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Carnatic Music

Transcript: Audio's By: Sam MELODY HARMONY RHYTHM TIMBRE TEXTURE FORM DYNAMICS ARTICULATION follows a rhythmic style known as tala (a ryhtmic patter in classical Indian music) By: Alleah 3) Mridangam : A percussion instrument, A vital instrument to many forms of Indian music, Double-Sided drum, Presently made of a single wood block, Played with fingers, palms and hands, Produces the largest acoustic bass by any instrument 2) Sitar : A plucked sting instrument, can have 18, 19 or 20 strings. 1) Harmonium : Used in almost all forms of Indian music, A reed-organ instrument, Played like a piano, Has 2 and a half octaves and a below. By Mia & Camilla Indian Music (carnatic) Carnatic Instruments Carnatic music is mainly vocal accompanied by musical instruments such as drums, violins and sitars. It is traditional to ancient Hindu music. It is a system of music that is commonly linked to the southern part of India. (Southern Indian Subcontinent) By: Mia and Camilla legato staccato The first audio clip shows a woman singing traditional carnatic music in a slow beat. The second one shows the same type of music but at a faster beat. Both are Traditional Carnatic music. Carnatic music was developed in the 14th and 20th century! is low pitched ascending and decending audios: Youtube Book: Cycle of the World: India Bibliography Elements of music vocals violin mridangam played in classical ensemble Traditional instruments Carnatic Music: What is it? Consonance and dissonance homophonic & polyphonic no musical notations sudden change in dynamics instuments were constantly added and taken away crescendo & decrescendo

India: Carnatic Music

Transcript: Persian influence There are hundreds of different talas, but only a few are commonly used Drawn-out elaboration of raga Teachers instruct through demonstration and repetition (the "1000x" method) Ascending-Descending Form How many total beats? How are those beats organized/grouped? M. Dikshitar Syama Sastri Carnatic Instruments Film studios based in Mumbai produce over 1000 films per year Hindustani Instruments In the Carnatic tradition, all music is based on pre-composed songs, even instrumental music Khali - empty beat (wave) De-emphasized beat Principles developed into the classical tradition Scale - Thaat (H), Melakarta (C) "Malhari" The voice is considered the most important "instrument" because it is the only one that can convey text Musical training occurs under the guidance of a guru Vedas Bol (Hindustani) "Sa-Re-Ga-Ma-Pa-Dha-Ni-Sa" Derived from devotional Islamic songs, the khyal is very florid and ornamental; a chance for the singer to show his/her skills An unmetered improvisatory* introduction that gradually reveals the traits of the raga Freedom to improvise is somewhat limited by these texts' structure Romantic In the Carnatic tradition, the performance of spoken drum syllables has become an art in its own right Accompaniment has a larger role Accompaniment by a drummer Sarod Tragic Kriti Tambura Furious Alap (H) or Alapana (C) India: Carnatic and Hindustani Music Hymns of Devotion Spoken drumming syllables (each syllable represents a different stroke on the drum) Ragas Cont. Usually centered around a specific raga, or a set of related ragas Use existing texts for lyrics Voice 4+2+2 = 8 total beats From the film Bajirao Mastani Pre-composed Music Typically performed at midnight Voice "Jagadananda Karaka" Devotional attitude towards art Two Classic Traditions Musical Training Tabla Center around a "core" tone that serves as the foundation of the chant Morsing (mouth harp) Metered section, comprises the majority of the piece, usually speeds up to the end Tyagaraja (1767-1847) Venu (flute) Usually features a verse + refrain + a contrasting section Carnatic: South Drone Considered the finest examples of Carnatic music The style can vary widely (disco, jazz, hip-hop, etc) but will often feature heavy use of gamaka (ornamentation) and a mixture of Western and Indian instruments, as well as Western harmonies "Bollywood" - Filmi Peaceful Pakar Intricate systems of scales and melodic patterns Characteristic melodic gestures Symbolizes strength, heroism, nobility Instrumental Performance Drum Syllables Example Tala literally means "clap" More structured, compact Singers record the music for the actor/actress to sing over during filming Rhythm (drummer) Related to the Hindu concept of endless cycles of death and rebirth The concert would be framed by improvisational sections, sometimes improvising on phrases in the song itself Ghatam (clay pot) The most prominent Hindustani vocal genre Important tones Called "Saint" Tyagaraja, considered the greatest of the Carnatic composers Adi Tala More rhythmically sedate Nagaswaram Each instrument falls into one of three roles, or layers Rasa These pitches are called "svara" Fearful Song genre used to accompany dancing, with the lyrics consisting almost entirely of bols Un-metered chants from the Hindu text Sama-Veda Gat (H) "Dil Cheez Kya Hai" Melodic Surprising One of the "three deities" of Carnatic music: In the Hindustani tradition, instrumentalists have only recently begun to appear as primary soloists Cyclical patterns of beats Characteristic Melodic Motives Improvisation within a raga - Pitches used, and number Guidelines for each raga include: - Characteristic melodic patterns Vadi, Samvadi Harmonium Comic Performance Tradition Tillana Violin (accompanying) Typically associated with sensuality and feminine beauty - Associated mood or emotion Bansuri (flute) 4 + 2 + 2 = 8 Some demonstrations: (1500-1200 BC) Raga Use of a drone Similarities Characteristic Ornamentation The most common tala in Carnatic music (comparable to tintal in Hindustani) Pre-composed song that serves as the core of many concerts Sitar Konnakol (Carnatic) Shruti Box This hearkens back to the origin of Indian music in the Vedic chants Vibhag - grouping of beats - Important tones Drone Rhythmic Rhythmically intensive Gharana - regional or family school of music in the Hindustani tradition Sam - 1st beat (clap) Playback Artists Gamaka Rhythm component of Indian Music - Associated time of day/year Heroic Tala Clapping pattern for Adi Tala Arohana / Avarohana Vocal Perfomance Three Elements: Raga Mala Feelings that art can express Melodic Using sound to color the listener of the mind with emotion - Rules for ascending and descending The guru is considered the source of all knowledge and thus they are held in very high esteem These texts can be sacred or secular Carnatic vocal form Nearly all films include at least five musical numbers, which are sometimes more popular than the movie itself

