Transcript: Flat-edged pen replaced by steel pen and fountain pen http://flourishandwhim.com/ Western/Roman Arabic Chinese/Oriental Calligraphy How did it start? Originated around the Stone Age Then the Egyptians Next the Phoenicians Followed by the Greeks and the Romans Other facts Three types of Calligraphy
Transcript: CALLIGRAPHY i just learn how to write calligraphy gothic is my favorit tip of calligraphy writing THE END Click anywhere & add an idea
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Transcript: ...its history, the tools that were used and how calligraphy would be used. Calligraphy has been going on for over 4000 years! Calligraphy is a primary part in the four traditional arts. In 221 BC – 206 BC with the help of his followers, Prime Minster Li Si helped raise awareness of this form of writing. During 25 - 220 in the Han Dynasty improved on the original idea of Calligraphy and made it cleaner and more intricate. Calligraphy Uses Tools Used Calligraphy played a great role in ancient times. You were essentially judged on the way your writing looked. everyone from children of high officials to the emperor himself had to learn calligraphy. Not only was calligraphy important in communication and writing, but also served as a form of reflection. The earliest of these brushes are estimated to be from around 476 BC- 221 BC. These brushes of course differ in texture, a result of being made of different hairs in the tip of the brush. The shaft of the brushes also vary. Ink Stick: Ink Sticks have been made from pine soot since the Han Dynasty and have always been crafted with care. Paper: Before Cai Lun made people recognize paper there were many other different methods; such as writing on silk and bamboo, but none of these other techniques were as efficient. Ink Slab: Originally were widely used as writing platforms (practical) and then later became more artistic works (decoration.) Writing Communicating official government laws Responding to test questions Making more organized lists Art forms Fun Fact: To become a calligraphy specialist you have to practice until it becomes innate. Example of Calligraphy of Ancient China History of Calligraphy There are four basic tools needed in calligraphy, a writing brush, ink stick, paper, and a ink slab. Writing Brush: Calligraphy By Morgan Minkler
Transcript: An expression of harmony as perceived by a particular civilization. The calligrapher is in harmony with his script, his tools, the text and his own spiritual heritage. Art of beautiful, stylized, or elegant handwriting or lettering with pen or brush and ink. Derived from the Greek words for “beauty” (kallos) and “to write” (graphein). Rooted in the development of written symbols and letter forms over thousands of years, from the earliest scratchings in dirt, cave painting and pictograms to the great classical inscriptions, Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque manuscripts. The development of letterforms continued through the use of engraving and other technologies, and in the forms of typefaces used in printing, from the mid-fifteenth century up to the present. Before the invention of the printing press, it was the way books were made. Most commonly used vellum or parchment and wrote with a quill. Calligraphy Hasn't Died Out Influential to other relevant topics: book design, manuscript books, book binding, typeface design, logo design, sign making, handwriting, calligraphy as illustration, calligraphy as artistic expression Printing and handwriting began to influence each other Arabic Calligraphy Language was a principle factor in uniting people who differed widely. Arabic calligraphy is considered a major art form, equal to sculpture or painting It was evolved by the 6th century. Earliest surviving examples are inscriptions on stone. They write right to left and only have 17 characters, no capitals. Use a reed pen and have a thick downstroke and thin upstroke Arabic calligraphy is mainly utilitarian and was not trampled with the invention of the printing press It is still often used in everyday writing. American Calligraphy The word calligraphy didn’t appear in the English until 1613 The plainer Greek- and Latin-derived alphabets and the spread of literacy have tended to make handwriting in principle an art that anyone can practice Write left to right, have 26 characters and capitals More of a popular art form than utilitarian Not used in everyday writing More likely to use a manufactured pen as opposed to a reed pen
