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Managing across borders

Transcript: Trains Cargos Printing in Europe Telephones Cut down the communication and transport cost Adaptation Standardization Avoid domination Conflict? Hofstede Economy of scale and scope Technologies development Regional cooperation Government incentives Reaction to competitors Recognition and rewards: monetary rewards based on country and team results, recognition (career opportunities, advantages, considerations) -> Geographic management -> Business management -> Functional management Columbus's discovery of America Vasco Do Gama's discovery of Asia Asia? Sorry, America. The organizational structure Face to face meetings Less conference calls Rotate leadership Social events Power distance Individualism & Collectivism Masculine & Feminism Uncertainty/ Avoidance Long-term Orientation Managing Across Borders Strong business management Transnational solution Think global & local Reasons for Managing Team members : fully competent in an intercultural context, global view of the business’ operations Team leader : facilitator of communication and exchange, closely involved in the project, expert in project and human management 19 Century Inventions Meaning: workers have an identity as members of a business and see how they produce and increase its effectiveness Managing People Across-Borders Roles and People in Global Teams The Supports of the Global Team “Reliance on the goodness, strength, or ability of a person or thing;confidence”. How to overcome communication issues: Language classes Common rules and guidelines Rotate the location of meetings Limit the cultural dominance ’ How to enhance performance : Decisions based on objective facts Enrich debates e.g. “dialectical inquiry” or “devil’s advocate” Open-up Reform The Collins Dictionnary Statutory corporate income tax Foreign-invested company 15% in first 7 years Domestic company 33% Procedural justice: principles that determine the process of allocating resources and solve conflict in a company Interpersonal or interactional justice: promotion opportunities should be as attractive for foreigners and people from the headquarters’ nationality, expectations of performance and rewards should be equally determine Borders National Culture Hofstede's 5 dimension Communication Issues The Collins Dictionary Mixing Centralizing & decentralizing information Span of control Commitment from each subunit Trust Functional management Justice Values Strategy Organization Identity Commitment History of Global Business Conclusion : The role of Corporate Culture Create Transnational Trust Managing Organization Across-Borders Communication The Sponsor : top executive linked to the project, deal with external obstacles and precise expectations and control realisations The External coach : specialist of project management, called for as an help “The act or an instance of communicating; the imparting or exchange of information, ideas, or feelings”. Reasons to Go Global Large geographical environment -> a strong geography management Introduction History Why Motivation

Communicating Across Borders

Transcript: Communicating Across Borders Language Barriers You are traveling to different locations so make sure to research the place you are heading to It helps to understand the culture you will be conducting business in. Get to know their values and what they find important Preparation is the Remember many people do not speak English as their first language, sometimes they will not always understand everything you said After a meeting, always follow up with a email going over all points discussed Ask if they have questions and ADDRESS all questions and concerns before moving forward is to have everyone on the same page It will be helpful to look up key phrases and words in the native tongue they speak in the country you are visiting Do not use lingo that only Americans would understand but use words or phrases that are internationally understood. Ex: Cool, ASAP, TBA...etc Simplicity is In Short Always Follow-Up Be Prepared Remember you will be in unfamiliar territory so be respectful of everyone's culture Stay humble and be friendly This is a two way street and the vibe you give off is the way they will behave design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi Be attentive to your body language. It says a lot more than the words you sometimes speak Focus on body posture and try to be attentive to everyone when they speak Smile and try to stay relaxed because that gives off a more approachable energy Your facial expressions say a lot so make sure to pay attention. Read everyone's body language and try to emulate that when talking to others Building A Strong Foundation Public Speaking Be Respectful and Courteous Remember most of you will be speaking in meetings, so remember to speak to everyone Every individual is different so try speaking to multiple people to get a better picture of the culture Most of these companies are people we want to continue doing business with so try to build a strong relationship Start out formal but use your discretion and observation to see how others react Some countries are less formal, so try to emulate that and use it to help you to connect more with others Be open as possible and maybe even try connecting with them outside the office Be open minded! Be concise and clear when communicating with others. Leave no room for errors Focus on body language (facial expression, posture..etc) Be friendly and open Be prepared (RESEARCH) Be attentive to others Be respectful Nonverbal Communication

Across The Borders

Transcript: By Adam Ansari I was born on May 2, 1995 Reagan, who was the president at the time, was a big advocate of the trickle down theory. Give the rich more money and they will spend it and it will trickle down to the poor and middle class. He passed the Tax act of 1986 which lowered the top tax rate to 38%. 7 astronauts died in the explosion. By Adam Ansari My mother crossed the borders to America in 1986 My father was born in Pakistan on July 28, 1968. That's roughly what was going on in America when my parents crossed the borders from their countries. Technology started growing during this decade when a few years earlier a couple of guys in a garage played with some electronics to make a personal computer and named it after their favorite fruit. My father crossed the border into America in 1989. The Berlin Wall comes down which symbolically ends the Cold War The space shuttle Challenger disintegrated 73 seconds after it launched. His theory failed and the rich just got richer. The Simpsons became the longest-running American sitcom. In 1986 IBM reveals the first portable PC, the laptop. Thank you for your attention! My mother crossed the border into America in 1986. George Bush becomes president in 1989. My mother was born in Vietnam on August 24, 1958. Hopefully I will cross the borders and visit their countries someday. Across The Borders The Simpsons premiered in 1989. I was born in America and lived in Utah all of my life. The largest oil spill in history happens after the Exxon Valdez strikes.


