Transcript: Created by Jesus Valencia and Juan Estanislao for Mrs. Muldong Research Information and Bases Acids What are Acids and Bases? What are Acids and Bases? Acids Acids You can recognize acid in liquids by their tart, sour, or sharp taste. Many other acids are highly caustic and should not be put to the taste test. Strong Acids Strong Acids A Strong Acid is an acid that ionizes completely in a solvent. Examples of a Strong Acid are the following: Hydochloric Acid (HCL), Hydrobromic acid (HBr), Hydriodic acid (HI), Nitric acid (HNO3), Sulfuric acid, (H2SO4), Perchloric acid (HCL04), Periodic acid (HL04). Weak Acids Weak Acids Weak Acids are acids that releases few hydrogen ions in a aqueous solution. Examples of Weak Acids are the following: Acetic acid (CH3COOH), Hydrocyanic acid (HCN), Hydroflouric acid (HF), Nitrous acid (HNO2), Sulfurous acid (H2SO3), Hypochlorous acid (HOCL), Phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Bases Bases Unlike acids, which are usually liquids or gases, many common bases are solids. Solutions of bases are slippery to the touch, but touching bases is an unsafe way to identify them. Strong Bases Strong Bases Strong Bases are bases that ionizes completely in a solvent. Examples for Strong Bases are the following: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), Potassium hyrdroxide (KOH), Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, Barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)2), and Sodium Phosphate (Na3PO4). Weak Bases Weak Bases Weak Bases are bases that releases few hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions. Examples of Weak Bases are the following: Ammonia (NH3), Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3), Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3), Aniline (C6H5NH2), and Trimethylamine (CH3)3N). Acidity, Basicity, and pH Acidity, and Basicity, and pH Water is both an acid and a base. This means that a water molecule can either give or receive a proton. For example when their are a pair of water molecules ---> (H2OCL)+ (H2OCL)---> (H3O) (aq)+ (OH) (aq). A pair of water molecules are in equilibrium with two ions- a hyrdronium ion and a hydroxide ion- in a reaction known as the selfionization of water. Thus, even pure water contains ions. When the concentration of (H3O) goes up, the concentration of (OH) goes down, and vice versa. An equilibrium- a constant expression relates the concentration of species involved in an equilibrium. The relationship for the water equilibrium is simply (H3O+) + (OH-)= Keq. This equilibrium constant is called the self-ionization constant of water. Its so important that it has its own special symbol,Kw. The product of these two ion concentration is always constant. The concentration of hydroxide ions in a solution expresses its bascicity. pH determines how basic or acidic something is. When acidity and basicity are exactly balanced such that the numbers of the (H3O+) and (OH-) ions are equal, we say that the solution is neutral. For an example, pure water is neutral because it contains equal amounts of the two ions. Certain dyes known as indicators, turn different colors in solutions of diferent pH. Neutralization and Titrations Neutrailization and Titrations When a solution has a high (H3O+) concentration, it high enough to react with and dissolve metals. High concentrations of (H3O+) (aq) and (OH-) (aq) cannot co-exist. Most of these ions have reacted with each other in a process known as a neutralization reaction. When solutions of a strong acid and a strong base, having exactly equal amounts of (H2O+) (aq) and (OH-) (aq) ions are mixed, almost all of the hydronium and hydroxide ions react to form water. The reaction is described by the equation: (H3O+) (aq) + (OH-) (aq) ---> (2H20Cl). The game reaction happens regardless of the identities of the strong acid and strong base. After hydrochloric acid neutralizes a solution of sodium hydroxide, the only solutes remaining are (Na+) (aq) and (Cl-) (aq). When the water is evaporated, a small amount of sodium chloride crystals. If an acidic solution is added gradualy to a basic solution, at some point the neutralization reaction ends because the hydroxide ions becomes used up. This process is called equivalence point. The