Transcript: Pyruvate is transformed into Acetyl CoA on its way to the mitochondria Cytoplasm Becomes 4 ATP Pyruvate ...this starts the process of Glycolysis Acetyl CoA is transformed into 4 things here. Here, the cell goes through the last two stages of cell respiration. 6 NADH Becomes 30 ATP This is released as waste! Two Electron Carriers: Glucose enters the cell through the cell membrane and finds itself in the cytoplasm CO2 Electron Transport Chain Mitochondria Makes 4 ATP Uses 2 ATP to do that! Also makes... 2 ATP 2 FADH Krebs Cycle
Transcript: CeLLular REspirAti0N Glucose -Blood picks this up from digestive system and delivers it to body cells Carbon Dioxide -It leaves cells into blood to lungs & is exhaled -Is reabsorbed back into the body Energy -It's used by adenosine triphosphate You get rid of carbon dioxide by.. -Energy is required by cells to function -It occurs in the mitochondria of cells -Its a sugar that comes from food. Oxygen -Oxygen comes from food Water -It gets to our cells by inhaling into lungs, it passess into blood and travels to body cells
Transcript: Cellular Respiration vs Photosynthesis cellular respiration, a catabolic pathway for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP, a high energy molecule, is expended by working cells. Cellular respiration occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. It has three main stages: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and electron transport. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protistans use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which cellular respiration converts into ATP, the "fuel" used by all living things. The conversion of unusable sunlight energy into usable chemical energy, is associated with the actions of the green pigment chlorophyll. Most of the time, the photosynthetic process uses water and releases the oxygen that we absolutely must have to stay alive. Oh yes, we need the food as well! We can write the overall reaction of this process as: 6H2O + 6CO2 ----------> C6H12O6+ 6O2 this was the formula for photosynthesis C6H12O6 + 6O2 ----> 6CO2 + 6H2O this was the formula for cellular humans use cellular respiration plants use photosynthesis for respiration all living things use respiration thank you for your time
Transcript: Cellular respiration is when cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds. ATP is the main energy currency of cells, ATP breaks down organic compounds for cellular respiration. The steps of cellular respiration Cellular Respiration By Emily Gordon Krebs Cycle Cellular Respiration 1. Glucose is split into 2 pyruvate Glycolosis During the Krebs Cycle, pyruvic acid is broken into carbon dioxide in a series of energy extracting reactions.
Transcript: Today I'll talk about 1. Meaning of Cellular Respiration 2. Explain how it work 3. Why it's necessary for organism to live. But it's too hard to understand! After Cell work Co2 emerge. But Co2 is needless in our body. (We can die there is no Co2 but we need just little.) so we breath And this oxygen's one of mission is Cellular Respiration. Then, new Fresh air came to our body! This oxygen make Cell alive and also break down sugars that cell saved! And we need oxygen to make it break down! It's cellular respiration! Cellular Respiration is important to all of organism. In plants Co2 came out by stoma. Stoma is small hole that exist back of leaf. And human and animal breath, microorganism is little bit different, they use way name ATP. Thank you! And this shape is... It'll use somewhere and that can be a cellular respiration! Dictionary meaning of Cellular Respiration is... Cellular Respiration is the process by which a cell uses oxygen to break down sugars to release the energy they hold. [And it also called ATP] Let's take it easy! or plants saved at root Human Cellular Respiration By James Jang not JeJe If Co2 go out then Cell's inside will be empty. We breathe, and where does oxygen go? 3. Why it's necessary for organism to live. Cell 2. Explain How it work!
Transcript: Cellular Respiration Glycolysis! The glucose's journey begins with the process of glycolysis. It will first be phosphorylated as one ATP is "invested" and converted into ADP with the removal of a phosphate group. This process repeats and another phosphate group is then added to glucose from the conversion of ATP to ADP. This forms a sugar with a diphosphate. The sugar is then split via lysis to form two PGAL molecules. Each PGAL is then oxidized by NAD+ which takes up hydrogen electrons to become NADH+H+. A phosphate is obtained from the cell and 2 ATPs are formed from ADP and the phosphates released by the PGAL molecules. The final product from PGAL is pyruvate. The end products of glycolysis are 2 net ATPs, 2 pyruvate, and 2 NADH+H+. Link Reaction! Unlike glycolysis which can happen under aerobic or anerobic conditions, the link reaction will only occur with the presence of oxygen. In the link reaction the pyruvate produced during glycolysis will enter the matrix of the mitochondria. Pyruvate is then decarboxylated as one carbon is removed. This creates a molecule called acetyl. The CO2 diffuses out of the mitochondria and through the cell membrane. The loss of carbon produces enough energy to reduce NAD+ to NADH+. A large molecule called CoA joins with the acetyl to create acetyl CoA. The end products of the link reaction are 1 CO2 and 1 NADH+. Krebs Cycle! The Krebs cycle only occurs in the presence of oxygen. It occurs in the mitochindrial matrix. In the first step of the cycle the acetyl CoA produced in the link reaction joins with a four carbon molecule called oxaloacetate. This produces a six carbon molecule called Citric acid. During this step CoA is released Then the Citrate is decarboxcylated and it looses a carbon. The lost carbon joins with an oxygen molecule to form CO2, which is given off as a byproduct. During this process, Citrate is oxidized and NAD+ is reduced to NADH+H+. A second oxidation occurs and another NAD+ is reduced to NADH+H+. This whole step creates a 5 carbon molecule and ADP is reduced to ATP. The five carbon molecule undergoes decarboxylation and it loses a carbon. The carbon joins with oxygen to form CO2 which is released as a byproduct. This results in a four carbon, the same four carbon as in the beginning, called oxaloacetate. Again NAD+ is reduced to NADH+H+. After the regeneration of the oxaloacetate two oxidations occur. First, FAD is reduced to FADH2. Then NAD+ is reduced to NADH+H+. At this point, the cycle is repeated for the second Acetyl CoA. Each turn of the Krebs cycle produces 2 CO2, 3 NADH+H+, 1 FADH2, and 1 ATP. Electron Transport Chain! The ETC takes place in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Many proteins reside in the membrane. During this step of cellular respiration the FADH2 and NADH produced earlier give up their protons to these proteins. As the electrons pass from protein to protein energy is released. This energy is used to pump hydrogen atoms (H+) out of the inner compartment. This creates a concentration gradient. This causes protons to accumulate in the inner membrane space. At the end of the ETC O2 joins with the electrons and H+ to yield water. Chemiosmosis! The H+ diffuse back through the membranes ATP Synthase (an enzyme embedded in the inner membrane). This triggers the attatchment of phosphates to ADP to form ATP. This is called Oxidative Phosphorylation. This process yields 32-34 ATP per glucose molecule. A Glucose Molecule's Journey To Become Energy The end products of the link reaction are 1 CO2 and 1 NADH+.
