Transcript: What is it? *composed of brain and spinal cord and is made up of cells called neurons Make-Up: Frontal Lobe- responsible for thought, language, emotions, and voluntary movements Parietal Lobe- responsible for perception and interpretation of touch Occipotial Lobe- where visual images are processed Temporal Lobe- recognized and interprets sounds and helps form new memories Colliculi- relays visual and auditory sensations throughout the cerebrum Functions *allows communication to the body and responds to stimuli *transmits nerve impulses from all parts of the body *controls virtually everthing (I.E. sight, smell, hearing, taste, feeling, emotion) *carries electrical signals and transmits them to other nervous cells, muscular cells, and glandular cells Breakdowns *Nervous system problems may occur slowly and cause a gradual loss of function (degenerative), or they may occur suddenly and cause life-threatening problems (acute) Some causes of nervous system problems: *vascular disorders *trauma, especially injuries to the head and spinal cord *congenital problems (are present at birth) *anxiety disorders, depression, or psychosis *exposure to toxins, such as carbon monoxide, arsenic, or lead -Problems that cause a gradual loss of function (degenerative): *Parkinson's disease *Multiple sclerosis (MS) *Alzheimer's disease *Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) *Huntington's disease *Peripheral neuropathies -Infections: *brain: encephalitis or abcesses *membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord: meningitis Quiz Time True or False: The central nervous system is mainly made up of the brain and heart. False; It's mainly made up of the brain and spinal cord. True or False: The central nervous system only controls your sense of smell and taste. False; it controls sight, smell, hearing, taste, feeling, emotion, and much more. Which of the following will help maintain your central nervous system's health? a. eat a lot of chocolate b. eat healthy fats c. write as neatly as possible for 15 minutes a day d. a & b e. b & c e. b & c Nervous system problems are... a. degenerative b. acute c. a or b d. none of the above c. a or b True or False: The central nervous system carries electrical signals and transmits them to other nervous, muscular, and grandular cells. True Works Cited Batigne, Stephane, Josee Bourbonniere, and Nathalie Fredette. Major Systems of the Body. MIlwaukee, WI: World Alminac Library, 2002. Print. Macaulay, David. The Way We Work. New York City, NY: Hofton MIfflin Company, 2008. Print. MD, WEB. “ Nervous System Problems.” WedMD. WedMD, Inc., 2012. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. <http://www.webmd.com/brain/tc/nervous-system-problems-topic-overview>. *make sure you intake adequate amounts of healthy fats, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 *spend a minimum of 15 minutes per day writing on paper as neatly as you can (writing requires the use of all major components of your conscious motor and sensory pathways) Maintain It's Health! Central Nervous System
Transcript: Central Nervous System Interpret interactions among hormones, senses and nerves which make possible the coordination of functions of the body. BRAIN The brain has different regions that affect certain parts of the body 1- Brain Stem 2- Cerebellum 3- Hypothalamus 4- Thalamus 5- Cerebrum The part of the brain that is affected may lose part or all of its function If there were a blood clot in your cerebellum you would not be able to walk or have any balance SPINAL CORD The neurons span out from the spinal cord to all areas of the body The peripheral nervous system is made out of a huge network of interconnecting neurons that span across the body One type of nerve that you may not have heard of is cranial nerve They affect your motion and feeling in your face, they don't pass through the spinal cord One cranial nerve disease is microvascular cranial nerve palsy The Spinal cord connects the neurons to the brain, and is protected by the vertebrae Cerebrum -Largest part of brain -Consciousness -Divided into 4 lobes Frontal Parietal Temporal Occipital And some computer animated neurons... the posterior part of the forebrain, consisting of the hypothalamus, thalamus, metathalamus, and epithalamus; the subthalamus is often recognized as a distinct division. The Central Nervous system consists of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD A stroke is caused by a blood clot that travels to the brain Hypothalamus a) Part of diencephalon b) Maintains homeostasis c) Centers for hunger, sleep, thirst, body temperature, and blood pressure The slight or complete loss of eye movement BRAIN STEM a)Medulla oblongata - Regulates heartbeat, breathing and blood pressure b) Pons - Connects cerebellum to the rest of the CNS - Head movement responses to vision and sound c) Midbrain - Connects cerebrum and cerebellum to rest of CNS - Reflex center for vision, sound and touch Cerebellum - Below cerebrum - Muscle coordination - Maintaining normal muscle tone - Interprets info from ear on body position & Thalamus - Part of diencephalon - Relay for sensory input from the body to brain - Sight, taste, touch and sound - Smell is elsewhere A blood clot stops the flow of blood to part of the brain causing the brain cells to die