gradual addition of one solution to another to reach an equivalence point is called a Titration. The purpose of a titration is to determine the concentration of an acid or a base. Titrant is used to measure the volume of the alkaline solution. To find the concentration of the solution being titrated, you must of course, already have the concentration of the titrant. A solution whose concentration is already known is called a standard solution. All indicators have a transition cage. In this range the indicator is partly in its basic form. The instand at which the indicator changes color is the end point of the titration. If an appropriate indicator is chosen, the end point and the equivalence point wiil be the same. Equilibria of weak Acids and Bases Equilibira of weak acids and bases Formic acid is a typical Bronstec- lowry acid, able to donate a proton to a base, such as the acetate ion, CH3COO. The name
Transcript: The Law of Conservation of Mass states that in any physical change, or chemical reaction, mass is conserved. Meaning that, mass is never created nor destroyed. When you burn wood, you end up with what?? ASHES. Right, right. But, where did the rest of what used to be wood go?! Carbon Dioxide gas and water vapor! They have been released into the air. You MUST consider all three masses.. Ashes, carbon dioxide gas, and water vapor in order to see that the amount of matter is unchanged. Mass of the Reactants = Mass of the Products This explains why it is CRITICAL to balance your equations. BALANCING EQUATIONS For easy understanding we'll use a made up equation. Al+FeO --> Al2O3+Fe Now, why can't we just work with the problem the way it is? IT'S NOT BALANCED!! Now, according to the law of conservation of mass, the reactants MUST equal the products. Soooo, we HAVE to balance this equation before we do anything else! Let's take another look at this equation: Al+FeO --> Al2O3+Fe On the product side, we have.. 1 Al, 1 Fe, & 1 O. On the reactant side, we have.. 2 Al, 1 Fe, & 3 O. Ultimately, you need to find the easiest way to make the numbers match up. Now, since there is no way to get rid of a number that is given in a equation, you have to add numbers. The easiest way to get the Aluminum to match is to add a 2 to the left side. 2Al+Feo You have part of it done, now to balance Fe and O. Pick one and count it. I've picked O. So I have, 2Al+FeO --> Al2+O3+Fe. In order to make the Oxygen match, I add a 3 to the left side. 2Al+3FeO --> Al2+O3+Fe Since your Fe is the only one left that doesn't match, add another 3 to the right. 2Al+3FeO --> Al2O3+3Fe Now, double check that all your numbers match, and YOU'RE DONE! 5 Basic Types of Reactions Synthesis Decomposition Single Replacement Double Replacement Combustion So, you're probably thinking.. "Cool. Now, how am I supposed to recognize these when I see them?!" Easy! Once you learn how to tell them apart, and know that they never change, you will be recognizing them in no time!! For example, in a synthesis reaction, you are ALWAYS combining. A+B --> AB In a decomposition reaction, you will be doing the complete opposite. AB --> A+B In a single replacement reaction, look at it like someone stealing your boyfriend. A+BC --> AC+B In a double replacement reaction, you can look at it like two couples going out together, deciding they like the other couples partner better, and switching. AB+CD --> AD+CB Last but not least, you have a combustion reaction, which you will always end up with carbon dioxide and water. Hydrocarbon+Oxygen --> Carbon dioxide+Water When using the patterns to predict products, you should refer to the activity level chart. Say you're working with Sodium. Na will replace anything below it on the Activity Series of Halogens. This works the same for elements listed on the chart. This has been an original prezi by, Kaitlyn. EQUATIONS
Transcript: Never leave a lit burner unattended. Never leave anything that is being heated or visibly reacting unattended. Always turn off the burner or hot plate when not in use. Rule #9 Rule #50 Keep the lab clean. Materials (books, purses, backpacks, etc.) should be stored in the classroom area. Safety Rules