Transcript: Managing Across Borders: New Organizational Responses BUT BEFORE WE START.... THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! QUESTIONS? CONCLUSION Diego Figueiredo Aragão ... adopting a Strategic Management approach could overcome this concern! Designated certain plants as international production centers, to rationalize source patterns COOPTION Companies realized that they had to: Product Failure due to lack of sensitivity and responsiveness "The main issue for managers is to develop new elements of multidimensional organization without eroding their current uni-dimensional capability." FROM CONTROL TO COORDINATION vs Using many informal communication channels, such as: - Forums to facilitate internet learning - Transfer and rotation of a group of senior managers (once called The Dutch Mafia) - Extensive use of committees and task forces DEPENDENCE - Unable to respond quickly and effectively against local competitors INDEPENDENCE - Lower power against competitors with a solid global approach Most successful companies built INTERDEPENDENCE among different units Christopher A. Bartlett Sumantra Ghosbal ARTICLE'S STRUCTURE "One of the most critical constraint faced by the international companies is having a narrowed organizational capability." MNC & Porter’s Value Chain Model INTRODUCTION EXPLORING THE THEORY IN 2 MAIN STAGES : Let's focus on the "SUPPORT ACTIVITIES" DEPENDENCE GOING "TRANSNATIONAL" Coordination of financial, technical and human resources Unilever trying to reinvent the wheel 13 subsidiaries developing their own products High costs of efficiency Strategic advantages of being global Scale: Ability to integrate operations and reduce costs Capital: Opportunity to subsidize losses Adapt and differentiate their management processes for each subsidiary. Improve a simple-control system to a more dynamic and sophisticated one. Establish "Coordination" as a central management function. From losing market share dramatically to expanded responsibilities FROM SYMMETRY TO DIFFERENTIATION MANAGERIAL MINDSET INDEPENDENCE MAIN BODY HOW IMPORTANT IS THE ROLE OF MIND MATRIX FOR A CORPORATION ? Do they all have a common understanding of the company's mission & values? AGENDA Pedro Henrique de Assis There is a lot of new complex administrative processes involved. All units, and employees, must have a common understanding of the organization. Source: THIRD APPROACH Coordination of Goods 3 Mains Streams of Interdependence PRODUCT - Flow of parts, components and finished goods RESOURCE - Flow of funds, skills and scarce resources LEARNING - Flow of intelligence, ideas and knowledge The common thread that holds together a company's business structure is a Let's grab an eye at these key four terms Overcoming 3 simplifying assumptions Standardized product specifications The MNCs should be better seen as a NETWORK OF INTERDEPENDENT SUBUNITS in which each subunit has an active role in contributing to the whole of the corporation. HOFSTEDE'S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS Diana Florescu SOURCE: BARTLETT, 1987 Why is it so important? ....Coordination is a hard task. FIRST APPROACH From Symmetry to Differentiation FROM CONTROL TO COORDINATION E.G. PHILIPS Coordination of information`s flow and knowledge FROM DEPENDENCE/INDEPENDENCE TO INTERDEPENDENCE Transnational companies The essence of multinational corporations comprises a wide range of operations SECOND APPROACH Phillips used a more central-coordinated approach CONCLUSION - adopting a "transnational" approach; - managerial MINDSET/ MIND MATRIX; Process of uniting the organization with a common understanding of, identification with and commitment to the coordination's objectives, priorities and values. ....For a MNC benefits are much larger than pointing out the transnational as a model. WHAT ARE THE AUTHORS TRYING TO SAY? WHAT IS THE STRUCTURE OF THE ARTICLE? CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE ARTICLE ADDITIONAL COMPLEMENTARY SOURCES CONCLUSION From Control to Coordination and Cooption The ultimate goal of the researcher still is the quest for external or environmental factors, but increasingly internal to the firms - MIND MATRIX - that provide them with a competitive advantage. Johano Fransson From Dependence/Independence to Interdependence Scott Cassidy MNC & Porter’s Value Chain Model DOES THE ARTICLE ADDRESS THE ISSUES PROPOSED IN THE INTRODUCTION? INTRODUCTION Source: Illustrates the hypothesis: Source: Source: COMPLEMENTARY SOURCES Source: Source: ...BUT INTERDEPENDENCE The core of effective organization relationships Porter’s Value Chain (Source: Porter, 1990) Netherlands Global companies Multinational companies International companies are importers and exporters; they have no investment outside of their home country. invested in foreign operations; central corporate facility; R&D and marketing powers to each individual foreign market. "think globally, act locally" one corporate office that is

