Transcript: Initial level Repeatable level Defined level Managed level Optimizing level History of CMM / TMM CMM was developed and is promoted by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Conclusion Research and development center sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) SEI was founded in 1984 to address software engineering issues and, in a broad sense, to advance software engineering methodologies Although these models have proved useful to many organizations, the use of multiple models has been problematic in terms of training, appraisals and improvement activities. Optimize the process of developing, acquiring, and maintaining heavily software-reliant systems for the DoD The CMM Integration (CMMI) project was formed to sort out the problem of using multiple CMMs, it is combined using three source models: Published as "Menaging the Software Process" in 1989 The Capability Maturity Model for Software (SW-CMM) v2.0 draft C The Systems Engineering Capability Model (SECM) The Integrated Product Development Capability Maturity Model (IPD-CCM) v0.98 CMM is no longer supported by the SEI and has been superseded by the more comprehensive Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) The TMM has been since replaced by the Test Maturity Model Integration (TMMI) and is now managed by the TMMI Foundation Capability Maturity Model (CMM) / Test Maturity Model (TMM) CMM's Five Maturity Levels of Software Processes TMM's Five Maturity Levels of Software Processes Initial level Repeatable level Basic management techniques Can be repeated Processes established Existing practices are retained during time of stress Defined Reactive Level 1 - Initial: At this level an organisation is using ad-hoc methods for testing, so results are not repeatable and there is no quality standard. Level 2 - Definition: At this level testing is defined a process, so there might be test strategies, test plans, test cases, based on requirements. Testing does not start until products are completed, so the aim of testing is to compare products against requirements. Level 3 - Integration: At this level testing is integrated into a software life cycle, e.g. the V-model. The need for testing is based on risk management, and the testing is carried out with some independence from the development area. Level 4 - Management and Measurement: At this level testing activities take place at all stages of the life cycle, including reviews of requirements and designs. Quality criteria are agreed for all products of an organisation (internal and external). Level 5 - Optimisation At this level the testing process itself is tested and improved at each iteration. This is typically achieved with tool support, and also introduces aims such as defect prevention through the life cycle, rather than defect detection (zero defects). Defined level Developed standard Greater attention to process Documentation Integration Project focused Proactive Improvement Monitoring Feedback Innovation Change friendly Evaluation of process variation Methodology used to develop and refine an organization's software development process Questions? The Testing Maturity Model (TMM) was based on the Capability Maturity Model, and first produced by the Illinois Institute of Technology Its aim to be used in a similar way to CMM, that is to provide a framework for assessing the maturity of the test processes in an organisation, and so providing targets on improving maturity Disorganized Inconsistent Chaotic, especialy during times of stress Individual efforts Not repeatable Not defined Exceed the budget/timeline What is a Capability Maturity Model (CMM)? Menaged level Monitors Controled using statistics Data collection Analysis Adaptation Software Maintenance Optimizing level The CMM is similar to ISO 9001 The main difference between the two systems lies in their respective purposes: ISO 9001 specifies a minimal acceptable quality level for software processes, while the CMM establishes a framework for continuous process improvement and is more explicit than the ISO standard in defining the means to be employed to that end It is a process model, structured by a collection of practices that describe the characteristics of effective processes, which have been proven effective over time CMM can be used to assess an organization against a scale of five processes maturity levels KPAs (Key Process Areas) What exactly is the Maturity Model? Each level ranks the organization according to its standardization of processes in the subject area being assessed The model indentifies five levels of process maturity of an organisation. Within each of those maturity levels are KPAs, which characterise that level, they are as follows: The capacity Maturity Model (CMM) is a way to develop and refine an organization's processes Goals A maturity model is a structured collection of elements that describe characteristics of effective processes. A maturity model provides: Commitment Ability A place to start Measurement The