Transcript: Post Concussive Syndrome Next Class Increasing ICP Signs and Symptoms Field Treatment: Urgent evacuation to neurosurgical care is ideal Emergency descent or Gamow bag for HACE Protect airway, PROP Maintain hydration and calories Field Treatment Mental Status Changes V/P/U on AVPU Severe Headache Seizures Persistent Vomiting Posturing Dilated Pupils Major Vital Sign Changes Traumatic Brain Injury Bleeding A - Awake (describe mental status) DISTRESS V - Verbal FAILURE P - Pain ARREST U - Unresponsive Structure: 1. Cerebrum - Thinking/Perceiving 2. Cerebellum - Motorcontrol 3. Brain Stem - Life Support 4. Cerebrospinal Fluid - Shock Absorber Function: Voluntary Action Involuntary Action Problem: Brain Failure AVPU Can occur without measurable brain injury Develops > 24 hours after injury Normal mental status with: mild to moderate headaches blurred vision, photophobia disrupted sleep patterns nausea, loss of appetite dizziness Does not indicate elevated ICP Symptomatic treatment as needed Non-urgent medical follow-up No Brain Injury No loss of consciousness No amesia No A` of increasing ICP AKA: Head Wound Scalp Laceration Scalp Contusion Central Nervous System Edema Increasing ICP EARLY LATE Head Trauma Field Treatment: Early evacuation is ideal Monitor 24 hours for increasing ICP Sleep is OK, but not alone Anticipate vomiting and airway obstruction Anticipate dehydration and hypothermia Anticipate altered level of consciousness Pain medication (APAP preferred) Tylonel Bleeding Mechanisms: Trauma Stroke Hypoxia Altitude Hyperthermia Signs and Symptoms Swelling and Pressure Describing Brain Function DNR Wilderness Medical Review Traumatic Brain Injury Any change in AVPU Any degree of amensia A`: Increasing ICP Brain Failure AKA: Concussion Brain Trauma Closed Head Injury High-Risk Problem: Persistent disorientation Cannot retain new memory History of recent previous TBI Skull fracture High velocity or high mass impact S/sx of increased ICP Traumatic Brain Injury Mental Status Changes V/P/U on AVPU Severe Headache Seizures Persistent Vomiting Posturing Dilated Pupils Major Vital Sign Changes EARLY LATE Mechanisms: S - Sugar (Diabetic?) T - Temperature O - Oxygen P - Pressure E - Electricity A - Altitude T - Toxins S - Salts The Brain Increased Intracranial Pressure Christi Ryan Sharon Jusdi Chistopher John Candy A`: Brain Failure Brain Failure Edema Increasing ICP Field Assessment: 62 ECG bpm
Transcript: Central Nervous System Etc. Sending Receiving & interpreting information From all parts of the body What is Central Nervous System? (CNS) Spinal Cord: long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the brain Main pathway for information connecting the brain and peripheral nervous system. Alzheimer's disease - A progressive, degenerative disease that occurs in the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking, and behavior. blink rate - the number of times per minute that the eyelid automatically closes - normally 10 to 20 per minute Extends from spinalcord Helps with Balance Equilibrium movement coordination breathing & Digestion Some CNS Disease Brain: Center of the nervous system Processes-Perception,Information Processing, Motor Control. Arguably the most important organ of the body Integrates the information that it receives from, and coordinates the activity of, all parts of the bodies Brain Midbrain Divided in 3 Main Components: Forebrain Brainstem Hindrain Midbrain and Hindbrain make up the brainstem The midbrain is located between the two developmental regions of the brain known as the forebrain and hindbrain. midbrain is a region of the developing vertebrate brain containing cranial nerves that stimulate the muscles controlling eye movement lens shape pupil diameter Responsibilities Receiving and processing sensory information. Thinking Perceiving Producing and understanding Language & Controlling Motor Function chorea - rapid, jerky, dance-like movement of the body Hindbrain Neurons: Electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. The central nervous system is the processing centers for the nervous system. Fore brain delusions - a condition in which the patient has lost touch with reality and experiences hallucinations and misperceptions.
