Transcript: Cell Division Why Cells Divide? Growth Repair Renew Cell Cycle (Cell's Life) Interphase Mitosis Interphase G₁ S G₂ G₁ stands for Gap Phase 1, which means this is where the cell starts to grow. S stands for Synthesis. This is where the DNA is synthesized in the cell. G₂ stands for Gap Phase 2. This is when the cell takes in proteins and continues to grow. Gap Phase 2 happens right before prophase. Mitosis Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Prophase: When a chromosome duplicates into two sister chromatids. During prophase, the nuclear envelope breaks down into vesicles. Metaphase: Chromosomes align at the equatorial plate. They stay in place from the microtubules attached to the spindle. Anaphase: The sister chromatids separate and go to their corresponding poles. Telophase: Daughter chromosomes reach the poles and the cytoplasm divides and the cell membrane pinches inward to where there are two daughter cells formed. This process is called cytokinesis. Cytokinesis is the process of separating the organelles and the cytoplasm. THE END
Transcript: - duplicate the DNA within each cell during every cycle of cell division Cytokinesis http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&client=ubuntu&tbo=d&channel=cs&biw=1215&bih=688&tbm=isch&tbnid=Fdk_WHlua4E5bM:&imgrefurl=http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-purpose-of-dna-replication.htm&docid=2ryF_5Hc29UUSM&imgurl=http://images.wisegeek.com/cell-dividing.jpg&w=1000&h=516&ei=_JTGUOLLLoXD2QWPn4CwAQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=863&vpy=289&dur=1680&hovh=161&hovw=313&tx=112&ty=94&sig=106767054772201991398&page=2&tbnh=138&tbnw=313&start=29&ndsp=32&ved=1t:429,r:54,s:0,i:249 hh Anaphase http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://img.sparknotes.com/figures/D/d756b5b73abe2974f3521a828791899f/anaphase.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.sparknotes.com/biology/cellreproduction/mitosis/section2.rhtml&h=327&w=382&sz=13&tbnid=2RPGY6e5kfMoOM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=105&zoom=1&usg=__jPimxpBrZOBOoFdl4JN_vJLV4nE=&docid=1jytR65SCyDfCM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=5JzGUJ6tCsfQqAG_84DIBA&sqi=2&ved=0CEEQ9QEwAw&dur=247 - The chromosomes begin to stretch out and lose their rod like appearance. This occurs in the two regions at the ends of the cell. A new nuclear membrane forms around each region of chromosomes. - each identical rod, or strand of chromosome - they separate from each other and move to opposite ends of the cell DNA Ladder- Deoxyribose and Phosphate How the cell grows and matures Chromosomes and Chromatids http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&client=ubuntu&sa=X&tbo=d&channel=cs&biw=1215&bih=688&tbm=isch&tbnid=EFbK86QK7y2QgM:&imgrefurl=http://www.macroevolution.net/sister-chromatids.html&docid=Rwc9MbyenRNauM&imgurl=http://www.macroevolution.net/images/sister-chromatids-275px.jpg&w=274&h=362&ei=OpfGUOCNE8-yqQHkg4GYCQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=245&vpy=129&dur=108&hovh=258&hovw=195&tx=83&ty=107&sig=106767054772201991398&page=1&tbnh=135&tbnw=102&start=0&ndsp=31&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:113 - During cytokinesis, the cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two cells - what a DNA molecule is most often called based on its twisted ladder like shape Metaphase A cell dividing into two daughter cells. Double Helix Chapter 2.5 Cell Cycle of Mitosis Nitrogen Bases Telophase http://www.google.com/imgres?start=27&num=10&hl=en&client=ubuntu&tbo=d&channel=cs&biw=1215&bih=688&tbm=isch&tbnid=b93W76JGXDhGTM:&imgrefurl=http://www.prx.org/pieces/86736&docid=kbpaK2AwgpEoMM&imgurl=http://s3.amazonaws.com/production.mediajoint.prx.org/public/piece_images/199446/chromosome-t-prx_small.jpg&w=240&h=240&ei=CpjGUPPKIYv0qwGOtoCoBQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=8&vpy=366&dur=2350&hovh=192&hovw=192&tx=49&ty=212&sig=106767054772201991398&sqi=2&page=2&tbnh=140&tbnw=144&ndsp=35&ved=1t:429,r:41,s:0,i:67 - The