Transcript: Little Rock March on Washington SCLC Where: Atlanta Georgia When:1957 Why: Non-violent resistance was a powerful tool to display americans hatred, especially on TV. University of MI When: 1961 Where: University of Mississippi Why: President JFK summarizes the importance of this event by saying "Americans are free to disagree with the law but not to disobey it." When: 1957 Where: Little Rock, Arkansas Why: This event shows the determination of white "massive resistance" to integration and that federal enforcement will be needed. Montgomery Bus B. Voting Rights Act Civil Right Act Freedom Summer When:1963 Where: Washington DC. (Lincoln Memorial) Why?: The purpose of this event was to bring national attention to meaningful civil rights laws, full and fair employment, decent housing & the right to vote. When: 1956 Where: Montgomery, Alamba Why: Non-violent resistance became a powerful tactic for CRM. This event puched MLK as a national Civil Leader. When: 1965 Where: United States of America Why?: This also ensured that the federal intention would be used. When: 1964 Where:Mississippi Why?: Mississippi was the most segregated at the time. When:July 2, 1964 Where:United States of America Why?: This was an significant piece of legislation because the effects of it were widespread and long term. For example, better education & new employment oppertunities.
Transcript: This battle was fought at the appomattox courthouse on april 9th, 1865. General Robert E. Lee surrendered at this battle Abraham Lincoln Appomattox Robert E. Lee this was the start of the civil war. The confederates opened fire on the fort of union forces. the ship coming to the fort was meant to be peaceful and was only full of food and supplies for the men. A note was even sent to the confederates to tell them that the union did not want a fight. He was considered a hero of the civil war and fought for the union. He was the general for the confederate side. He did not believe in slavery and he wanted the north and south to come back together as a nation again. He only fought for the confederate side because of his love and devotion to the south. Civil War Powerpoint Battle of Antietam Gettysburg This battle was the bloodiest battle known in american military history. It ended in a tie but sine the confederate army retreated, lincoln called this a victory for the union. soon after he made his emancipation proclamation speech. fort sumpter Jefferson Davis He was a writer and an escaped slave from the south. When he became free he started working with abolitionists and became leader of the abolitionist movement Ulysses S. Grant Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln gave this speech during the civil war to fight back against the confederates. It issued a military order to free the slaves in southern states. These african americans could now join the army if they wanted too. This order angered the south even more but added to the union army. Lincoln became president in 1860 which caused a huge uproar in the south. They seceded from the north because they believed that Lincoln would abolish slavery everywhere.Lincoln just wanted the country to one nation even if he had to brin both sides together by force. He encouraged Lincoln to abolish slavery and was a very big abolitionist himself. He was a member of the army and a senator from Mississippi. He was the president of the confederate states and he was the secretary of war as well. By: McKayla Winder Fredrick Douglass This battle is known as the turning point of the civil war and was also the battle with the largest number of deaths among each side. The battle was fought on July 1st through July 3rd.
Transcript: Robert Parris also know as Bob Moses is an american educator and civil rights activist known for his work as a leader of the student nonviolent coordinating committee. Robert Parris was born January 23 he is 82 years old now. Civil Rights powerpoint civil rights movement Ruby Nell Bridges hall is an American activist known for being the first black child to desegregate the all white William Frantz Elementary school in Louisiana during the new Orleans school desegregation crisis in 1960. made by kingrobert Bayard Rustin was born March 17 1912. Bayard Rustin passed away on August 24 1987 Bayard hometown is West Chester Pennsylvania. How did the civil rights affect me it made me see how the world really is and push me harder to do better and school. Because they took beatings for us to get to this point. Bayard Rustin was an American leader in social movements for civil rights, socialism,nonviolence, and gay rights. The Selma were organized by activists to demonstrate the desire of African- American citizens to exercise their constitutional right to vote. Robert Parris help Black Lives all over Mississippi to vote he was another MLK but for Mississippi. Ruby Bridges was born September 8 1954 Ruby is currently 62 years old. Ruby home town is Tylertown Mississippi. Company Logo
