Transcript: Cinematographer Cinematographers are trained individuals who work on a movie or television set. They select the cameras, equipment and the crew. They analyze the set and determine film and lighting requirements. Cinematographers also instruct the camera operators regarding angles, cues and distances, etc. A cinematographers schedule consists of early mornings and late nights. Those employed in motion pictures may work 10 to 12 hour days or longer with fast approaching deadlines. A fair amount of travel is required when working in remote locations. Work conditions depend on the type of production and where it is being filmed. Cinematographers work in all kinds of weather or indoors. Cinematographers work closely with the director and the film crew. Cinematographers should have most of the following characteristics: the ability to work independently and co-operatively with others creativity and talent a willingness to put in long hours practicing their art, developing their own style and keeping up with technological changes the ability to learn by doing good communication and leadership skills •an appreciation of the composition and feel of visual images •the ability to visualize the finished product before its completion Cinematographers usually have degrees from colleges, universities, or schools specializing in photography. Cinematography students need to study camera operation, camera equipment, and computer technology, as so much of modern-day cinematography uses computers skills. There are also many independent centers that offer training programs in different aspects of filmmaking, such as the American Film Institute's program in cinematography. It is important to find out which skills will make you the most attractive to potential employers. Step 1: Make Sure The Career Path is Right For You Step 2: Learn about the Industry Step 3: Make a Demo Reel Step 4: Volunteer. Salary:The median camera operator salary runs between $58,728 and $88,287 per year, with the highest 10% earning more than $104,000. Without the cinematographer, the producers vision would never come to life. Therefore, they have a very large influence on the production of the film. There is no one in our group who would consider this to be a suitable occupation for themselves. Sources http://www.degreefinders.com/education-articles/careers/how-to-become-a-cinematographer.html http://alis.alberta.ca/occinfo/Content/RequestAction.asp?aspAction=GetHTMLProfile&format=html&OCCPRO_ID=71002192 http://www.mahalo.com/how-to-become-a-cinematographer/
Transcript: What Is A Cinematographer A cinematographer is someone who takes the image a director has and brings it out. To do so they work very closely with the director. How Many Bucks Can You Rake In The average camera operator salary runs between $58,728 and $88,287 per year, with the highest 10% earning more than $104,000. You can earn from 200$-400$ a day when unionized. Some though may get paid in the range 10,000$ or more ! What You Should Know? To do anything you got to know your tools.In this case your camera. This knowledge can be gained through technical school Vocational art school Bachelor of Fine Art in Film cinematographers worth remembering Greg Toland Gordon Willis Conrad L. Hall Cinematography
Transcript: Most art forms share different creative aspects with one another… film is no different. Cinematography comes up in paintings, sculpture, and photography Storytelling comes up in literature Script writing is also a part of theatre Editing, however, makes film a truly unique form of art. Cinematography deals with setting up shots Framing the Shot Scale of Shot Movement of Camera While this is the job of the cinematographer, the director can take a varying role in this matter A “picture” of film One frame is one picture (usually there are 24 frames for 1 second of film) All of the visuals appear in one frame (foreground and background) Angle of framing The location of the camera relative to the subject Sometimes a high angle shot or a low angle shot is used whereby the camera is either higher or lower than the subject. This allows for certain relationships (power, meek, etc) to be implied Level of Framing (camera height): The entire camera is raised (high level) or lowered (low level) but kept parallel to ground Moving the camera to keep the subject in the center of the frame This movement can be slow or fast Uses a combination of pans, tilts, tracking, crane Wide-Angle lens A lens which allows a wider shot than usual. Gives a larger depth of field Useful for establishing shots of scenery Usually contains two figures, one with his/her back to the camera, and the other facing the camera The movement of the camera to show action Can track subject while moving Can become part of action Can rise above action Can zoom onto to subject Can pan or tilt to reveal more information Technically, not a camera motion as only the lens moves to change the focal length. The size of objects also change. Audience moves towards or away from subject. A slow or fast zoom can also add to tension in a scene. Saving Private Ryan Panning Examples Lawrence of Arabia A shot showing large areas (crowds, entire buildings, vast areas) used to establish a scene Movement– Whip Pan A type of panning whereby the camera moves very rapidly. The effect is that the shot blurs into horizontal lines before the camera stops and another shot is framed. Stagecoach Scale Framing: Canted Framing: Angles Framing: Following The use of the camera to create a world that we perceive on screen. Framing: Angles High Noon Framing Movement-- Zoom Shrek