Transcript: Chemical Bonding by McKenzie Tangren The three main types of chem. bonding are: ionic, covalent, and metallic! Other types are non-polar covalent bonding, polar bonding, and polar-covalent bonding. IONIC BONDING :) Ionic Bonds create Ionic Compounds An Ionic Compound is a 3D network of both positive and negative ions that attract each other. These compounds are usually harder because the attraction is so strong between the positive and negative ions. Since they are harder it makes them more brittle causing in a higher boiling point. Formula Unit- lowest whole # ratio of ions represented in an ionic compound. How can you tell how strong an ionic compound is? by Lattice energy! Lattice Engergy can measure the strengh of the bonds that make up an ionic solid compound! Generally atoms that make up metal bonds bond ionically with atoms of nonmetals. Atoms of metals bond metallically with each other. Atoms of nonmetals bond with each other covalently. How I remember is that ionic is the odd one out and has opposites it has metal and nonmetal. If it bonds metal with metal then i see it as pure metal therefore it must be metallically bonded. Last, covalent really has nothing to do with metal so it is strictly nonmetal against nonmetal. COVALENT BONDING :) A covalent bond is where two atoms are connected because they share a pair of electrons. If the bond has more than one pair of shared electrons, then it is called a multipe bond. Atoms that make up molecules are connected by covalent bonding. How do you determine the strength of a Chemical Bond you may ask. Well you can determine it by bond energy. Bond length is the average distance between nuclei in two bonded atoms in a molecule. Single bond= 1 electron pair is shared Double bond= 2 electron pairs are shared Triple= 3 electron pairs are shared Lewis Dot Structures! what they are is a diagram which shows the bonding relationships with atoms in a molecule. This process is commonly called electron dot notation. Usually, bonding is shown through a Lewis Dot Structure, however, if it cannot be represented that way then it is shown through Resonance Structures. Octet Rule!!! atoms usually combine so that they have 8 electrons in the outer most shell (valence shell/valence electrons). Molecules and Ions are more stable when their valence shell is complete with all 8 valence electrons. Polyatomic Ions- are groups of atoms that are charged and held together simply by covalent bonds. We all have a pretty good idea of what a molecule is right? In basic definition a molecule is a group of two or more atoms that are held tightly together by covalent bonds. Now we know what a molecule is, what is a diatomic molecule? A diatomic molecule is a molecule that consists of strictly two atoms no more than two. Metallic Bonding :) Metal bonding is and attraction of metal atoms and moblie electrons floating in a conduction band between metal atoms. Characteristics of a metallic Bond! Ductile- means its mallable basically something that can be drawn into sheets. they have a Luster. they are Mallable, which is the same thing as being ductile. they have high electrical conductivity. Conduction Band- a sort of semi conductor that electrons move freely on. Band Gap- energy difference between the highest valence band and the lowest conduction band. The smaller the band gap between the valence and conduction bands gives metals their characteristics of high electrical conductivity, malleability, ductility, and luster. Intermolecular forces :) Intermolecular Forces: attraction forces is how I see them. London dispersion Force- intermolecular attraction that comes from the continuous motion of electrons and the making of instantaneous dipoles. Intermolecular forces (Dipole-Dipole and London Dispersion forces) exist in only certain types of molecules. Like Hydrogen Bonding, this is a special case of Dipole-Dipole forces working. The End!!! In an Ionic bond, one atom either gains or loses an electron. this is the transfer of electrons. Triple What is a Dipole? A Dipole is an equal pair of opposite electric charges. Double "hey, wanna make a molecule?" Hydrogen Bond between 2 water molecules! Some Common Ions Single Did you know, most all of the atoms are bonded to other atoms chemically? This creates a compound. "sure!"
Transcript: Chemical Bonding By: Matthew Beemsterboer When a metal and a non-metal transfer electrons to fill their highest energy levels. How Elements Bond in Covalent Bonding Triple Bond N N THANK YOU :) Ex. Fe(OH) - iron(III) hydroxide 3 These are compounds that have a positive or negative change and can be written in two different ways. They can be written with either a prefix or with subscripts to show the charge. N N Polyatomic Ions Transition Metals A picture of Sodium Chloride which is an ionic compound. (Metal) How Elements Bond in Covalent Single Bond Ex. NO - nitrogen dioxide 2 ClF - chlorine trifloride (Non-metal) H O H O H 2 2 Naming Ionic Bonds N Ex. KCl - potassium chloride Ex. CuO - copper (II) oxide When naming these compounds, you write the name of the metal without any changes, but you put a Roman numeral in parentheses behind the element to show the charge of the ion. The non-metal's ending is changed to -ide. (Cation) 3 2 To name these ions you must add a prefix to the beginning of each element (unless the first element has one then you do not add mono to the beginning). Then change the suffix to - ide. Metals Covalent Bonding H O H (Anion) When atoms share electrons to fill their highest outer energy level. The atoms must be non-metals. Na + Cl Na Cl Ionic Bonding How Elements Bond in Ionic Bonding Naming Covalent Bonds You put the metal first and just give it the element's name without any changes. Then put the non-metal next, changing its suffix to ide.