Transcript: LOGO GOES HERE Elements of a Negligence Action Claim Overview Civil Cases Tort = Injury or Negligence (which means it is an accident). Elements of a Negligence Action Liability Always Causation No preexisting Conditions Damages Ambulance Ride Emergency Room Primary Care Visit Chiropractor Physical Therapy Massages Surgery Medications Coverage Zero? State minimum? Good Coverage? Under insured? Uninsured? Punitive? Drunk Driver? Flee the Scene? Reckless? Run Red Light? Liability Liability Always assumed. What % you are at fault. We want 0, however you can have more and still be OK. Causation Causation of Injury No preexisting conditions The accident, did it cause the damages? Coverage Coverage Zero Coverage? State Minimum? Good Coverage? Under insured? Uninsured? Drunk Driver? Flee the Scene? Reckless Driver? Ran Red Light? Coverage Details Coverage Coverage leads to case value and Punitive Damages Who Pays? At Fault? Under Insured? Own Coverage? Friends coverage or lived with? Jordan Waivers for U.I.M. State Minimum Other Coverage Options Punitives Punitive Damages Drunk Driver Flee the Scene Reckless Driver Run Red Light -Stolen Car -Hit and Run -DUI <> Reckless as well as Negligent Extinuating Circumstances Liens and Treatment Liens and Treatment Medicaid? Medicare? Treatment? Who Pays? We Reduce Medical Costs! Find out everything we can about everyone involved - Friends - Family - Other Drivers - Witnesses - Any vehicle owned, even if you weren't in it - Work insurance? Information Gathering Information Gathering Damages Damages Ambulance Ride Emergency Room Primary Care Physician Chiropractor Physical Therapy Massage Surgery Damages Also Include: - Treatments of all injuries and Medical Bills - Lost Wages - Pain and Suffering - Property Damage In the Hospital For? - Tears and Sprains - Head Injuries - Loss of Consciousness - Burned by Airbag - Damage from Vehicle - Cuts/Bruises/Scrapes - Stitches - Fractures - Head/Neck/Back Pain Injuries Injuries Do you have any photos of your injuries? - CT Scans - X Rays - EKGs - Blood work Hospital Related Injury Expenses Hospital We do not know how long treatment will last Do not rush it. Treatment = $$$ Treatment Page Treatment Page - Ambulance Ride - Neck Brace - IVs - Hospital - Wait Time - Rx Given - Post Visit Instructions - Tests - Labs - X-rays - Other Treatments - Primary Care Physician - Chiropractor Previous Treatments Treatments - Therapy for P.T.S.D. - Physical Therapy - Massage - Acupuncture Consider Future Treatments Future Treatments Claim Overview Elements of a Negligence Action Liability Always Causation No preexisting Conditions Damages Ambulance Ride Emergency Room Primary Care Visit Chiropractor Physical Therapy Massages Surgery Medications Coverage Zero? State minimum? Good Coverage? Under insured? Uninsured? Punitive? Drunk Driver? Flee the Scene? Reckless? Run Red Light?
Transcript: huddle Mrs. Rossi huddle to crowd together crowd huddle separate
Transcript: What is even happening: An Intro to Civil Disobedience 1 SO what does this mean? Let's break it down!! Background 2 #1 Civil Disobedience Within the topic literature, there is some disagreement as to what civil disobedience (hereafter “CD”) entails. Most authors agree that all acts of CD involve the following: 1) breaking a law that the rest of society typically follows; 2) law-breaking that will not threaten the very existence of the social order; and 3) protest against a specific governmental policy or action, rather than a rejection of the entire political system. Political theorists usually hold that civil disobedients accept punishment for their actions; they don’t seek to overthrow the state. Moreover, such protestors take action not out of self-interest, but because they genuinely have a moral objection to the law in question. 1) “Integrity-based” CD, in which “a citizen disobeys a law because he feels that law is immoral” (e.g., “an antebellum Northerner refusing to turn over a slave to authorities”); 2) “Justice-based” CD, in which “a citizen engages in actions designed to lay claim to some right denied that citizen—wrongfully, in his view” (e.g., “the actions of protestors during the Civil Rights Movement”); and 3) “Policy-based” CD, in which a citizen responds to a policy s/he believes is “dangerously wrong” (e.g., “the sit-ins and other protests against deployment of American nuclear weapons in Germany”) Types!!!!!! #2 DEMOCRACY! The resolution’s context is a democracy, rather than a dictatorship or other politically repressive regime. This is significant, since it may exclude certain examples of CD from discussion. For instance, the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacres in China certainly demonstrated a hostile reaction to civil disobedience, but didn’t occur within a democratic climate. Likewise, examples like American resistance to slavery and South African resistance to apartheid are only questionably topical, since one could argue that those societies weren’t democracies, either. GREAT QUESTION!!! The broadest definition of the term indicates that it is “rule by the people.” This typically means that the government must have a voting system, as well as safeguards for individuals’ free expression and minority rights. Moreover, democracies definitional provide a means of holding leaders accountable. Various theories of what democracy means exist; the fundamental point here is that democracy is not just majority rule. Rather, it is a means of balancing majority rule and minority rights. The existence of laws does not, by itself, make those laws democratically valid; it’s important that individuals have a check on the legislative process in any truly democratic system, since that ensures that all voices have the opportunity to be heard. So What is a Democracy? #3 Last but Not Least #3: MORALLY JUSTIFIED! Perhaps the most important question in the resolution is what it means for an action to be morally justified. Is this necessarily the same as the action being moral or just? Why does the resolution include the word “morally” before “justified” – what’s the distinction between those terms? It seems that the affirmative must do more than simply prove that there may be good reasons to engage in CD, yet s/he doesn’t need to prove that CD is actually good. Rather, s/he needs to show the action to be morally valid or legitimate – i.e., that it doesn’t break moral duties. The negative, meanwhile, must establish reasons why CD should be taken off the table entirely, since democracies should discourage the use of morally illegitimate tactics. So What Does Each side have to