Pulp Fiction Tracking shots a shot wherein the camera tracks the motion of an object. A person running while a camera moves long side will appear to stay in place while the background slides backwards. The camera is typically placed on a dolly or wheeled setting to move steadily Usually shows an adult from head to knees. In westerns, we need to show the cowboy’s gun a 4-5 foot object would appear the height of the screen. Crane Example Governed by certain conventions, but not restricted by these conventions; reflecting and complementing the film’s other formal elements A shot showing an entire room or a complete person (person appears height of screen). Shots is used to show full body action in a space—ex: American musicals Saving Private Ryan Scale: Close Up (CU) The Patriot Cinematography Movement-- Tilt Scale: Medium-Close up Canted Framing the camera is tilted to one side the right side or left side higher than the other. Used to disorient audience Shrek The Color of Money Saving Private Ryan Crane Shot the camera is mounted to a crane that can be hoisted into the air. Crane shots are typically long or extremely long shots Movement Movement-- Tracking Shots of differing distances… extreme long shot down to extreme close up Longer shots show wider area but less detail Shorter shots show less area but more detail As camera moves closer there is less depth of field (image is flatter) while with the camera far away the depth of field is greater West Side Story Examples of a Zoom Shows part of person’s face shot to emphasize detail Dramatic effect to show someone’s thoughts Hollow Man Panning Examples Films under a minute long and usually presented a single scene, authentic or staged, of everyday life, a public event, a sporting event or slapstick. No cinematic technique: no editing and usually no camera movement, and flat, staged compositions. The Graduate Over the Shoulder Shot Movement-- Pan Mr. Smith Goes to Washington Head to chest shot whereby a person takes up most of the room on the screen. The typical shot for an interview 1895 Birth of Cinematography Panning can reveal new information Eyes Wide Shut Framing: POV Following shot the camera follows the actors through the use of a pan/tilt/crane/ tracking Stagecoach The Stendhal Syndrome Without Limits To Kill a Mocking Bird Point of View Shot (POV): the camera is placed to mimic a character’s specific point of view. Pan: Turning/pivoting the camera to the left/right. Used to show the physical/spatial relationship between objects. High Noon Scale: Extreme Long Shot (ELS) also called an “establishing shot” Framing: Level The Diving Bell and the Butterfly
Transcript: Low angle – the camera is positioned from a low point of view almost looking up towards the character. High angle – the camera is positioned from a high point of view looking down on the character. Tracking shot – the camera follows the character in their current situation. Tilting shot – the camera is titled up or down establishing the setting/character/object. Panning shot – the camera moves left or right establishing the setting/character/object. Mid-shot – the camera is positioned to only view the mid section of a character – centralizing them. Close-up – the camera is positioned to tightly frame a person or object Extreme shot – in this shot the human figure is either extremely tiny or lost. Long shot – in this shot the human figure is more prominent with the background more dominant. Extreme close up – this shot singles pout proportions of the human face or isolates and magnifies an object. What is Cinematography? Cinematography is the art and science of motion picture photography – including both the shooting and development of the film. The 4 main areas of focus on cinematography are: Camera shots/ angles/ framing/ composition Editing Sound Mise – en – scene Composition is simply the organization of the objects, actors and space within the frame. Maintaining a balance of symmetry is highly important in composition. The frame can be partitioned horizontally, on a left-right axis, and vertically from top-bottom to ensure a balanced composition. This ensures that there is equality in dark and light areas ranging from colours, objects and/or figures. Space is important as it affects the interpretation of the film. Manipulating the depth, proximity, size and proportions of the places and objects in a film effectively determines moods or relationships between elements. For example, if the camera remained stationary in the same position it produces a sense of stagnation. Make-up and hairstyle falls in with costume. The different styles used or the different kind of shades of make up used really creates the characters and conveys many different emotions and idea towards them. Acting plays a huge role in mise-en-scene as it helps make the scene come to life. Constantin Stanislavski’s famous theory of ‘method acting’ involves the actor to fully connect with their character by thinking of a certain event in their life and transporting those emotions to the character and their situation. Camera Through editing sound is added to create an effect within the shot or scene. Two types of sound are added wither together or individually – non diegetic sound (sound added such as music or sound effects) and diegetic sound (sound that can be heard from the shot or scene) Music is added to create some sort of atmosphere within the shot or to evoke specific emotions form the audience. Sound helps create relationships between the images. For example, in romantic films slow, sensual music is added to intimate scenes to help evoke personal