Marriage Across Borders

Transcript: Marriage Across Borders: A Discussion on Multi-Ethnic Marriages in South Korea Kyeongsoo Kim Ivanna Lewis History & Culture History & Culture Historical Background Historical Background U.S. military bases stationed in South Korea (U.S. involvement with WWII, Korean War) Men couldn't find brides locally In 1990s, women of southeast asia (Japanese, Vietnam, Philippines … ) started to Korea for finding better life condition Agricultural population decreases rapidly in 1970. Acceptance? Acceptance? Korean women who married American soldier -> "Yanggongju" (Yankee Princess) Marriages with foreigner were forbidden Families and children resulted from the marriages were rejected Yanggongju Cultural Implications Cultural Implications Koreans believed in "Danil Minjok" (One People) First introduced by the Japanese during colonial rule Shin Chae-ho Re-established following the Korean War to promote nationalism in the country Demographics & Numbers Demographics & Numbers 52.4% of Koreans say Korea is getting multi-cultural society 28.2% says Korea is already multi-cultural society (2017, by trendmonitor) ONENESS "One People" Statistics By ISSP (International Society of Sustainability Professionals) The ratio of interracial marriages in which the groom was the foreigner: 1990: 87% 2004: 28 % 2009: 24.5% Gender Ratio of international marraiage By Korea National Statistical Office (NSO) Number of foreign spouses living in Korea 2001 : 11,605 2009 : 33,300 2012 : 28,326 In the last three years, 10% of marriages in South Korea were international (Especially South East Asian: 30,000) Which side of the border? By Korea National Statistical Office (NSO) Multi-Ethnic Families in South Korea Multiethnic Family in Korea Majority of current multi-ethnic family in Korea lives in rural area In 2000s ,development of international marriage brokers business, south east Asian women get married with Korean leads in interparental conflicts LifeStyle The Struggle for Multiethnic Families in Korea Huge Age Gap (at least 10 to 30) language barrier (30%) Cultural difference(18%) Child Education (11%) Foreign brides think their struggles come from language barrier Statistics By Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs (2017) Difficulties Divorce Rate Many of them ended up getting divorced by Korean National Statistical Office (NSO), 2014 Majority of foreign wife from east-asian country is having trouble communication in Korea => It is neccessary for foreigners to learn Korean to live and work in Korea !!! Fact Check Foreigners who can successfully work and stay in Korea are usually American Native who works as an English teacher or soldiers in U.S Army. They don't stay in Korea for a long term and are not the main population who build multiethnic family in Korea Fact Check Education Gap Child Education Problem Education Gap Replacement for Korean native students living to City Most of child from multi ethnic family get educated in small town with inferior educational infrastructure. Child from multi ethnic family studying in Rural Area Total Amount of Student in Rural Area Racism Racially intolerant or just unaware? Racism White over Black? White over Black? By Trendmonitor, 2017 76.2 % of multi-ethnic families feel Korea has racism ( in 2017, By trendmonitor ) 82.2 % says Koreans' attitude toward foreigners depend on their Countries(ethnicities) => Westernized Beauty Standard Half Black on Media Han Hyun Min Yoon MiRae Michelle Lee Half-Black Koreans started to speak up in media and make huge influence in Korean Society Progress Korean people's awareness of multi ethnic culture is changing positively! Not necessarily racism, Historical background(Oneness) Korea needs more time to accept multi ethnic culture ! Because of Hanryu, multi-ethnic family in Korea has more diversity (South and north America, Europe) + They speak korean and understand korean culture well K-pop, K-drama Study aborad, youtube, tourism... Progress Progress Increasing Cultural diversity Beneficial to the low birth rate trend in South Korea Condition : Government should support multh-ethnic family institutionally Possitive Effect Advantage South Korea has the lowest birth rate 1.17 births per woman (2016) by google statistics Multi-Ethnic Families in the U.S.A. Multiethnic Family in U.S "Melting Pot" -> easily accepted? Populated Cities (LA, NY) Common 1970s, 1 percent of children were of mixed race. Now it is 10 percent ! Looking up melting pot Raised American or Korean? Identities crisis Does divorce play a role? Korean Communities? Church? School? Different kind of identity crisis Identities crisis Accessibility Conclusion Different Factors: History, Culture, accessibility Future of multi-ethnic marriages Racial Awareness/Tolerance? Conclusion Works Cited Works Cited Thank You! Hope You Enjoyed Our Presentation

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