Transcript: -Ensure that selected work products meet their specified requirements. -Verification preparation, verification performance, and identification of corrective action. SP 3.1 Perform Verification -Promotes early detection of problems and can result in the early removal of defects. Example Work Products 1. Verification results 2. Verification reports 3. Demonstrations 4. As-run procedures log -includes the selection, inspection, testing, analysis, and demonstration. -Methods - inspections, peer reviews, audits, walkthroughs, analyzes, architecture evaluations, simulations, testing, and demonstrations. • Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about obtaining measurement data and analysing measurement data. Example Work Products 1. Peer review data 2. Peer review action items Group Members Subpractices 1. Perform the assigned roles in the peer review. 2. Identify and document defects and other issues in the work product. 3. Record results of the peer review, including action items. 4. Collect peer review data. 5. Identify action items and communicate issues to relevant stakeholders. 6. Conduct an additional peer review if needed. 7. Ensure that the exit criteria for the peer review are satisfied. Preparation activities for peer reviews:- • identifying the staff to be invited to participate in the peer review of each work product • identifying key reviewers who should participate in the peer review • preparing and updating materials to be used during peer reviews Example Work Products 1. Peer review schedule 2. Peer review checklist 3. Entry and exit criteria for work products 4. Criteria for requiring another peer review 5. Peer review training material 6. Selected work products to be reviewed -Can be acquired, developed, reused, modified, or obtained using a combination of these activities. -Type of environment required depends on the work products Example Work Products 1. Verification environment -Examples of sources for verification criteria (Standards, Organizational policies, Test type, Test parameters, Type of work products, Suppliers Proposals and agreements) Example Work Products 1. Verification procedures 2. Verification criteria Subpractices 1. Generate a set of comprehensive, integrated verification procedures for work products and commercial off-the-shelf products, as necessary. 2. Develop and refine verification criteria as necessary. 3. Identify the expected results, tolerances allowed, and other criteria for satisfying the requirements. 4. Identify equipment and environmental components needed to support verification. • purposes of conducting a peer review is to find and remove defects early • performed incrementally as work products are being developed • Peer reviews can be performed:- key work products of specification, design, test,implementation activities and specific planning work products • The focus should be on the work product in review, not on the person who produced it • Peer reviews should address the following guidelines:- there should be sufficient preparation the conduct should be managed and controlled consistent and sufficient data should be recorded action items should be recorded 2. PROCESS AREA COMPONENT I. Core Process Areas and CMMI Models All CMMI are produced from CMMI Framework 16 core process areas cover basic concepts (For example: Development, service) II. Required, Expected, and Informative Components Required – • components that are essential to achieving process improvement in a given process area • specific and generic goals Expected - • components that describe the activities that are important in achieving a required CMMI component • specific and generic practices Informative Components- • components that help model users understand CMMI required and expected components • informative material plays a key role in understanding the model SG 2 Perform Peer Reviews SG 3 Verify Selected Work Products CMMI [Capability Maturity Model Integration] 6. Develop a detailed peer review schedule, including the dates for peer review training and for when materials for peer reviews will be available. 7. Ensure that the work product satisfies the peer review entry criteria prior to distribution. 8. Distribute the work product to be reviewed and related information to participants early enough to enable them to adequately prepare for the peer review. 9. Assign roles for the peer review. 10. Prepare for the peer review by reviewing the work product prior to conducting the peer review. Subpractices 1. Record data related to the preparation, conduct, and results of the peer reviews. 2. Store the data for future reference and analysis. 3. Protect the data to ensure that peer review data are not used inappropriately. 4. Analyze the peer review data Subpractices 1. Identify work products for verification. 2. Identify requirements to be satisfied by each selected work product. 3. Identify verification methods available for use. 4.