Transcript: Cellular respiration is the process of oxidizing food molecules, like glucose, to carbon dioxide and water to release energy or ATP. Cellular respiration has 3 main stages: glycolisis, citric acid cycle and electron transport. Glycolisis: is the catabolism of carbohydrates such as glucose and glycogen, by enzymes, with the release of energy and the production of lactic or pyruvic acid. It is basically the splitting sugars. Glycolisis occurs in the cytoplasm. Glycolisis dos not need oxygen. It serves as a first step in a variety of both aerobic and anaerobic energy haversting reactions Glycolisis is the one metabolic pathway found in all living organisms. Glycolisis produces 2 ATP. 34 more ATP are produced by aerobic pathways if oxygen is present. Citric acid cycle (Krebs Cycle): The Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondria. It generates chemical energy (ATP, NADH and FADH2) from the oxidation of pyruvate (product of glycosis). When acetyl attaches to C4 molecule in the Krebs cycle, the Coenzyme A is released. 2 acetyl CoA molecules are consumed to produce 4 CO2, 2 ATP, 6 NADH and 2 FADH2. Electron transport chain(oxidative phosphorylation): The electron transport chain is a series of molecules(proteins) embedded in the membrane of the mitochondria. It also allows the release of all the energy (ATP, NADH, etc.) stored. Anaerobic and Aerobic Respiration Aerobic: it requires oxygen to produce ATP, CO2 and water is produced. Anaerobic: does not require oxygen to produce ATP and Lactic acid is produced. fermentation: pyruvic acid is not metabolized by cellular respiration it goes through fermentation. The pyruvic acid remains in the cytoplasm instead of being carried to the mitochondria and then it is converted to waste that can be removed from the cell. This happens so that the electron carriers can be oxydized and they can perform glycolisis again. DNA Replication -is the unraveling of the DNA double helix -the base pairs are broken. Once the strands split, the sequence of bases serve as guide lines to the intersection of complementary set of bases as the single strand begins to synthesize -A portion of the double helix is unzipped by a helicase. -DNA polymerase binds the to one of the strands and begins moving down it in a 3:5 direction using as a template for assembling a leading strand of nucleotides, and reforming the double helix. -As DNA polymerase opens the strands, the enzyme DNA ligase 1 stitches them together into a laggard strand -One half of every new molecule of DNA is old. Cellular Respiration "Cellular respiration is very different than the life process of respiration, which means breathing"
Transcript: Step 1 Glycolysis... C6/H12/O6 +2ATP 3(2C) + Pyruvic Acid + 4 ATP + 2 NADH #OF ATP USED: 2 #OF ATP PRODUCED: 4 #OF NADH PRODUCED: 2 The Transition Step!!! 2, 3Carbon Pyruvic Acids = 2, 2Carbon Acetyl COA's, 2 NADH, 2 CO Step 2 The Krebs Cycle! A Chain of Reactions! 2 ATP and 6 NADH and 4 Carbon Dixoides and 2 FADH 2(2C) 2ATP, 6NADH, 2FADH, 4CO # OF ATP PRODUCED: 2 # OF NADH PRODUCED: 6 #OF FADH PRODUCED: 2 Now, to recap... 1 ATP = 1ATP 1 NADH =3 ATP 1 FADH = 2ATP ATP = ENERGY!!! Step 3 Electron Transport System NADH and FADH + O2 = water and ATP or, usable energy!!! Changing NADH and FADH in ATP! NADH FADH NADH FADH ATP ATP ATP ATP Over all Reaction! C6/H12/O6 6 CO2, 6 H O, AND 38 TOTAL ATP Cellular Respiration Starts with Glycosis... C6/H12/O6 = Lactic Acid, 2 Carbon dioxide, Pyruvic Acid, Ethyl Alcohol + 2 ATP 2 NADH You Get... C6/H12/O6 = Lactic Acid, 2 ATP Starts with Glycosis... C6/H12/O6 = Lactic Acid, 2 Carbon dioxide, Pyruvic Acid, Ethyl Alcohol You get... C6/H12/O6 = Ethyl Alcohol, CO2 and 2 ATP Fermentation in Muscles Fermentation YEAST I would like to thank Mr. Nolden, for being an awesome Biology teacher and helping me learn about Cellular Respiration! +O ATP 2 6 NADH + 2 FADH 2 Acetyl CoA 2 NADH Electron Transport System Krebs Cycle Glucose (sugar) 2 NADH ATP AND NOW.... ATP # of NADH used: all # of ATP procuded: 38 Glycolysis happens in the cytoplasm 2 Carbon Dioxide 2
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