Transcript: Researchers 3 ways a cultural tool can be passed from one individual to another 1. Imitative Learning One tries to copy another 2. Instructed Learning Remembering instructions and using them to self-regulate 3. Collaborative Learning Group of peers work together to learn a specific skill Equillibration is the process of finding a balance of assimilation and accomadation. This process explains how children move from different stages according to Piaget. Children are born with a knowledge of the principles of the grammatical structure of all languages. This inborn knowledge explains the success and speed with which they learn language. Concepts Derived from Piaget's concepts Schemas: The maturing brain builds concepts The brain assimilates (files) and accomodates (adapts) the new concepts Sensorimotor Stage Birth to Two Years Old Object Permanence Preoperational Stage Two to Seven Years Old Lack idea of conservation Egocentricism is impaired Concrete Operational Stage Seven to Eleven Years Old Formal Operational Stage Eleven to Fifteen Years Old Research Concrete Operational Stage: I have a whole pizza, and I am very hungry. Would I cut it into Six or Eight Slices? Formal Operational Stage: "If John is in school, then Mary is in school. John is in school. What can you say about Mary?" object permanence The critical period is a limited window of time where we learn language Cognitive Psychology Lev Vygotsky EGOCENTRICISM a stage in a child's development characterized by lack of awareness that other people's points of view differ from his own Goal as a linguist: "To find the principles common to all languages that enable people to speak creatively and freely" Wilhelm Wundt Wundt's established the first psychological research and teaching laboratory within the Philosophy Department, where he regarded his psychology as a branch of philosophy. He used science to study philosophical issues of the mind. Piaget's theory was based upon cognitive development which involves changes in cognitive process and abilities. Piaget first noticed this development within his own children which he then studied other children. Vygotsky's theory states that development depends on interaction with people and the tools that the culture provides to help form their own view of the world. Jean Piaget Noam Chomsky
Transcript: Cognitive may sound simple but it is not. It studies the cracks of the brain that is not easy to see. It is basically asking you why. Why do you put your hands up when some throws somthing at you. It also asks what feelings go through your mind when you are faced with puzzling situations. Cognitive is new Summary Cognitive Psychology studies the fine lines of the brain. It's kind of new, and is still being studied exstensivly. Basically think of it as a Math problem : Find out what you know, look for what you dont know, then problem solve cognitive psychology is the study on how people preceive certain actions and feelings. It had even been connected to social psychology. Since Cognitve thinking can be strongly influence by the person social enviorment. Cognitive is no Joke Created the idea of Cognitive Phchology Compares a humans brain to a computers brain Computers learn by what it is given, just like a human learns. Cognitive Psychology Ulric Neisser1967
Transcript: Cognitive Psychology Concerns the process whereby people categorize and organize stimulus information into meaningful units to make sense of the stimuli. A heuristic is a mental shortcut that allows people to solve problems and make judgments quickly and efficiently. These rule-of-thumb strategies shorten decision-making time and allow people to function without constantly stopping to think about the next course of action. While heuristics are helpful in many situations, they can also lead to biases. Nativism- in the sense familiar to scholars of linguistics, psychology and cognition, proposes that certain key traits of a species are not learned but emerge from a mind that is in some way already set up to deal with the environment in which it will develop and function. Sensory memory is the shortest-term element of memory. It is the ability to retain impressions of sensory information after the original stimuli have ended. It acts as a kind of buffer for stimuli received through the five senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch, which are retained accurately, but very briefly. Short-term memory acts as a kind of “scratch-pad” for temporary recall of the information which is being processed at any point in time, and has been referred to as "the brain's Post-it note". It can be thought of as the ability to remember and process information at the same time. It holds a small amount of information (typically around 7 items or even less) in mind in an active, readily-available state for a short period of time (typically from 10 to 15 seconds, or sometimes up to a minute). Long-term memory is, obviously enough, intended for storage of information over a long period of time. Despite our everyday impressions of forgetting, it seems likely that long-term memory actually decays very little over time, and can store a seemingly unlimited amount of information almost indefinitely. Indeed, there is some debate as to whether we actually ever “forget” anything at all, or whether it just becomes increasingly difficult to access or retrieve certain items from memory. "cognition about cognition", or "knowing about knowing". It can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving.There are generally two components of metacognition: knowledge about cognition, and regulation of cognition. Eye Movements and Cognitive Processes: Dr. Eileen Kowler What factors determine where the eye moves and how accurately and quickly it arrives at its intended destination? Which patterns of eye movements are most useful for gathering visual information? What can we learn about cognitive processes by studying an