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Cellular Respiration

Transcript: Cellular Respiration Glycolysis! The glucose's journey begins with the process of glycolysis. It will first be phosphorylated as one ATP is "invested" and converted into ADP with the removal of a phosphate group. This process repeats and another phosphate group is then added to glucose from the conversion of ATP to ADP. This forms a sugar with a diphosphate. The sugar is then split via lysis to form two PGAL molecules. Each PGAL is then oxidized by NAD+ which takes up hydrogen electrons to become NADH+H+. A phosphate is obtained from the cell and 2 ATPs are formed from ADP and the phosphates released by the PGAL molecules. The final product from PGAL is pyruvate. The end products of glycolysis are 2 net ATPs, 2 pyruvate, and 2 NADH+H+. Link Reaction! Unlike glycolysis which can happen under aerobic or anerobic conditions, the link reaction will only occur with the presence of oxygen. In the link reaction the pyruvate produced during glycolysis will enter the matrix of the mitochondria. Pyruvate is then decarboxylated as one carbon is removed. This creates a molecule called acetyl. The CO2 diffuses out of the mitochondria and through the cell membrane. The loss of carbon produces enough energy to reduce NAD+ to NADH+. A large molecule called CoA joins with the acetyl to create acetyl CoA. The end products of the link reaction are 1 CO2 and 1 NADH+. Krebs Cycle! The Krebs cycle only occurs in the presence of oxygen. It occurs in the mitochindrial matrix. In the first step of the cycle the acetyl CoA produced in the link reaction joins with a four carbon molecule called oxaloacetate. This produces a six carbon molecule called Citric acid. During this step CoA is released Then the Citrate is decarboxcylated and it looses a carbon. The lost carbon joins with an oxygen molecule to form CO2, which is given off as a byproduct. During this process, Citrate is oxidized and NAD+ is reduced to NADH+H+. A second oxidation occurs and another NAD+ is reduced to NADH+H+. This whole step creates a 5 carbon molecule and ADP is reduced to ATP. The five carbon molecule undergoes decarboxylation and it loses a carbon. The carbon joins with oxygen to form CO2 which is released as a byproduct. This results in a four carbon, the same four carbon as in the beginning, called oxaloacetate. Again NAD+ is reduced to NADH+H+. After the regeneration of the oxaloacetate two oxidations occur. First, FAD is reduced to FADH2. Then NAD+ is reduced to NADH+H+. At this point, the cycle is repeated for the second Acetyl CoA. Each turn of the Krebs cycle produces 2 CO2, 3 NADH+H+, 1 FADH2, and 1 ATP. Electron Transport Chain! The ETC takes place in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Many proteins reside in the membrane. During this step of cellular respiration the FADH2 and NADH produced earlier give up their protons to these proteins. As the electrons pass from protein to protein energy is released. This energy is used to pump hydrogen atoms (H+) out of the inner compartment. This creates a concentration gradient. This causes protons to accumulate in the inner membrane space. At the end of the ETC O2 joins with the electrons and H+ to yield water. Chemiosmosis! The H+ diffuse back through the membranes ATP Synthase (an enzyme embedded in the inner membrane). This triggers the attatchment of phosphates to ADP to form ATP. This is called Oxidative Phosphorylation. This process yields 32-34 ATP per glucose molecule. A Glucose Molecule's Journey To Become Energy The end products of the link reaction are 1 CO2 and 1 NADH+.

Cellular Respiration

Transcript: Cellular respiration is the process of oxidizing food molecules, like glucose, to carbon dioxide and water to release energy or ATP. Cellular respiration has 3 main stages: glycolisis, citric acid cycle and electron transport. Glycolisis: is the catabolism of carbohydrates such as glucose and glycogen, by enzymes, with the release of energy and the production of lactic or pyruvic acid. It is basically the splitting sugars. Glycolisis occurs in the cytoplasm. Glycolisis dos not need oxygen. It serves as a first step in a variety of both aerobic and anaerobic energy haversting reactions Glycolisis is the one metabolic pathway found in all living organisms. Glycolisis produces 2 ATP. 34 more ATP are produced by aerobic pathways if oxygen is present. Citric acid cycle (Krebs Cycle): The Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondria. It generates chemical energy (ATP, NADH and FADH2) from the oxidation of pyruvate (product of glycosis). When acetyl attaches to C4 molecule in the Krebs cycle, the Coenzyme A is released. 2 acetyl CoA molecules are consumed to produce 4 CO2, 2 ATP, 6 NADH and 2 FADH2. Electron transport chain(oxidative phosphorylation): The electron transport chain is a series of molecules(proteins) embedded in the membrane of the mitochondria. It also allows the release of all the energy (ATP, NADH, etc.) stored. Anaerobic and Aerobic Respiration Aerobic: it requires oxygen to produce ATP, CO2 and water is produced. Anaerobic: does not require oxygen to produce ATP and Lactic acid is produced. fermentation: pyruvic acid is not metabolized by cellular respiration it goes through fermentation. The pyruvic acid remains in the cytoplasm instead of being carried to the mitochondria and then it is converted to waste that can be removed from the cell. This happens so that the electron carriers can be oxydized and they can perform glycolisis again. DNA Replication -is the unraveling of the DNA double helix -the base pairs are broken. Once the strands split, the sequence of bases serve as guide lines to the intersection of complementary set of bases as the single strand begins to synthesize -A portion of the double helix is unzipped by a helicase. -DNA polymerase binds the to one of the strands and begins moving down it in a 3:5 direction using as a template for assembling a leading strand of nucleotides, and reforming the double helix. -As DNA polymerase opens the strands, the enzyme DNA ligase 1 stitches them together into a laggard strand -One half of every new molecule of DNA is old. Cellular Respiration "Cellular respiration is very different than the life process of respiration, which means breathing"

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