Transcript: Think global, act local Continuous process optimization L10N pushed by C-level management High degree of automation, centralization and integration Translation a commodity Initial Defined Why does it matter? Limited L10N planning; late involvement Repeatable process on project level; not standard, not enforced Some L10N experience Depends on localization service provider (LSP) as trusted advisor and for technical resources Partial I18N Conforming to regulatory requirements and some standards More realistic time and budget expectations L10N planning ubiquitous; enforced and timely Use of metrics for performance Applying best L10N practices In-house evangelists Strong management support I18N ubiquitous Integration with LSPs and authoring through process automation Centralized linguistic assets Centralized procurement of services and tools; enforced Optimizing Reacting to sales opportunities Ad hoc processes Limited or no localization (L10N) experience Individual heroes Limited or no internationalization (I18N) in products Non-conformance to standards or regulations Unrealistic time and budget expectations Widespread L10N planning; not enforced, not always timely Standard process on organization level standard processes enforced standard processed tailored for individual projects Substantial L10N experience Depends on LSP for translation and possibly technical resources I18N commonly applied but not ubiquitous Centralized procurement; not enforced Conforming to regulatory requirements and standards Localization Capability Maturity Model Repeatable Scrambling to meet requests Missing delivery dates Side-of-desk efforts impact completion of tasks Duplication of effort L10N assets not protected for future use Quality suffers Inconsistent messaging Translators, LSPs frustrated $ Managed
Transcript: Maturity Level 4 Capability Maturity Model (CMM) What are we trying to do? When will we start? What do we need? Can we do it alone, or do we need help? How long will it take? How much will it cost? Maturity Level 2 1. Consistency 2. Cost Saving 3. Self-improvement 4. Market Demand 5. Performance Demand 6. Process Improvement 5 definitions to be identified 1. Goals 2. Commitment 3. Ability 4. Measurement 5. Verification focuses on the workflow of project management can be used to manage any project in any domain doesn't meet many of the software specific processes does not have a good notion of a WBS mixes pure project management with do-work aspects A research by University of Missouri – St. Louis IS6840 – Fall 2008 vypracovala: Michala Strnadova Quantitatively Managed measuring the quality of the processes across all projects quantitative quality goal for both software process and software maintenance Sub-processes are selected to significantly contribute to overall process performance Quantitative objectives used as criteria in managing processes predictability of process performance is quantitatively predictable Maturity Model Maturity levels Initial no standard process for software development no tracking system no predictions about costs or dates chaotic processes in unstable environment success depends on individuals possibility of successful products without ability to repeat the success over-commitment Defined standard set of processes and controls for the entire organization improved over time organization has achieved all the specific and generic goals processes are well characterized and understood the standards, process descriptions, and procedures for a project are tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes to suit a particular project Sources Maturity Level 1 Project Management Processes according to PRINCE2 Optimizing improving process performance objectives for the organization are established and continually revised defined processes and the organization’s set of standard processes are targets of measurable improvement activities finding ways to accelerate and share learning everybody is responsible for continuous improvement of the processes processes are concerned with addressing common causes of process variation and changing the process to improve process performance Benefits of CMMI Comparison of PRINCE2 to CMM KPA Maturity Level 3 (PRojects IN Controlled Environments) Maturity Level 5 Benefits of using CMMI Managed/ Repeatable requirements for project are managed processes are planned, performed, measured, and controlled the processes may not repeat for all the projects in the organization basic project management to track cost and schedule existing practices are retained during times of stress defined points visible to the management significant risk of exceeding cost and time estimate funded by military research in 1980s Carnegie-Mellon Software Engineering Institute used as avionics software by governments in different continents today it is no longer supported by the SEI nowadays CMMI History 1. Initial 2. Managed 3. Defined 4. Quantitatively Managed 5. Optimizing process improvement approach based on a process model process model is a structured collection of best practices bench-mark for measuring the maturity of an organization’s software process assesses an