centromeres split. The two chromatids separate. One chromatid moves along the spindle fiber to one end of the cell. The other chromatid moves to opposite end. The cell becomes stretched out as the opposite ends pull apart. Sources http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&client=ubuntu&hs=p0a&sa=X&tbo=d&channel=cs&biw=1215&bih=688&tbm=isch&tbnid=HYLaOtN3K5U-WM:&imgrefurl=http://www.sparknotes.com/biology/cellreproduction/mitosis/section3.rhtml&docid=dho-xNTXgTUcPM&imgurl=http://img.sparknotes.com/figures/D/d756b5b73abe2974f3521a828791899f/cytokinesis.gif&w=389&h=399&ei=x5HGUMiYC4mH2AWjoID4Dw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=4&vpy=144&dur=2962&hovh=227&hovw=222&tx=82&ty=254&sig=106767054772201991398&page=1&tbnh=134&tbnw=131&start=0&ndsp=24&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:152 - Why do we need DNA replication?? - it insures that each daughter cell will have all of the genetic info it needs to carry out activities - The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Each chromosome attaches to a spindle fiber at its centromere, which still holds the chromatin together - molecules of sugar that the two sides of the DNA ladder are made up of alternating between each other Base Pairings - Adenine ----> Thymine - Guanine ----> Cytosine - each doubled rod of condensed chromatin - the cell grows when it doubles in size during the first part of Interphase and makes a copy of its DNA. - The cell is mature when it is fully developed physically and is ready to divide DNA Replication http://www.google.com/imgres?num=10&hl=en&client=ubuntu&tbo=d&channel=cs&biw=1215&bih=688&tbm=isch&tbnid=ZVX7IU7VLMP9YM:&imgrefurl=http://www.dnareplication.info/dnadoublehelix.php&docid=koDmkevb_A9ixM&imgurl=http://www.dnareplication.info/images/dnadoublehelix2.jpg&w=360&h=360&ei=WZnGULnlCsSXrAGS_4DQBQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=440&vpy=153&dur=7997&hovh=225&hovw=225&tx=93&ty=248&sig=106767054772201991398&sqi=2&page=1&tbnh=150&tbnw=150&start=0&ndsp=30&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0,i:158 - The chromatin in the nucleus condenses to form chromosomes. Structures called spindle fibers form a platform between the ends of the cell. The nuclear membrane breaks down. Prophase By Madi W. R3 Science
Transcript: Cell Division Mitosis Prophase: DNA begins to condense. Centriole pairs move apart and the nuclear envelope starts to break up. Metaphase: Spindle apparatus forms. Chromosomes line up at the spindle equator. Anaphase: Sister chromatids move apart. Telophase: Cytoplasmic division occurs. Meiosis Prophase1: Each chromosome duplicates and remains closely associated. These are called sister chromatids. Crossing-over can occur during the latter part of this stage. Metaphase1: Homologous chromosomes align at the equatorial plate. Anaphase1: Homologous pairs separate with sister chromatids remaining together. Telophase1: Two daughter cells are formed with each daughter containing only one chromosome of the homologous pair. Prophase2: DNA does not replicate. Metaphase2: Chromosomes align at the equatorial plate. Anaphase2: Centromeres divide and sister chromatids migrate separately to each pole. Telophase2: Cell division is complete. Four haploid daughter cells are obtained. Mitosis By Abdullah Al-Mokainzi Meiosis
Transcript: The Reproduction Of Cells Why is reproduction essential? Reproduction is essential for the continuation of a species. All organisms reproduce. Animals Humans Even Plants Reproduce! How do these organisms reproduce? Well, Reproduction starts from the simplest part of the body which is called the cell. Cells divide into other cells. How Do Cells Divide? Prokaryotic cells and Eukaryotic cells have different ways of dividing. The division of a prokaryotic cell into two offspring cells is called Binary fission In Eukaryotic cells both the cytoplasm and the nucleus must divide. There are two kinds of cell division in Eukaryotes. The first type is called Mitosis. Mitosis results in new cells with genetic material that is identical to the genetic material of the original cell. The Cell Cycle: BUSHRA AIMAN AND NAYA RADDAWI MISS NADINE<3 NINTH GRADE<3