observer's pattern of eye movements? Cognitive processes,including thinking, language, and memory, and their development Prerequisite: 01:830:101 General Psychology (3) Herman Ebbinghaus was born in 1850 in Bramen, Germany. He is known to be the first psychologist to study memory and learning. He did this by traveling different countries, such as England and France, conducting research on the "power of memory" as well as doing experiments on himself. Ebbinghaus's argument was that "remembering involves association". His experiments began with testing his recall memory by memorizing list of words. Afterward he created 2,300 nonsense syllables, which consisted of three letters with the same pattern such as consonant-vowel-consonant. He would test his method by making different length lists and learning intervals. tested how this affected speed of forgetting and learning meaningful material was easier to remember the more time spent memorizing the list, the easier it was to remember Also discovered that rapid loss of recall happens in the first hour Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization Rutgers University Psychology Course 01: 830: 305 Cognition (3) Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mind and mental function, including learning, memory, attention, perception, reasoning, language, conceptual development, and decision making. Heuristics Research Project Metacognition Cognitive Psychology Andrea Perez Cynthia Quinonez Kayla Peters Famous Psychologist 3 Types of Memory Nativism (Language)
Transcript: By Nicole Fuller He's really good at guitar Turns out, it's not as easy as it looks Cognitive Skills Engages both hemispheres Involves motor and listening skills In turn, uses: Attention Memory Ability to control Also uses: Visual skills Higher order executive functions Memory Attention Necessary for learning instrument Allows us to block out rest of world Only focus on important information Basically... Learning instrument helps: Attention Memory Better Intellectual Capacity Listening Skills Motor Skills New Sense of Self Cultural Exposure Patience Stress Relief Discipline FUN! However... My experience was a bit more stressful. Before, I thought I had great: Problem solving skills Attention Information retention Emotional control What I tried to learn: "Lucky" by Jason Mraz Sounds easy enough, right? Only five notes: C Am Dm7 G Em Verse: C Am Dm7 G Em Am Dm7 G Chorus: Am Dm7 G C Am Dm7 G Bridge & Oh: C Am G Higher Order Executive Functions Dorsolateral: Organization of information Being flexible Problem solving Initiative Orbitofrontal: Emotional control Calm negative thoughts Self regulation Attuned communication Mediofrontal Learn & monitor mistakes Spontaneity Reflection Mind Change Brain? Override automatic brain process Continue to not "just give up" Feel like I can learn something new Know that I will not naturally be good at everything Created and strengthened brain wiring Think I can get better with more practice Frustration For your viewing pleasure (Don't worry this is the end) Working Memory Finger dexterity issues Hard time remembering Declaritive Memory (Episodic) This is my boyfriend No confidence Anger Minimal patience What I experienced: More frustration Short Term & Long Term Lack of attention
Transcript: Example of a Jeopardy Template By: Laken Feeser and Rachel Chapman When creating without a template... http://www.edtechnetwork.com/powerpoint.html https://www.thebalance.com/free-family-feud-powerpoint-templates-1358184 Example of a Deal or No Deal Template PowerPoint Game Templates There are free templates for games such as jeopardy, wheel of fortune, and cash cab that can be downloaded online. However, some templates may cost more money depending on the complexity of the game. Classroom Games that Make Test Review and Memorization Fun! (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2017, from http://people.uncw.edu/ertzbergerj/msgames.htm Fisher, S. (n.d.). Customize a PowerPoint Game for Your Class with These Free Templates. Retrieved February 17, 2017, from https://www.thebalance.com/free-powerpoint-games-for-teachers-1358169 1. Users will begin with a lot of slides all with the same basic graphic design. 2. The, decide and create a series of questions that are to be asked during the game. 3. By hyper linking certain answers to different slides, the game jumps from slide to slide while playing the game. 4. This kind of setup is normally seen as a simple quiz show game. Example of a Wheel of Fortune Template https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Wheel-of-Riches-PowerPoint-Template-Plays-Just-Like-Wheel-of-Fortune-383606 Games can be made in order to make a fun and easy way to learn. Popular game templates include: Family Feud Millionaire Jeopardy and other quiz shows. http://www.free-power-point-templates.com/deal-powerpoint-template/ Quick video on template "Millionaire" PowerPoint Games Some games are easier to make compared to others If users are unsure whether or not downloading certain templates is safe, you can actually make your own game by just simply using PowerPoint. add logo here References Example of a Family Feud Template PowerPoint Games are a great way to introduce new concepts and ideas You can create a fun, competitive atmosphere with the use of different templates You can change and rearrange information to correlate with the topic or idea being discussed. Great with students, workers, family, etc. For example: With games like Jeopardy and Family Feud, players can pick practically any answers. The person who is running the game will have to have all of the answers in order to determine if players are correct or not. However, with a game like Who Wants to be a Millionaire, the players only have a choice between answers, A, B, C, or D. Therefore, when the player decides their answer, the person running the game clicks it, and the game will tell them whether they are right or wrong.