organization against a scale of five process maturity levels software engineering, systems engineering, project management, risk management provides A place to start The benefit of a community’s prior experiences A common language and a shared vision A framework for prioritizing actions A way to define what improvement means for your organization 1. Starting up a project 2. Directing a project 3. Initiating a project 4. Controlling a stage 5. Managing product delivery 6. Managing stage boundaries 7. Closing a project the world’s most widely adopted project management method built upon seven principles, themes and processes emphasises dividing projects into manageable and controllable stages. comprises four integrated elements of principles, themes, processes and the project environment. What is CMM? 1. Select Business Solutions, Inc. [online] [cit. 9.12.2017] Dostupné z < http://www.selectbs.com/process-maturity/what-is-the-capability-maturity-model> 2. BÓNA, Ladislav: HNonline. [online] 09.03.2016. [cit. 6.12.2017] Dostupné z < http://istqbexamcertification.com/what-is-cmm-capability-maturity-model-what-are-cmm-levels/> 2. ISQTB EXAM CERTIFICATION. [online] . [cit. 9.12.2017] Dostupné z < http://istqbexamcertification.com/what-is-cmm-capability-maturity-model-what-are-cmm-levels/> 4. GEOVIZ. [online] 12.07.2013. [cit. 9.12.2017] Dostupné z < http://www.vizteams.com/blog/top-6-benefits-of-adopting-capability-maturity-model-cmmi-focus-software-companies/> 5. PRINCE2. [online]. [cit. 9.12.2017] Dostupné z < https://www.prince2.com/eur/prince2-methodology> 6. AXELOS. [online]. [cit. 10.12.2017] Dostupné z
Transcript: Management View Defect Prevention(DP) Key Process Areas Technology Change Management (TM,TCM) Capability Maturity Model (CMM) Level 5 Understanding Optimizing Level Purpose is to identify new technologies (i.e.,tools, method, and processes) and transfer them into the organization in an orderly manner Involves: Identify, selecting, and evaluating new technologies incorporating effective technologies into the organization Purpose is to continually improve the software processes used in the organization with the intent of improving software quality, increasing productivity, and decreasing the cycle time for product development Involves: Defining process improvement goals Systematically identifying, evaluating, and implementing improvements to the organization's standard software process and the projects' defined software processes Process Change Management (PC, PCM) Process change management Technology change management Defect prevention Purpose is to identify the cause of defects and prevent them from recurring. Involves: Analyzing defects that were encountered in the past Taking specific actions to prevent the occurrence of these types of defects in the future The software process is continuously improved in a controlled manner.
Transcript: Level 3 - Defined Level 4 - Managed It is characteristic of processes at this level that, using process metrics, management can effectively control the AS-IS process (e.g., for software development ). In particular, management can identify ways to adjust and adapt the process to particular projects without measurable losses of quality or deviations from specifications. Process Capability is established from this level. It is characteristic of processes at this level that there are sets of defined and documented standard processes are set. Both management and technical activities are established and subject to some degree of improvement over time. These standard processes are in place and used to establish consistency of process performance across the organization. CMMI It is a characteristic of processes at this level that the focus is on continually improving process performance through both incremental and innovative technological changes/improvements. At maturity level 5, processes are concerned with addressing statistical common causes of process variation and changing the process to improve process performance. This would be done at the same time as maintaining the likelihood of achieving the established quantitative process- improvement objectives. It is characteristic of processes at this level that some processes are repeatable, possibly with consistent results. Management Process discipline are maintained during times of Entire project . Level 2 - Repeatable CMMI ( CAPABILITY MATURITY MODEL INTEGRATION) INITIAL Level 5 - Optimized 1 ) INITIAL 2 ) REPEATABLE 3) DEFINE 4) MANAGE 5) OPTIMIZED Its an Organization which sets standards for development process of S/w of a company. Levels of CMMI : It is characteristic of processes at this level that they are (typically) undocumented and in a state of dynamic change, tending to be driven in an ad hoc, uncontrolled and reactive manner by users or events. This provides a chaotic or unstable environment for the processes
Transcript: Topic 3 Integrantes: ~Aldama Morales Ana ~Gallardo Torres Alejandro ~Jahuey Tepetate Zury ~Mayorga Con (Capability Maturity Model Integration) CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) Topic 7 Topic 2 Topic 5 Topic 6 Topic 4
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