Transcript: Central Nervous System Comprised of the brain and spinal cord input goes from: nerve ---> spinal cord --> brain out put: brain ---> spinal cord --> muscle Takes in input from nerves uses input to make the best decision output is sent to the affected muscle or organ the decision is carried out Central Nervous System includes: -- all parts of the brain; forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain -- spinal cord; vertebrae, discs, spinal cord In the event of damage to the spinal cord: instructions would no longer be able to be sent to or from the point of injury, disabling the parts of the body that cannot receive signals. Stan, a 46 year old man, was stabbed in the back during an argument at a bar. Two years later, many muscles in his body had withered due to paralysis, caused by the damage to his spinal cord. Fun Facts There are more nerve cells in the human brain than there are stars in the Milky Way. There are 43 different pairs nerves which connect the central nervous system to every part of our body. Twelve of these nerve pairs are connected to the brain, while the remaining 31 are connected to the spinal chord. By the time of its birth, the baby's brains consists of around 10 million nerve cells. And as we grow older the brain loses a gram each year. most of its power is used to give appropriate motor responses to the input received The brain receives input from the spinal cord
Transcript: The central nervous system is the process in which your brain sends a message to other parts of your brain without telling yourself to do it. This act is subconscious, which means it automatically happens. What Is The Central Nervous System -Did you know that there are more cells than stars in the milky way in your brain -In your brain alone there are 100 billion neurons -There are approximately 13,500,000 neurons in your spinal cord -Did you know that if all the neurons in a persons body were stretched out it would reach to 600 miles? -Did you know that the left side of the brain controls the right side of your body and the right side of your brain controls the left side of your body -Only 4 percent of brain cells are actually used while the rest are kept in reserve. -Without your central nervous system it would be literally impossible to live. -The nervous system tells your brain when you hurt or have pain Fun Facts Central Nervous System The central nervous system is the handling center for the nervous system. It sends and receives information to and from the peripheral nervous system. How Does It Works By: Kensie, Jolie, Cary, and Sawyer The main parts of the central nervous system are the brain, the spinal cord, and a system of neurons. The brain processes and understands the sensory information sent from the spinal cord. A neuron is the basic part of the brain. Neurons are cells within the nervous system that send information to other nerve cells, muscle cells, or gland cells. Both the brain and spinal cord are protected by three layers of connected tissue which is called the meninges. Parts Of The Central Nervous System
Transcript: This Chart Breaks Down The CNS/PNS Structures of a neuron Polarity of a nerve-Action Potential It's all in the synapse What is the difference between a neurotransmitter and a hormone? What are feeling? Can nerves repair themselves? How does massage help? Know the divisions of the CNS Look at your diagram of the brain as you go. Look at Dancing girl video. What is perception? What do you see??? What is memory, learning, consciousness? What's the difference between pleasure and pain? How do Sensory & Motor differ? Pathologies How are neuro diseases diagnosed? Can they be prevented? the student will be able to perform the following: 1Describe the basic organization of the nervous system. 2Describe the anatomy of the neuron and neuroglia. 3Describe the physiology of the neuron and neuroglia. 4Explain the relationship between neurochemicals and behavior, including pain behavior. 5Identify the structures and functions of the brain. 6Identify the structures and functions of the spinal cord. 7List drugs that affect the central nervous system. 8Describe common pathologic conditions of the central nervous system and the related indications/contraindications for massage. 9.Complete Prequiz 10. Login to all in-line activities and complete 11.Successfully complete Neuro Quiz
Transcript: - Less developed than the forebrain. - Contains four spheres of gray matter. - Acts as realy centre for some eye and ear reflexes. Hindbrain - Largest section of hindbrain. - Controls limb movement, balance, and muscle tone. Medulla Oblongata - a pathway for impulses to pass to the brain. -a pathway for impulses to pass from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland. -One of the two roots of a spinal nerve that passes into the spinal cord. - Carries motor information from spinal cord to muscles, organs, and glands. -One of the two roots of a spinal nerve that passes into the spinal cord. -Brings sensory information into the spinal cord. Grey Matter greyish nervous tissue containing cell bodies as well as fibers Ventral Root Cerebrum - Controls movement of voluntary musules. - Linked to intellectual activities and personality. -ex. walking, speech. - Associated with touch and temperature awarness. - Linked to emotions and interpreting speech. Body's control system for mechanical and chemical actions. - Centres located in rthe forebrain that process information about smell. Sensory Neurons - The "command centre" of our bodies. - Sends chemical messages to the body through the spinal cord. - Divided into differnet segemnts, each of which do differnet functions. - a bridge between the cerebllum and the medula. - Works by sending nerve messages. -Largest, most complex part of the brain. - Stores Sensory information. - Initiates voluntary motor activities. Midbrain Occipital Lobe Parietal Lobes Olfactory Lobes Cerebral Cortex Dorsal Root - Responsble for carrying sensory nerve messages from brain to rest of body. - Emerges through the skull through an opening called the foramem magnum. - Extends downward through the backbone, which acts as a protector. Frontal Lobe -The paler tissue of the brain and spinal cord, consisting mainly of nerve fibers. Pons -Outer lining of cerebrum. - Composed of grey matter. - Has many folds known as fissures which increase surface area. Brain -Associated with vision. - Interperates visual information. Forebrain - Associated with vision and hearing. - Memory and interpretation of sensory info.f - Coordinates sensory information. -Directs information to appropriate lobes. - Joins spinal cord to cerebellum - One of the most important sites of autonomic nerve control. - Controls involuntary actions such as breathing, heart rate, blood flow, etc. Central Nervous System Temporal Lobe White Matter Cerebellum Spinal Cord -greyish nervous tissue containing cell bodies as well as fibers Motor Neurons Thalamus
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