiphy on government. As previously said, centuries after Confucius died, confucianism became a major philosophy in the Hundred Schools of Thought. Early Life Confucius was born in the small state of Lu, close to Qufu. His father was born of noble anscestry but by the time Confucius was born, the family had declined. When he was only 3 years old, his father died. He was raised by his mother and lived in poverty. Death Confucius Confucius was a philosopher and he popularized education. Education was typically only for the wealthy and aristocratic. After he died, Confucianism became a major philosophy in the Hundred Schools of Thought. Professional Accomplishments Legacy 479 B.C. June 19, 551 B.C. Birth
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Transcript: Confucius 5 Interesting Facts 5 Facts of Teaching Confucianism was frequently attacked by leading figures in the Communist Party of China 5 Basic Facts! Zhu Xi as having created something rather different, and call his way of thinking Neo-Confucianism Confucian temples do not normally have images Had a child Kong Li The largest and oldest Temple of Confucius is found in Confucius's hometown, present-day Qufu in Shandong Province, established in 479 BC Born in a warrior family His real name is Kong Qi familial loyalty, ancestor worship, respect of elders, and the family as a basis for an ideal government stressing that morality was inculcated in society through tradition and in individuals through training worked as a shepherd, cowherd, clerk, and a book-keeper Why Confucian temples were built in prefectural and county schools throughout the empire, either to the front of or on one side of the school Confucianism preaches that people are inherently good, and focuses on morals, which attracts many people. Confucius' teachers are wise and applicable to everyone; it's not a religion, but an ideology. It became important during the Han dynasty in China when it began to become of the more dominant ideologies. During the Qin period, legalism was used to rule, and during the Han, Emperor Wu started using Confucianism to rule, while combining the ideas with legalism. Also, Confucianism spread to places besides China such as Korea, showing China's sphere of influence and China's ability to spread cultural aspects without conquering the country Confucius was buried in Kong Lin cemetery best government is one that rules through "rites" and people's natural morality 5 Facts about temple it was only during the Han Dynasty that he was portrayed visually first Latinised and introduced to Europe by the Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci Married Qi Guan at age 19 A dance known as the Eight-Row Dance, consisting of eight columns of eight dancers each innate goodness in human beings as a source of the ethical intuitions that guide people towards rén, yì, and lǐ The works of Confucius were translated into European languages through the agency of Jesuit scholars stationed in China
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