Transcript: Cold War History Bombing of Hiroshima - Aug 1945 On August 6, 1945, and American bomber dropped the "Little Boy" bomb on the manufacture city of Hiroshima. Three days later, another bomb, "Fat Man" was dropped on Nagasaki. The Japanese government surrendered from WWII on August 15,1945. 1945 Marshall Plan - Apr 1948 The United States provided financial aid to Western Europe for the damage caused by WWII. More than $15 billion was sent to rebuild the continent. Countries who benefit from the Marshall act were Austria, Denmark, Belgium, France, Greece, Turkey, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and West Germany 1948 Berlin Blockade and Airlift - Jun 1948-May 1949 The blockade was an attempt by the Soviets to limit American access to Berlin. The Soviet's thought the people would prefer the capitalist way of life compared to their communist views, therefore closing all land access to Berlin. The Americans however started using airfare to transport good to the needy in Berlin. 1948-1949 NATO Founded - Apr 1949 The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was an agreement between 29 nations to secure peace and alliance against the communists. NATO's goals were to provide a safeguard for allied county's freedom and security by political and military means. 1949 Vietnam War - Nov 1955-Apr 1975 1955-1975 Warsaw Pact - 1955 Launch of Sputnik - Oct 1957 1957 U-2 Incident - May 1960 1960 Building of the Berlin Wall - Aug 1961 1961 Cuban Missile Crisis - Oct 1962 1962 Strategic Arms Limitations Talk - Nov 1969 1969 Collapsing of the Berlin Wall - Nov 1989-Nov 1991 1989-1991
Transcript: Analysis of events & Course of action Bay of Pigs: Unsuccesful invasion Goal: Bring down communist leader Castro USA supported invasion CIA trained Cuban exiles Mission- Failed US invaded Cuba Invasion failed- Castro became stronger Soviets and Cuba's bond increases Soviets prepared Cuba by sending aircaraft Course of Action #1 Offer them economic development Be a source of trade Military Offer aid Action #2 Dollar Diplomacy/Containment Soviets gave Cuba 3 billion in aid USA will give 6.5 billion in aid Cubans struggled for food and goods Soviets gave no aid USA would use Dollar Diplomacy to gurantee common goods Action #3 Split Cuba into 2 parts Bring in UN to settle peacefully NATO Castro promised freedom... than became communist Pro American = FREEDOM Promise Castro- Better Economy No hunger Good Alliance Peace Treaty Pro American Annalysis
Transcript: Cold War 1950-53 Following WWII, through the 1980s, the United States and the Soviet Union were always on the verge of war, but never actually fought eachother. These two buttons represent how easy a war like this could have turned nuclear and possibly destroyed the world. Cold War Berlin Airlift After WWII, the Soviet Union restricted the Allies from entering Berlin. The US dropped supplies from planes into Berlin. 1958-75 1948 1947 1962 Truman Doctrine After WWII, the US provided aid to democratic countries, so that those countries wouldn't become communist. Vietnam War The US fought against North Vietnam, and failed to keep South Vietnam from becoming a communist country. Korean War The US fought against North Korea and China to keep South Korea from becoming a communist country. Cuban Missile Crisis The US forced the Soviets to remove their missiles that were placed in Cuba, which were close enough to strike major US cities.
Transcript: Cold War Vocab US.2 (D) explain the significance of the following years as turning points: Cold War 1957 (Sputnik launch ignites U.S.-Soviet space race), 1968-1969 1991 (Cold War ends) Cold War: 1. Definition: Go to Website Put this definition into your own words 2. Provide an illustration that best represents the definition 3. Website: http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/what%20was%20the%20cold%20war.htm Using the website above in 3: explain the relationship between the United States and Russia after WW2 Using the same website identify 4 major crisis Iron Curtain: 1. Definition: Put this definition into your own words 2. Provide an illustration that best represents the definition 3. Who is the iron curtain and why does Churchill call them the iron curtain. http://www.tn4me.org/sapage.cfm/sa_id/134/era_id/8/major_id/10 Potsdam 1. Definition: http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/potsdam-conference Put this definition into your own words 2. Provide an illustration that best represents the definition 3. Identify who the 3 major powers were and provide the leaders of those 3 major powers Satellite Nations: 1. Definition: http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/satellite-nation Put this definition into your own words 2. Provide an illustration that best represents the definition 3. Using this website: http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20110510091439AAA2nCo Explain how satellite nations would have benefited Stalin and Russia (USSR) Containment: 1. Definition: http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/history/cold-war/strategy/strategy-containment.htm Put this definition into your own words 2. Provide an illustration that best represents the definition NATO: 1. Definition: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/NATO Put this definition into your own words 2. Provide an