Carnatic Music

Transcript: Performances- Continued Mother Tulasi! Pray come and bless me, one who is ever devoted to your feet. Aware of your tranquil nature and the generosity with which you bestow temporal and spiritual blessings, father of Cupid-Lord Vishnu does not dream of separation from you. Seeing your body delicate and soft, smelling with fragrance of your own, and knowing your glory, O Lotus eyed! Intimate to Tyagaraja, who delights in wearing your feet on his head. CARNATIC MUSIC 1) Varnam 2) Ghana ragam songs (Nattai, aarabhi, sri, varali, gowla) 3) Suddhamadhyamam krithis 4) Prathimadhyamam krithis 5) Ragam Thanam Pallavi in Rakthi ragams 6) Thukkadas or thillanas 7) Mangalam (madhyamavathi, etc.) Improvisation Song: Amma Ravamma Ragam: Kalyani Composer: Sri. Thyagaraja Thalam: Kanda Chapu Marriages Temples Arangetrams: Graduation Recital Translation Intervals, Scales, or Rhythmic Patterns Arohanam: is the ascending scale of notes in a raga Avarohanam: is the descending scale of notes in a raga 72 mela karthas: Mēlakarta is a collection of fundamental ⦁ ragas (musical scales) in Carnatic music Janya ragas: derived from melakarta ragas or janaka ragas (full scale ragas) Vakra ragas: zig zag manner Audava ragas: exactly 5 notes ascending and descending Vocal Techniques Traditions Three main notes Sarali Varisai, Janta Varisai, Dattu Varisai, Geethams, Varnams, Krithis Alankarams Alapana Niraval Kalpana swaram RTP (Ragam Tanam Pallavi) Concert Format ensemble of musicians principal performer melodic accompaniment a rhythm accompaniment tambura Performances What is Carnatic Music? pallavi amma! rAvamma, tulasamma nanu pAlimpu mamma! satatamu padamulE namminAnamma || (amma) anupallavi nemmadini nI vihaparammulOsagudu vanucu kamma viltuni tandri galanaina bAyadaTa (amma) caraNam nI mrdu tanuvunu gani nI parimalamunu gani nI mahatvamunu gani nIrajAkSi || tAmarasa daLa nEtrudu tyAgarAjuni mitruDu prEmatO Siramunanu peTTu konnAdaTa || (amma) Origin: India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu subgenres of Indian Classical music Sruthi: the relative musical pitch Swara: the musical sound of a single note Raga: the melodic formula or the mode Tala: The rhythmic cycles December Music Season Cleveland Thyagaraja Aradhana Small organizations around the world Analysis of my Song