Transcript: More Stable - Ions are easily formed eactions LIGAND SUBSTITUTION - is a reaction in which one ligand in a complex ions is replaced by another ligand. The ligand that is replaced in most ligand substitution is water molecules. COMMON LIGANDS :OH - hydroxide (-1) :CN - cyanide (-1) :SCN - Thiocyanate (-1) :Cl - Chloride (-1) :NH3 - Ammonia (neutral) :OH2 - Water (neutral) First Reaction The water particles in the aqueous copper (II) ions dissociate and hydrogen gas is produced. A pale blue precipitate is formed Second Reaction The excess ammonia is acting as a ligand and kicks off four of the waters. A dark bue solution is formed. Concentrated hydrochloric is added to an aqueous solution containing cobalt (II) ions. Aqueous cobalt (II) ions are pale pink in colour and when hydrochloric acid it turns to a dark blue solution. The HCl replaces six water molecules in the complex ions are replaced by four chloride ions. The reaction is reversible and can be represent in a equilibrium equation. Definition: (Equilibrium) Left Ligand Substitution is the equilibrium constant for an equilibrium existing between a transition metal ion surrounded by water ligands and the complex formed when the same ion has undergone a ligand substitution. Stability Constant Aqueous Copper(II) ions and Hydrochloric Acid Right R Concentrated hydrochloric is added to an aqueous solution containing copper (II) ions. The solution starts off at pale blue solution, initially forms a green solution before finally turning yellow. The reaction exists in equilibrium and can be reversed by adding water to the yellow solution to return to its original colour blue. It turns green when there is equal concentrations of both aqueous copper(II) ions and concentrated HCl. High Stability constant Low Stability Constant Aqueous Cobalt(II) ions and Hydrochloric Acid LIGANDS SUBSTITUTION AND STABILITY CONSTANTS Explain what is meant by ligand substitute giving two examples that are accompanied by a color change and including equations in your answer. Aqueous Copper(II) ions and Ammonia
Transcript: Propane can exist as a liquid and a gas. In its most natural state, it is clear, odorless, colorless, and non-toxic. When it turns into a gas it becomes bubbly. Think of it this way, water is liquid and steam is water vapor. Fun Fact: *Propane is the 3rd most popular gas used in vehicle transportation* What its used for? Propane iiii Propane Explosions Looks Like? *Commercial odorant is added so it can be detected if it leaks from it's container* Propane mixed with butane is mainly used as vehicle fuel. Propane mixed with air can start a flame. Propane starts out as a liquid then turns into a gas when it is exposed to air which causes it to ignite. Propane undergoes combustion reactions in a similar fashion to other alkanes. In the presence of excess oxygen, propane burns to form water and carbon dioxide. *Propane is flammable when mixed with air (oxygen) and can be ignited* Where its found? How it got named? The risk with the gas comes at high levels of exposure where the propane has displaced enough oxygen to cause asphyxia. Asphyxia is where the body cannot acquire enough oxygen and could lead to death. In liquid form, the risk is that exposure will cause frostbite on your skin. Fun Fact: Propane is usually found mixed with natural gas and petroleum deposits in rocks deep underground. Propane is called a fossil fuel because it was formed millions of years ago from the remains of tiny sea animals and plants. Reactions Formula Propane is used as fuel for furnaces for heat, in cooking as an energy source for water heaters, laundry dryers, barbecues, portable stoves, and motor vehicles The "prop-" root found in "propane" and names of other compounds with three-carbon chains was derived from the origin "propionic acid" *Propane helps to reduce ozone depletion. It has the ability to replace chlorofluorocarbon & hydro fluorocarbon refrigerants* Effects: Chemical Compound: Who Discovered? Fun Fact: Fun Fact Propane wasn't discovered till 1912 when Dr. Walter Snelling was directing a series of experiments for the U.S. Bureau of Mines, he discovered that several evaporating gases could be changed into liquids and stored at moderate pressure. Dr. Snelling developed a way to "bottle" the wet (liquid) gas. One year later, the commercial propane industry began heating American homes.