illustration that best represents the definition 3. Using Website: http://www.nato.int/nato-welcome/#top Identify the members of NATO 1. Definition: http://www.univsource.com/words/censure-verb.htm Put this definition into your own words 2. Provide an illustration that best represents the definition Fall Out Shelter: 1. Definition: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h3706.html Put this definition into your own words 2. Provide an illustration that best represents the definition 3. Using the same site answer: What is a fallout shelter and how were they built? Sputnik 1. Definition: http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/ Put this definition into your own words 2. Provide an illustration that best represents the definition 3. What was the first living thing sent into orbit http://history1900s.about.com/od/1950s/p/laikathedog.htm 4. Using the same website: Explain how the Russians and Micheal Vick are alike CIA 1. Definition: https://www.cia.gov/about-cia Put this definition into your own words 2. Provide an illustration that best represents the definition 3. Using the website: http://www.history.com/topics/cold-war/bay-of-pigs-invasion Explain how the role of the CIA affected the United States relationship with Cuba Military-Industrial Complex: 1. Definition: http://www.militaryindustrialcomplex.com/what-is-the-military-industrial-complex.asp Put this definition into your own words 2. Provide an illustration that best represents the definition George Kennan: 1. Identify: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/george-kennan-sends-long-telegram-to-state-department Identify this person in your own words 2. Provide an illustration that best represents the definition 3 . Using this website and the internet: http://www.biography.com/people/george-f-kennan-9362803 Find out who Mr. X is Truman Doctrine: 1. Definition: http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=81 Put this definition into your own words 2. Provide an illustration that best represents the definition Marshall Plan: 1. Definition: http://www.marshallfoundation.org/TheMarshallPlan.htm Put this definition into your own words 2. Provide an illustration that best represents the definition George Marshall Alger Hiss Harry Truman Joseph McCarthy Dwight Eisenhower Censure: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/churchill-delivers-iron-curtain-speech http://www.history.com/topics/cold-war
Transcript: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/news/20080911/PP%20%20Rosenberg%20Spy%20Case%20Chronology.pdf Rosenberg Atomic Espionage Spy Case Chronology August 28, 1949 - The Soviet Union detonates its own atomic bomb. January 1950 - German born physicist Klaus Fuchs confesses to British authorities that he had been a Soviet military intelligence spy from 1941-45 and had betrayed information about the American topsecretatomic bomb project (the Manhattan Project) to his underground contacts. Klaus Fuchs also tells his interviewers that he had picked up information in New York and New Mexico from an American courier who he knew only by the cover-name “Raymond.” February 1950 - Banner headlines splash across newspapers throughout the nation announcing Klaus Fuchs’ confession and serving as the catalyst for an intensive search by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) for “Raymond,” who months later was found to be Harry Gold. June 15, 1950 – Gold, aka “Raymond,” recognizes David Greenglass in FBI photos. He writes on the back of one, “This is the man I contacted in Albuquerque, New Mexico in June 1945.” June 15, 1950 – David Greenglass is picked up by FBI agents and later signs a confession. June 17, 1950 - Julius Rosenberg, an engineer and father who had been involved in the Communist party, is arrested on suspicion of espionage as a result of having been named by his wife’s brother, David Greenglass, who had confessed to authorities. (Greenglass is still alive, but living under an alias, and his grand-jury testimony remains sealed.) July 20, 1950 - Harry Gold, a confessed Soviet courier who met with numerous industrial spies during the early Cold War period, pleads guilty in federal court to conspiracy to transmit documents to a foreign power. In his grand jury and court testimony Gold states that he served a courier for atomic energyinformation gleaned from Klaus Fuchs, a Soviet military intelligence (GRU) agent. Gold also admits that he transmitted information about the development of the building of an atomic bomb (the so-called Manhattan Project) to his Soviet contacts. Gold was given a 30-year prison sentence. August 1950-March 1951 – Grand jury at federal court in New York hears from witnesses about the alleged spy ring. August 11, 1950 - Ethel Rosenberg, wife of Julius, former strike organizer and mother of two young sons, is arrested as she leaves the federal court house following her second appearance before the grand jury. Mid-August 1950 - Morton Sobell, an American engineer who was identified as being involved in espionage with Julius Rosenberg, is captured after fleeing to Mexico by agents of J. Edgar Hoover’s Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). November 28, 1950 – Gold associates Abraham Brothman and his business partner, Miriam Moskowitz, are convicted and sentenced for grand jury deception by a federal