Transcript: 3 How to Distinguish the 3 Bonds yes, energy is stored in metallic bonds. metallic bonds Chemical Bonds types of bonds ionic bonds are formed when one atom accepts or donates one or more of its valence electrons to another atom. metallic bond is formed when electrons are shared by 2 metallic atoms. (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr covalent bonds can be broken by temperature and pressure. Formed ionic covalent is energy stored in these bonds? well ionic bonds accept or donate 1 or more electron atoms. covalent, when 1 or more ectrons are being shared. Results metallic covalent bonds store energy at all times because of free energy. ionic bonds can be broken when dissolved in a polar solvent or melted. Differences (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr ionic bonds store energy also,such as potential. Our Project (cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr Broken metallic bonds are malleable, also there ductile. (cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr
Transcript: Molecular bonding also known as covalent bonding involves the sharing of electrons instead of the transfer of them. they happen between two non-metals or a non-metal and a polyatomic ion. The difference in electronegativity is less than 2.1 and can even be 0. Some examples are H2O in ice form is used for both industrial and household uses and is a non conducting solid. CO2 is used for both industrial and household uses and is a non conducting solid. Crystal lattice is when all the molecules line p with each other to make a straight line. A couple of examples are NaCl which is sodium chloride or best known as table salt. Another is Na2CO3 which is sodium carbonate. Ionic Bonds My references Lewis diagrams (Oct. 8, 2012) http://www.green-planet-solar-energy.com/lewis-dot-structure.html NaPO4 msds sheets (Oct. 8, 2012) http://www.bestphosphates.com/upfiles/pdf/Trisodium-Phosphate-MSDS.pdf Copper (II) Sulfate (Oct. 8, 2012) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper(II)_sulfate Chemical bond (Oct. 8, 2012) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_bond F. Jenkins, H van Kessel, D. Thompkins and O. Lantz (2007). Nelson Chemistry Alberta 20-30. Pg. 83, 121, 129. Common Molecular Shapes Chemical Bonding Metallic Bonding is where the valence electrons aren't held very strongly by their atoms and the atoms have vacant valence electrons. The valence electrons are free to move about between the atoms. this is also described as a sea of electrons. Molecular Bonds By Austen Metallic Bonds Ionic bonding is the transfer of electrons from a metal to a non-metal or in one case a polyatomic to another polyatomic. Another way to tell if the compound is ionic is test the electronegativity and see if it's more than 2.1. If it is then the compound must be ionic. Some examples are NaCl which is table salt and is a house hold item that is a conductor in a liquid or solution. Na3PO4 which is an industrial material that is hazardous and has a high solubility. CuSO4 (5H2O) is an industrial material that is a pesticide, it has a solubility that is high. Chemical Properties Lewis diagram for NF3 The differences in chemical properties is what makes the melting point, boiling point, malleability, ductility, and solubility. The more atoms you have the more energy it takes for the melting point, boiling point, malleability, ductility, and solubility to change. if you have lots of atoms evrything will be harder to change because you simply have more of it. The common Molecular shapes are Tetrahedral with an angle of 109.5 degrees Pyramidal with an angle of 107.3 degrees Trigonal planar with an angle of 120 degrees Angular (v-shaped) with an angle of 104.5 degrees Linear with an angle of 180 degrees
Transcript: Weak bond. Between two non-metals or a non-metal & metalloid. Varying structures. Between free-floating electrons and metalloids. Atoms share a sea of electrons. Example: For polarity of molecules, it's polar unless there are no lone pairs on the central atom & it has same molecule all around the central atom. In that case, it would be nonpolar. Conducts electricity. Variable melting point and boiling point. Malleable or able to be smashed/formed into shapes. Gold!!!! Bonding is when electrons are shared/transferred between atoms with two main goals: To lower energy. Higher stability ...and an overall goal to achieve the octet rule, having 8 valence electrons, besides Boron & Aluninum (need 6) and Hydrogen (needs 2). Covalent Bond What is bonding? Electron-dot Structure Metallic Bond Nonpolar Bonds Properties of Covalent Bonds Polarity 1. see electronegativity between atoms Methane 2. If 0-0.4, then it is polar! Ex: The Three types of Bonding Hard solids at room temperature. High melting and boiling point. Brittle. Poor conductors of heat. Able to conduct electricity when compound is dissolved or melted. By: Tanner Rubin Properties of Metallic Bonds Salt Chemical Bonding! Electron dot structure shows how the valence electrons are distributed. Properties of Ionic Bonds Ionic Bond Example: Why is bonding important? Ex 2: Chlorine Chemical Bonding is a very impornt aspect of even everyday life. Most things that we touch, use, see, eat and more has some sort of bond, and without that, it wouldn't be here. As a matter of fact, we wouldn't be here without the bond of oxygen, because without that, we couldn't breathe! Oxygen is just one of the many bonds on Earth that are important to us as human beings! Strongest bond. Between metal and non-metal. 3-D structure with alternating atoms. Example: NaCl... Ex 1: Water 2. If 0.5-1.8, then it is non-polar! Ex: Soft solid at room temperature. Low melting and boiling point. Do not conduct electricity in the solid, melted, or dissolved form. Polar Bonds