Carnatic music

Transcript: Mridula Chandrasekar Carnatic music Origin Origin 1. Carnatic music or Karnāṭak music or Karnāṭaka Saṃgīta is a style of music found in the south of India. 2. It includes the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Andra Pradesh and Telengana. Indian classical music is believed to be a divine art form which originated from the Devas and Devis (Hindu Gods and Goddesses) and is venerated as symbolic of nāda brāhman (transcendental sound or sound vibration). Ancient treatises also describe the connection of the origin of the swaras, or notes, to the sounds of animals and birds and man's effort to simulate these sounds through a keen sense of observation and perception. Carnatic music was mainly patronized by the local kings of the Kingdom of Mysore, Kingdom of Travancore, and the Maratha rulers of Tanjore in the 18th through 20th centuries. History - History The Sama Veda, which is believed to have laid the foundation for Indian classical music, consists of hymns from the Rigveda, set to musical tunes which would be sung using three to seven musical notes during Vedic yajnas. The Yajur-Veda, which mainly consists of sacrificial formulae, mentions the veena as an accompaniment to vocal recitations. Music and the Vedas music and the vedas References to Indian classical music are made in many ancient texts, including epics like the Ramayana and Mahabharata. The Yajnavalkya Smriti mentions "The one who is well versed in veena, one who has the knowledge of srutis and one who is adept in tala, attains liberation (moksha) without doubt"). Carnatic music is based as it is today on musical concepts (including swara, raga, and tala) that were described in detail in several ancient works, particularly the Bharata's Natya Shastra and Silappadhikaram by Ilango Adigal. Music and Epic Tales music and epic tales Nature Nature The main emphasis in Carnatic music is on vocal music; most compositions are written to be sung, and even when played on instruments, they are meant to be performed in a singing style (known as gāyaki). Carnatic music rests on two main elements: rāga, the modes or melodic formulæ, and tāḷa, the rhythmic cycles Elements Elements The important elements of carnatic music are- 1. Śruti 2. Swara 3. Raga system 4. Tala system Śruti commonly refers to musical pitch. It is the approximate equivalent of a tonic (or less precisely a key) in Western music; it is the note from which all the others are derived. It is also used in the sense of graded pitches in an octave. While there are an infinite number of sounds falling within a scale (or raga) in Carnatic music, the number that can be distinguished by auditory perception is twenty-two (although over the years, several of them have converged). In this sense, while sruti is determined by auditory perception, it is also an expression in the listener's mind. Sruti Sruti Swara refers to a type of musical sound that is a single note, which defines a relative (higher or lower) position of a note, rather than a defined frequency. Swaras also refer to the solfege of Carnatic music, which consist of seven notes, "sa-ri-ga-ma-pa-da-ni" (compare with the Hindustani sargam: sa-re-ga-ma-pa-dha-ni or Western do-re-mi-fa-so-la-ti). These names are abbreviations of the longer names shadja, rishabha, gandhara, madhyama, panchama, dhaivata and nishada. Unlike other music systems, every member of the solfege (called a swara) has three variants. The exceptions are the drone notes, shadja and panchama (also known as the tonic and the dominant), which have only one form; and madhyama (the subdominant), which has two forms. A 7th century stone inscription in Kudumiyan Malai Swara Swara A raga in Carnatic music prescribes a set of rules for building a melody – very similar to the Western concept of mode. It specifies rules for movements up (aarohanam) and down (avarohanam), the scale of which notes should figure more and which notes should be used more sparingly, which notes may be sung with gamaka (ornamentation), which phrases should be used or avoided, and so on. In effect, it is a series of obligatory musical events which must be observed, either absolutely or with a particular frequency Raga System Raga System In Carnatic music, the sampoorna ragas (those with all seven notes in their scales) are classified into a system called the melakarta, which groups them according to the kinds of notes that they have. There are seventy-two melakarta ragas, thirty six of whose madhyama (subdominant) is shuddha (perfect fourth from the tonic), the remaining thirty-six of whose madhyama (subdominant) is prati (an augmented fourth from the tonic). The ragas are grouped into sets of six, called chakras ("wheels", though actually segments in the conventional representation) grouped according to the supertonic and mediant scale degrees. There is a system known as the katapayadi sankhya to determine the names of melakarta ragas. Melakarta Melakarta system Tala refers to a fixed time cycle or metre, set

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