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Chemical Bonding

Transcript: A chemical bond is a bond formed between two atoms when they share or transfer electrons based on the electronegativity of the atom. An elements electonegativity (EN) determines how much an electron wants an electron. The higher the EN, the more the element will fight for the electron. Elements that have over half their valence electrons (i.e. F) will exhibit higher levels of electronegativity (up to 4.0) than those who are less than half-filled (i.e. Na) which can be as low as 0.7 There are two types of chemical bonds: and The difference between two atoms EN will determine the type of bond the molecule forms Ionic Bonding An Ionic bond is one where two atoms transfer electrons to form a bond. The higher EN atom will steal an electron from the element with a lower EN. The EN difference in ionic bonds is anywhere from 1.7 where the tug-of-war between the elements is a long fought out battle to 3.3 where the higher EN atom rips the electron away from the less EN atom. Ionic Compounds: lithium flouride sodium chloride Covalent Bonding A covalvent bond is one where the two atoms share electrons to form a bond because the electronegative difference between the two is about the same. There are two kinds of covalent bonds: and Polar Covalent Bonds The EN difference in polar covalent bonds is anywhere from 0.4 where the tug-of-war between the elements is essentially halted to 1.7 where the battle goes on for a while. Here elements are labeled partially negative (higher EN) and partially positive (lower EN). The electron spends most of its time around the partially negative element. Polar Covalent Compounds: carbon dioxide Now notice the desiganation of the partial positive and partial negative! Non-Polar Covalent Bonds The EN difference in non-polar covalent bonds is anywhere from 0.0 where the molecule is diatomic (two of the same elements combined) to 0.4 where the tug-of-war is essentially a tie. Non-Polar Covalent Compounds: oxygen (g) nitrogen (g) The green in the nitrogen molecule shows that the electrons are being shared equally! CHEMICAL------------BONDING Colors here represent Electroneg. Purple Low EN Red High EN CHEMICAL BONDING

Chemical Bonding

Transcript: ex/ Cu Ti Al metallic bonds attract floating valence electrons to metal ions ex/ CaCl polarity covalent 2 2 NaCl types these are examples of electron dot structures 2 It can help us understand more about the electrons involved in each bond and determine the polarity or non polarity of the substance and/or bond the electrons are mobile ex/ H shares its electrons equally, therefore it is a nonpolar covalent bond ex/ HBr shares its electrons unequally, therefore it is a polar covalent bond the bonds conduct electricity, generally have high melting points, and are maleable Why is it important? Atoms bond for lower energy and higher stability Why do atoms bond? CHEMICAL BONDING by Christine Veit the electron dot structure shows the sequence of atoms, the bonded pairs between atoms, and the unshared electrons in valence shells 2 nonpolar covalent bonds are a bond between atoms with similar electronegativities 2 polarity in general depends on the electronegativity of the elements in the molecule, and is based on the polarity of the bonds the bond is usually shared between two nonmetals to form a molecule ex/ polar covalent bonds are shared unequally in a covalent bond metallic covalent & ionic ionic bonds are strong, and occur between a metal and a nonmetal a resonance structure is when two or more electron dot structures are written with the variety of ways that the double bond can be placed metallic electron dot structure ionic H O CO N covalent bonds share electrons ex/ H2 the attraction pulls the atoms closer until they share a pair of valence electrons and form a covalent bond these bonds are solids at room temperature, brittle, are poor conductors of heat, but are able to conduct electricity when dissolved in water or melted covalent bonds are weak, have high melting/boiling points, are brittle, and poor conductors of heat Li O

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