Transcript: Chemical properties describe how things react Physical properties describe smell, sight, feeling etc Isotope: atoms of same element with a different number of neutrons Quantum Numbers Step 2: Start by energy level Ions: atom of an element with a charge Never use "mono" for first element in molecule The Periodic Table Polar and Polar mix Polar: when one side completely pulls Binary Salt Ionization Energy: amount of energy required to remove an electron Step 1: Identify how many electrons -One element after "H" -Add hydro- prefix -Ends in -ate, change ending to -ic N, L, Ml, Ms Ionic Bonds Step 1. Assume 100 grams Mixtures: -Homogenous: same throughout; consistent -Heterogenous: Different throughout; inconsistent Chemical and Physical Changes The Quantum Numbers Valence Shell: outer most shell of electron Protons: positive Electrons: negative Neutrons: neutral -When an ionic bond occurs, net charge should equal 0 J.J Thomson's experiment proved there was a negative charge within atom with help of the decotho ray experiment (I spelled "decotho" wrong) Rutherford discovered the the nucleus and protons with the gold-foil experiment Sub-atomic particles: protons, neutrons, electrons Core electrons: all electrons not in valence shell Non-polar: when everything pulls the same Steps Polyatomic Acid Dalton's Atomic Theory 1. All substances are made up of tiny particles called atoms 2. Nothing is smaller than an atom 3. Atoms of the same element are identical 4. Law of Conservation of Mass: matter cannot be neither created nor destroyed 5. Law of Constant Composition: all molecules of same compound are made of same ratio of element 2. Identify the anion and give its name, but change ending to -ide Ionic and Covalent Bonds Discoveries 5. Use mass of empirical formulas and given mole mass to identify molecular formula Use Latin prefixes Step 4. Simplify ratio by dividing by samllest number Electronegativity: attractedness of an atom to an electron; increases left to right on P.T Empirical Formulas: simplest ratio of elements in compounds Monoatomic Acid Hector Bocanegra Period 2 -Occurs with nonmetals and metals Non-polar and non-polar mix Atomic Radius: size of atom; distance from valence shell Types of Reactions -Occur when there is a large amount of difference in negativity Nonmetal + nonmetal Nomenclature -N: energy level -L: orbital -Ml: orientation -Ms: spin Covalent Bonds Sub-Atomic Particles History of Atom Polarity Electronegativity Molecular Formulas: the exact composition of a compound -Exist in nonmetal and nonmetal Solids -definite shape and definite volume Liquids -definite shape and indefinite volume Gas -indefinite shape and indefinite volume Empirical and Molecular Formulas Polar substances will always be uneven -Ends in -ite, change ending to -ous Step 2. Convert to moles Step 3. Write a ratio of elements -Octet Rule: valence shell should have 8 electrons Not all physical changes are permanent Color is a physical property; a CHANGE in color is a chemical 1. Identify the cation and give its full name Compounds and Molecules Acid Nomenclature Orbitals exist for every energy level, but only some exist on each energy level Electron Configuration - Made when ions are shared (electron) Synthesis- puts together Decomposition- separates Precipitation- combination of 2 liquids to a solid Single-Replacement- one swap Double-Replacement- two swaps Combustion- fire/explosion Redox- change in charge, one molecule steals an electron Nomenclature "Like dissolves Like" Element: cannot be broken down further a. If no charge is given, number of electrons=number of protons When element starts with vowel, drop "a" in prefix - In order to represent how covalent compounds are structured, we use a system called the Lewis Dot Structure Chemistry PowerPoint
Transcript: Free Music Download (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Music is an art where people can express themselves. The creation, performance, significance vary according too the culture of the country. And one more thing...
Transcript: Zinc with copper (II) sulfate yield what? Aluminum and silver nitrate combine to create what two products? Sodium and chlorine gas react. What does this create? Magnesium and oxygen gas combine to yield what? Sodium oxide decomposes into what elements? Water breaks down to make what? Lead sulfide decomposes into what two elements? Aluminum and fluorine combine to make what compound? Joshua Hurley and Turner Griffith Sodium phosphate and magnesium carbonate combine to make what two compounds? Sodium chloride reacts with silver nitrate to make what products? Synthesis, Single Replacement, Double Replacement, Combustion, Acid-Base Calcium hydroxide and nitric acid yield what? Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide to get what products? Hexane burns in oxyen gas to create what? Propene ignites with oxygen gas to get what products? Chemistry Equations
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