prove? Debaters on both sides should consider using something related to moral justification or democracy as the basis of their frameworks, since the resolution’s goal is to achieve some kind of morally justified action within a democratic context. Sample values might include morality, justice, democratic legitimacy, or some combination of terms (e.g., moral legitimacy). So what should we do with this new information? Framework so your brain works ;) Q1 Q2 Q3 BANKRUPTCY THE AFF! Let's start with framework! Consequentialism As mentioned above, a large number of moral theories fall under the broad umbrella of consequentialism. A consequentialist framework says that acts which promote the best outcomes are morally justified. So a consequentialist affirmative will argue that civil disobedience in a democracy, as opposed to a democracy without civil disobedience, is the ideal way to set up society. Civil disobedience is an excellent tool for citizens of a democracy to challenge and disrupt patterns of oppression through open and peaceful defiance of seemingly unjust laws. Counterfactually speaking, without civil disobedience the United States may have been a significantly less welcoming and free nation that it is today. This is not to say that the United States is perfect right now, I simply mean to say that things are much better now than they The
Transcript: Does the reading of a nondenominational prayer violate the "establishment of religion" clause of the 1st Amendment? It is unconstitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and encourage its recitation in public schools. Issue Addressed: School Prayer Throughout American history, women had been inferior on every aspect in the society. 1960s was a period that women spoke for themselves, gaining social rights that they were banned from. This case is important because it gave women control so that they could decided for themselves instead of following instructions that men and the society had given them in the past. It was women's time to shine! - Gave a woman total autonomy over the pregnancy during the first trimester. Separate but equal had always been a situation that was difficult to describe, so the society allowed it to happen. This case is important because the Federal Court decided it was unequal; it was a huge step for African Americans to be protected by the gov. and have equal access by law. - Also said that separation from the majority of law students harmed student's abilities to compete in the legal arena. Engel v. Vitale(1962) Roe v. Wade (1970) Summary of the Case: - In 1946, Heman Marion Sweatt, a black man, applied for admission t the University of Texas Law School. State law restricted access to the university to whites, and Sweatt's application was automatically rejected because of his race. - When Sweatt asked the state courts to order his admission, the university attempted to provide separate but equal facilities for black law students. Summary of the Case: - The Board of Regents of the State of New York authorized a short, voluntary prayer for recitation everyday, attempt to defuse the politically potent issue by taking it out the hands of local communities. Why Landmark Case? Issue Addressed: Women's rights Issue Addressed: racial equality Historical Context: - Separate but equal was a legal doctrine that permitted racial segregation. - Gov. was allowed to require that services facilities, public accommodations, housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation be separated along racial lines, provided that the quality of each group's public facilities was equal. - The Court heard arguments twice. Roe's opponent posted strong arguments. Why Landmark Case? Wenxin Chen - Defined different levels of state interest for the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. 46 states were affected. A Culture of Protest The Court decided that "law school for Negroes" was unequal. Historical Context: - After WW2, the U.S. experienced another intense concern about communism abroad and at home. - Some states encouraged patriotism, moral character, and other values of good citizenship because they were afraid of McCarthy. - They also began challenging separation of church and state issues in hopes of providing students with strong moral and spiritual stamina. A violation to the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment? Does the Constitution embrace a woman's right to terminate her pregnancy by abortion? Sweatt v. Painter (1950) Summary of the Case: - Roe, a Texas resident, sought to terminate her pregnancy by abortion. - Texas law prohibited abortions except to save the pregnant woman's life. - Argued that the separate school were inferior in some situations like faculty, course variety and overall prestige. - Despite the passage of time, the decision is still unpopular with a majority of Americans. New York officially approved religion. "Almighty God, we acknowledge our dependence upon Thee, and beg Thy blessings upon us, our teachers, and our country. " Why Landmark Case? The Court held a woman's right to abortion fell within the right to privacy protected by the 14th Amendment. This case is important because it was the first in a series of cases in which the Court used the establishment clause to eliminate religious activities of all sorts, which had traditionally been a part of public ceremonies. Historical Context: - Various anti-abortion laws have been on every state statute book since at lease 1900. - Abortion was prohibited in 30 states and legal under certain circumstances (such as pregnancies resulting from rape or incest) in 20 states. Anti-abortion groups began forming in various states in 1967. - Neither the prayer's nondenominational character nor its voluntary character saves it from unconstitutionality.