Transcript: Mitosis Mitosis or M Phase: Cell growth and protein production stop at this stage in the cell cycle. All of the cell's energy is focused on the complex and orderly division into two similar daughter cells. Mitosis is much shorter than interphase, lasting perhaps only one to two hours. As in both G1 and G2, there is a Checkpoint in the middle of mitosis (Metaphase Checkpoint) that ensures the cell is ready to complete cell division. Actual stages of mitosis can be viewed at Animal Cell Mitosis. cytokinesis Cytokinesis: The spindle fibers not attached to chromosomes begin breaking down until only that portion of overlap is left. It is in this region that a contractile ring cleaves the cell into two daughter cells. Microtubules then reorganize into a new cytoskeleton for the return to interphase. telophase anaphase Anaphase: Spindle fibers shorten, the kinetochores separate, and the chromatids (daughter chromosomes) are pulled apart and begin moving to the cell poles. interphase Interphase: Cells may appear inactive during this stage, but they are quite the opposite. This is the longest period of the complete cell cycle during which DNA replicates, the centrioles divide, and proteins are actively produced. For a complete description of the events during Interphase, read about the Cell Cycle. cell cycle prophase Prophase: During this first mitotic stage, the nucleolus fades and chromatin (replicated DNA and associated proteins) condenses into chromosomes. Each replicated chromosome comprises two chromatids, both with the same genetic information. Microtubules of the cytoskeleton, responsible for cell shape, motility and attachment to other cells during interphase, disassemble. And the building blocks of these microtubules are used to grow the mitotic spindle from the region of the centrosomes. http://www.cellsalive.com/mitosis.htm
Transcript: Cell Division!! Video for cell division. Meiosis This is the chance for the cell to grow and reproduce. There are two different types of cell division. They are; mitosis, and meiosis. In this the DNA combines of the mother and father. The male cell, sperm, and the female cell, egg. Mitosis is mainly seen a lot in many animals and plants. This is when the cell grows and divides. When the cell gets to large it uses mitosis to make itself smaller in size. This divides only once and repeats. Cell division Sexual reproduction. The steps to cell division. Meiosis is when the cell needs a male or female cell so it can make another cell. There are two different types of meiosis. They are; meiosis 1, and meiosis 2. Meiosis 1 In this, the cell only divides once. One cell has the same amount of male chromosomes as the female chromosomes. There are only two haploids. Meiosis 2 In this, the cell divides another time. The cells have to pinch a piece off each other so they have some of that DNA. Then there are 4 haploids. Asextual reproduction By: Rebecca Roberts and Destiny Jenkins Mitosis Thank you for watching! THE END Interphase- Chromosomes are doubled, and then turn into long strands of thread. At the end of this phase there will be sister chromosomes. Prophase- Then the cells start to divide. The poles appear and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell. Spindle fibers form that are attached to the poles. Metaphase- In asexual reproduction the cell copies itself to make another cell. This is mainly seen in plants; not so much in animals. This is basicly mitosis. When the cell gets to big it uses asexual reproduction. Basicly what this means is that you only need the one cell. No female or male cell needed.
Transcript: interphase chromosomes are copied prophase spindles form at poles metaphase chromosomes attach to spindles anaphase chromosomes split and move to poles telephase 2 new nuclei form cytokinesis cell membrane reforms
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