Transcript: So.. what is chemical bonding? Chemical Bonding is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms So what type of Chemical Bondings are there then? There are 3 types of Chemical Bondings which are Covalent, Ionic, and Metallic Covalent Bonding Covalent Bonding is where atoms share there electrons. Covalent Bond Formation Now Ionic Bonds Ionic Bonds are formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. and that means? One or more electrons from one atom are removed and attached to another atom, making the atom have either a positive and negative ions which attract each other. A little bit easier? And lastly Metallic Bonds In metals, the metal atoms lose their outer electrons to form metal cations. The electrons from all the metal atoms form a "sea" of electrons that can flow around these metal cations. Whats the difference in these bonds? Ionic bonds steal electrons and form an "electromagnetic" connection while Covalent bonds share there electrons and swaps them out with other atoms forming a conneciton and Metallic Bonds form only in Metalls Is energy stored in these bonds? YES When Chemical bonds are made they release energy Energy is stored when these bonds are broken Some Examples? Metallic Bonds: Brass (Copper+Zinc) Steel (Iron+Carbon) Ionic Bonds: Table Salt (sodium+chloride) carbon tetrafluoride (carbon+chlorine) Covalent Bonds: Chemical Bonding Photo credits: 'horizon' by pierreyves @ flickr Made By: Danessa Crowe Hydrogen chloride (Hydrogen+chloride) Phosphorus chloride (Phosphorus+Chloride)
Transcript: Is A force that holds two atoms together There are 3 physical properties associated with an ionic bond : Melting point, Boiling point, and Hardness The energy in the formation of an ionic bond is either absorbed or released. When energy is absorbed the reaction is endothermic. If the energy is released it is exothermic. Most atoms form chemical bonds by the attraction that contain ionic bonds are ionic compounds. Made with cations and anions Covalent Bonds Formation of a single, double, and triple covalent bonds Pi Bonds Parallel orbitals over lap to share electrons Sigma Bonds electron pair is shared in an area centered in 2 atoms Metallic Bonds attraction of metallic cation for delocalized electrons strength depends on the distance Chemical Bonding
Transcript: Ex.) Resulting in positive(cation) and negative(anion) ions which attract each other. It formula for a molecule shows the sequence of atoms. It is a measure of the unequal sharing of electrons. 1. NaCl It relates other physical properties such as melting and boiling points and solubility between molecules. 1. CH4 Ex.) 2.H2O Ionic Bonds Electrons are gained and lost during bonding. It indicated by the difference in electronegativity values. Chemical Bonding Electrons are mobile and shared by all atoms in a sea of electrons. It is a bond in which one or more electrons from one atom are removed and attached to another atom, Electrons are placed up to two on each side of the elemental symbol for a maximum of eight. It occure between two nonmetals or non metal and metalloid. It is considered strong bonds. It is forces that hold atoms together. Bonding Two atoms share electrons. 2. Ionic Compound Structure Ex.) Polarity The chemical bond characteristic of metals, in which mobile valence electrons are shared among atoms in a usually stable crystalline structure. It is helpful to understand about chemical bonding. It is sharing of valance electrons by atoms. It is an attraction between free-floating valance electrons and metal ions. is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms. It is considered a weak bond. Electron-dot structure Metallic Bonds It is a physical property of compounds the atoms interact with each other Covalent Bonds Ex.) Ex.) 1. C
Description: Add some color to your quarterly business review with this vibrant business presentation template. The bold visuals in this business template will make your next QBR a memorable one.
Description: Catch the eye and engage the imagination with this cool-looking Prezi proposal template. The bold, bright design and highly dynamic theme all but guarantee success for your next sales or marketing proposal. All Prezi presentation templates are easily customized.
Description: The sky’s the limit. Boost your new sales initiative into orbit with an engaging and compelling SKO presentation. This template features a effective sales kickoff theme that makes it easy to be engaging. Like all Prezi SKO templates, it’s fully customizable with your own information.
Now you can make any subject more engaging and memorable