Transcript: Abigail Tomlinson 1964-1970 Top 10 Civil Rights 2019 1950-1960 Pre 1950's 1960-1964 1950-1960 A picture of 14 year old Emmett Till. A picture of the 4 during Greensboro sit-ins. Emmett Till Emmett Till Emmett Louis Till was a 14 year old boy who was accused of offending a white woman in her family's store, and was lynched for the accused crime. Little Rock 9 Little Rock 9 Little Rock Nine was a group of nine African Americans who were enrolled into Little Rock Central High School. They were prevented from getting into the school by the governor of Arkansas. The president helped them attend school. Greensboro 4 Greensboro 4 Greensboro sit-ins occurred in Greensboro, North Carolina in 1960. It led to the Woolworth department store chain to remove segregation 1960-1964 Freedom Riders in front of their bus. Protestors for the 24 Amendment. March on Washington. Freedom Riders Freedom Riders The Freedom Riders were civil rights activists that rode interstate buses into southern U.S. to protest segregation. 24th Amendment 24th Amendment Abolished the poll tax for federal elections. It allowed African Americans to vote because they couldn't afford the tax. March on Washington March on Washington was a mass march on Washington to protest blacks exclusion from WW11 defense jobs and New Deal programs. March on Washington 1964-1970 Members of the Black Panthers. Thurgood Marshall Where and when MLK was shot. Black Panthers Formation/End of Black Panther The Black Panthers started in 1961 to protest police brutality against blacks. The group disbanded in 1982. Thurgood Marshall Thurgood Marshall Thurgood Marshall was an American lawyer who served as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court from October 1967 to October 1991, he was the first African American on the American Justice system. MLK Assassination MLK was a civil rights activist and the biggest one of the civil rights time. He fought for blacks rights and freedoms until he was assassinated at his hotel in 1968. MLK Assassination Pre-1950's Example of Jim Crow Laws Drawing of Plessy vs Ferguson 13-15th Amendments 13th-15th Amendments The 13th Amendment banned slavery except in the cases of a punishment, and the 15th Amendment prohibited governments from denying someone to vote based on race, color, or past servitude. Jim Crow Laws Jim Crow Laws Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation. The laws were enforced until 1965. Plessy vs. Ferguson Plessy vs. Ferguson Plessy vs. Ferguson was a landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court issued in 1896. It upheld segregation as long as the segregated facilities were equal in Was Civil Disobedience Successful? Civil disobedience was the act of boycotting, picketing, nonviolent protests, nonpayment of taxes, and passive resistance to influence legislation or government policy. There are many ways civil disobedience was successful, but there are ways it was not successful, especially during the time of when people starting fighting for civil rights. Reasons it was successful Reasons it was successful Civil disobedience is how we are at where we are today. The sit-ins, the peaceful protests, and the refusal to comply to discriminatory laws allowed us to live like this. They were able to get a message across peacefully, and if people saw peaceful people getting hurt and berated on, more would stand up. Many Americans stood up to racist laws and segregation and just racism. It showed that people cared for their peers and helped create a better world. Reasons it was unsuccessful. Reasons it was unsuccessful The reasons why civil disobedience wasn't successful was because it could end it violence, and sometimes the goal of the people using civil disobedience could be lost. Protests could start out peaceful, but the police or authority could anger protestors and start fights. It would end badly for some people, even deaths. The people protesting could also lose track of what they are actually there for, and do whatever they want. They could destroy things and put themselves and others in danger. Or, they could purposely be violent and think they are doing the right thing, which means they wouldn't give up if questioned. Conclusion Conclusion Civil disobedience has it's unsuccessful and successful ways. Successful ways seems to weigh more than unsuccessful, because anything can go wrong with almost everything. But, the movement of civil disobedience has done many great things and accomplished a lot, so that say's something about how it works. Top 10 Jim Crow Laws Plessy vs. Ferguson Emmett Till Little Rock 9 Freedom Riders March on Washington Black Panthers Thurgood Marshall MLK Assassination Greensboro 4 Emmett Till Emmett Till Emmett Till is one of my top 3 because it was a really shocking case, as a 14 year old boy was killed because of something that could've or could not of have happened. He didn't deserve the penalty and it was a wake up call essentially that something need to be done. Little Rock
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