Transcript: Cognitive Psychology Sensorimotor Stage 1. Assmilation verse Acommodation 2. Operative verse Figurative Language 3. Cognitive Development Stages Lucienne Piaget, his wife, and 3 kids. Sensorimotor Period Acts intentionally Achieves object permanance Main Idea's Born 1896 and died in 1980 Later studied child development (his own 3 children mostly) Using concrete examples in class to help students see "the big picture." (manipulatives, field trips, group work/discovery learning to see others perspectives) Laurent Object Permanence Conclusion Concrete Operational Thinks logically about abstract propositions Becomes conerned with "hypothetical and ideological" questions Role of maturation "being psychologically ready" Piaget's Critics...What do they say? How has he helped education? Birth to 2 years Demonstrated how childrens minds work Piaget's Legacy 11 years and up Study's were limited, beause they were in a naturalistic enviornment, and he studied mostly his own children. New research shows that children can reach the concrete operational stage much earlier than he thought Was to central in "cognitive constructivism" rather than "social constructivist" like Vygotsky and Bruner. Pre Opernational 7 years to 11 years STAGE AGE Description Listened, talked, and observed through exercises he set Uses language to represent objects Egocentric thinking Classification by a single feature He studied the process of "how we come to know information" and "how we move through stages as we gradually acquire different abilities." Formal Operational Who is Jean Piaget? Stages of Cogntive Development 2 years to 7 years Challenge the child, but do not give them information that is beyond their "abilites." Piaget's Cognitive Development How children cognitively process information Biologiest who published 21 scientific papers by age 20 Logical thinking about objects and events Achieves conservation of numbers and weight Classification by several features Jacqueline
Transcript: Definition Dierks Bentley: "What Was I Thinkin'" The Tune We are special Logo It is Attractive It is something you can ACTUALLY control! It is a process, it is a skill, it WILL make YOU smarter! It can make YOU happier! ... or just emotional stable Study cognitive psychology, and you won't regret it. Cognitive Psychology: "Think Before You Think" YOU! "Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mind and mental function, including learning, memory, attention, perception, reasoning, language, conceptual development, and decision making." - http://psych.rutgers.edu/menu-iv/co Unlike those other guys (biological psychology), we can actually learn how to think, rather than just blaming it on those damned genes. Well... then cognitive thinking is for you Why is it better? Do you want to learn how to think? Do you want to learn how to control your thoughts? Do you want to learn how to process and manipulate information your receive? Do you want a better job? Do you want to make more money?
Transcript: It ignores biological factors that have an effect on the body. i.e. testosterone, endorphins... You can't objectively study unobservable behaviors. Introspection which is a key foundation for this approach is subjective. Experiments within this field tend to be highly controlled in laboratory settings and have little ecological value. The Key Figures Term came into use after the publication of Ulris Neisser book "Cognitive Psychology." His work is often cited as the beginning of a transition from the Behavioral Approach to the Cognitive Approach This Approach is interested with understanding the internal processes of the mind in order to better understand the person them self. Came into a greater prominence with the rise of computers, as it gave psychologist an analogy with which to better describe their work. Processing of Information-How we treat incoming information and then how this new information affects a response. In other words this branch is interested in the components that control what happens in the time between stimulus/input and response /output. They especially key in on processes including perception, attention, language, memory and thinking. Cognitive Psychology is highly applicable to everyday life. Some of these applications include... Moral Development Eyewitness testimony (and it validity) Memory and Forgetting Perception Child Development Language acquisition Education Norbert Wiener- started using terms like input and output which would become standard in the field. Edward Tolman- started working on cognitive mapping and some of the earliest expermints in the field. George Miller- Founded the center for Cognitive studies at Harvard. Jean Piaget- first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development. The Focus The Cognitive Approach Why should we study Cognitive Psychology Methodology of the Approach Rise of the Cognitive Approach Lab Experiments i.e. memory testing Introspection as explianed by Wundt Interviews with patients Case studies Observation The Opponents say...
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