emotions from the audience, whereas, in thriller films for example dark, suspenseful music – usually in low tones – is used to create that tension and mystery that thriller are so famously known for. Sound enables the audience to access the characters thoughts and feelings – especially if the image still continues whilst the character is doing something at an objective level. Diegetic sound is normally added to bring realism to the shot or to create a shock factor. The audience are made to feel as though the shot is authentic as they are able to hear the original sound recorded whilst taking the shot. Non – diegetic sound is added to emphasises certain events for example in romantic films specific scene have slow romantic music to convey the feelings and emotions of the characters. Sound Mise-en-scene By joining two shots together and transcending the visual information contained in each individual shot produces meaning – this is one of the basic theoretical principles of editing. This is called The Kuleshov Effect. Editing involves creating meaning through collage, tempo and timing. A collage is an assortment of images joined together in a sequence which allow the audience to formulate ideas and derive meaning. This can be done by using different shots such as shot reverse shot, close ups, high angles, low angles, mid shots, long shots, panning etc… Tempo can either be slowed down or sped up in order to create effect and derive meaning of the particular scene. Normally when a shot is sped up it is to create some sense of tension or to foreshadow the adrenaline within the scene. It conveys the emotions of the characters or the duration of the event within the shot. The opposite is down by slowing down the tempo – this is often done in romantic films. The timing of shot transitions is also adjusted by placing shot transitions so that they coincide with other sound and visual elements. This produces a relationship between the shot transitions and the elements as it can punctuate an emotion al
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Transcript: Cinematography Schooling The Edward R. Murrow School of Comunications In Pullman WA. Ranked 4th in the nation for television news. Produces a daily student-produced television newscast. Useful Highschool class would be Video Production Los Angeles is a good place for a cinematographer to find work... Cinematographers work anywhere there is something happening. To travel with a Reality TV show I would work all over the world, depending on the show. Cinematographers are often called Directors of Photography because they are in charge of the camera, grip and lighting crews on set. DPs are in charge of setting up a shot. They chose the lighting, the lens and composition after consulting with the director. DPs work directly with the Director. Aprox. Salary: $50,000-$100,000 The End But
Transcript: Cinematography Cinematography consists of many aspects such as lighting, camera angles, and camera movement. An example of this would be a Birds eye view shot. This shows a scene from directly overhead, a very unnatural and strange angle. Familiar objects viewed from this angle might seem totally unrecognisable at first This shot does, however, put the audience in a godlike position, looking down on the action. People can be made to look insignificant, ant-like, part of a wider scheme of things. An example of a birds eye view
Transcript: The iPhone camera isn't supposed to be used for professional productions with professional lighting Lighting Equipment major production companies would use a basic light set up for interview BUT when in uncontrolled environments the lighting would depend on the weather and time of day (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr doodles Artificial Lighting Tap to focus iPhone Camera notes Budapest Two main lights - Key light Back Light San Francisco Results Video Recording HD (720p) Up to 30 frames per second with audio Conclusion: It didn't work very well 5 megapixel still camera Notes Why did I want to use an iPhone camera? Because I wanted to know if you could make something look as good as a DSLR or a more professional camera! Stockholm (cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr (cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr It goes an orange colour and starts to flicker Cinematography Experiment Double click to crop it if necessary Why? Because I wanted to experiment with this lighting kit with my iPhone camera How research has influenced my individual approach to the production Reflector used to take away some shadows Equipment for iPhones Lighting VGA quality photos & video LED Flash Tipod - There are lots of different tripods for iPhones on the market. Some come with lenses External Microphone - Lots of different microphones - Most popular being the Belkin LiveAction Mic Research outlook iPhone Camera Documentary Interview The camera struggles with the amount of lighting Knowing what other equipment was availbale, i knew that the basic iPhone camera and microphone wasn't as good as maybe I had thought it would be. photo frame If I was to do it again: Place your own picture behind this frame! Learning that major productions would use a basic light set up for an interview scenario (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr details What does the iPhone camera look like when used with a basic lighting set up for an interview scenario? Assets I used : 2 Red Heads & 1 Refelctor Important Details map I would spend more time on the lighting Use less lighting Ideas
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