judge. March 6, 1951 - The joint trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg and Morton Sobell begins in room 107 of the federal courthouse in New York City with Judge Irving R. Kaufman presiding. Judge Kaufman had also presided over the Brothman/Moskowitz trial. April 5, 1951 - Julius and Ethel Rosenberg and Morton Sobell are all indicted and found guilty of conspiring to commit espionage (a violation of Title 50, section 34 of the U.S. Code Espionage) and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were sentenced to death. Ethel’s brother, David Greenglass (who had entered a plea of guilty and had cooperated with the government by providing key trial evidence against his relatives), is given a 15-year sentence, and Morton Sobell receives a 30-year sentence. June 19, 1953 - The Rosenbergs are executed in the electric chair at Sing Sing Prison in Ossing, New York. 1953 – 1995 - Over a dozen non-fiction books are written about the Rosenberg case. It also inspires reflections by personalities ranging from Nikita Krushchev to Woody Allen, multiple novels, a song by Bob Dylan, and other drama. In these intervening years, some involved convicts such as David Greenglass, Harry Gold and Morton Sobell are released from jail. October 1995 - During an interview with Michael Dobbs of The Washington Post, Anatoli Yatskov, aka Anatoli Antonovich Yakovlev, the Soviet Vice-Consul in New York City and a Soviet spymaster, brags that the Soviet Union had managed to penetrate the wall of secrecy around the Manhattan Project, and that his agents had stolen the major process for manufacturing the atomic bomb from the United States. While Yatskov claimed that the FBI had not managed to uncover even half of his network, he is adamant that he had not known the Rosenbergs and could not shed any light on their case. However, in his 1995 confession he did confirm that Harry Gold was a courier for his network. October 1999 - Harry Gold’s testimony before a federal grand jury is released to the public as a result of the successful petition by historians to unseal the records of the grand jury investigation of Alger Hiss. December 2001 – David Greenglass
Transcript: The United States' participation in a cold war with the Soviet Union led Americans to become overcautious and questioned what American patriotism was and what it mean to be an America. James Fulbright's "The Cold War" "Don't you understand it sir? There is a murdering witch among us, bound to keep herself in the dark. Let your enemies make of it what they will, you cannot blink it more" (Miller 22). Effect on National Pride America and Americans: Is the American dream even possible? Matthew Howard, Yvette Ordonez, Dennis Kang, Jordan Whiting The Crucible (1953) Thesis Senator Joseph McCarthy declared that there was a communist infiltration in the CIA and the United States atomic weapon industry (Wilson Center). Mass Hysteria over Communist Infiltration in the US The Lasting Impact of The Cold War "No one can define it or point to any one person who lives [the American Dream], but it is very real nonetheless, perhaps more real than that equally remote dream the Russians call communism" (Steinbeck Par. 8). The loss of the Vietnam War caused a loss of pride and humiliated the United States, which was seen as an invincible nation by our citizens (Chambers Par. 2). “We have had to turn away from our hopes in order to concentrate on our fears and the result has been accumulating neglect of those things which bring happiness and beauty and fulfillment into our lives” (Fulbright Par. 4).
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Transcript: USA invades Grenada & replaces pro-communist government ~ 1983 Stalin dies/Khrushchev takes power in USSR: 1953 USA & USSR develop & test Hydrogen Bomb technology: 1952-53 “Six Day War” in Middle East Mikhail Gorbachev becomes leader of the USSR: 1985 US begins sending combat troops to Vietnam : 1965 United Nations is Formed: 1945 Israel created as new country: 1948 Uprising in Hungary : 1956 ‘Sputnik’ satellite launched by USSR : 1957 Apollo 11 moon landing : 1969 “Tet” Offensive in Vietnam : 1968 Cuban Missile Crisis: 1962 Berlin Blockade & Airlift : 1948-49 USSR tests its first nuclear bomb : 1949 1945 USSR removes all of its troops from Afghanistan: 1989 Sandinista rebels establish communist government in Nicaragua: 1979 East Germany & West Germany became separate countries : 1948 USSR invades Afghanistan & installs communist government: 1979 US CIA helps overthrow government in Chile : 1972-73 Chinese government crushes pro-democracy movement in China: 1989 Fidel Castro & Communists take control of Cuba : 1959 "Yom Kippur" War in the Middle East: 1973 Uprising in Czechoslovakia : 1968 1990 Bay of Pigs invasion : 1961 US & USSR negotiate first “SALT” agreements 1970-1972 Mao Zedong & Communists take control of China : 1949 US supports anti-communist government in El Salvador ~ 1980-1992 US supports anti-communist "Contra" rebels in Nicaragua ~ 1981-1985 Cold War Era Timeline ~ 1945-1990 Formation of NATO alliance : 1949 US CIA helps overthrow governments in Iran & Guatemala : 1953-54 Collapse of communist governments in Poland, Czecholslavakia, etc. Islamic Revolution overthrows government of Iran: 1979 Korean War : 1950-53
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