Transcript: History & Art of Chinese Calligraphy Art Of Calligraphy Calligraphy, literally "beautiful writing," has been appreciated as an art form in many different cultures throughout the world, but the stature of calligraphy in Chinese culture is unmatched. In China, from a very early period, calligraphy was considered not just a form of decorative art; rather, it was viewed as the supreme visual art form, was more valued than painting and sculpture, and ranked alongside poetry as a means of self-expression and cultivation. The earliest extant examples of Chinese writing are the inscriptions that appear on so-called oracle bones (animal bones and turtle shells) and on bronze vessels, the oldest of which date back to the Shang dynasty (ca.1600-ca.1100 B.C.E.). The Chinese written script is made up of several thousand individual graphs. Each consists of an invariable group of strokes executed in a set order. One of the truly unique features of calligraphy that results from these apparently restrictive guidelines is that the viewer is able to mentally retrace, stroke by stroke, the exact steps by which the work was made. The viewer also is able to observe extremely subtle nuances of execution-where a stroke was made swiftly or slowly, whether the brush was put to the paper with great delicacy or force, and so on. The ink employed in calligraphy is usually made from lampblack, a sooty residue created by burning pine resin or oil underneath a hood. After being collected, the lampblack is mixed with glue and then pressed into molds. The resulting hardened cakes or sticks can then be ground against a stone and mixed with water, a process that allows the calligrapher to control the thickness of the ink and density of the pigment. Eventually ink cakes and ink sticks themselves became a decorative art form, and many well-known artists created designs and patterns for their molds. History About Calligraphy
Transcript: Gyosho and Sosho Its uses range from functional inscriptions to fine art pieces. from Ancient Greek meaning "beauty" and "writing" this is the square style of writing the strokes must be drawn in a certain order cursive style History continued... Sosho Gyosho The design of lettering in one stroke using a brush Supplies needed Religion At this point it became acceptable for Japanese literature and calligraphy to deviate from traditional Chinese aesthetics. Fude: Brush larger brush for writing the main characters smaller one for writing the artist's name Japanese calligraphy has its roots in Zen Buddhism Much of what the West admires as Japanese art can be traced to Zen influences Calligraphy Suzuri: Heavy black container for the ink. Sumi: Solid black material that is rubbed in water to produce the black ink used for writing. "instant ink" in bottles is also available. Bunchin: Metal stick to weight down the paper during writing. Hanshi: Special, thin calligraphy paper. Calligraphy Kaisho Kaisho Supplies continued... The first truly unique Japanese style was invented in the 10th Century. This style was called "wayoushodo," meaning Japanese writing style. It was brought about by Ono No Michikaze. this is the original style less formal way of writing than the Kaisho style faster and easier than Kaisho Supplies continued... "the way of writing" Bibliography History continued... Shitajiki: Black, soft mat. It provides a comfortable, soft surface. Religion Japanese calligraphy began from importing the Chinese writing system in 5th Century C.E. Because of the two unique languages and linguistics however, new characters were created. History semi-cursive style To write Zen calligraphy with mastery, one must clear one's mind and let the letters flow themselves, not making tremendous effort This stresses a connection to the spiritual rather than the physical Supplies continued... http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2095.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calligraphy http://www.beyondcalligraphy.com/japanese_calligraphy.html http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/calligraphy1.shtml https://www.boundless.com/art-history
Transcript: Calligraphy Tools: *ruler *eraser *pencil *brushes *calligraphy ink *broad-nibbed dip-pens *craft knife *gouache Calligraphy is often called "beautiful writing." In Europe two sorts of handwriting came into being very early. Cursive script was used for letters and records, while far more polished writing styles, called uncials, were used for literary works. Both styles can be seen in papyrus fragments from the 4th cent. After the 1st cent. the development of the half uncial or minuscule letter from the Roman capital gave rise to an extraordinarily beautiful and long-lasting calligraphy. By the late 16th cent., with the secure establishment of the printing press, the art of calligraphy declined generally throughout Europe. Penmanship of a relatively inferior sort was taught in elementary schools in England and in the United States until the late 19th cent. The 20th cent. has experienced a revival of interest in the art, influenced by the work of Owen Jones and William Morris. Fine calligraphy is currently taught in art and craft schools and is exhibited in museums. Arabic Calligraphy: Chinese Calligraphy: The Chinese Brush Calligraphy is one of the traditional four arts which was once an important critical standard for the Chinese literati in the imperial era and now prevails not only in China but also worldwide as a unique branch of art. Chinese Calligraphy is so abstract and sublime that in Chinese culture it is universally regarded to be the most revealing power of a person. While one has conformed to the defined structure of words, the expression can be displayed with great creativity by individuals. Japanese Calligraphy: Japanese calligraphy is maybe the most artistic type of writing known to man. This is how the Japanese used to write in their local language. Among the best known of these masters were Matteo Contugi, Gianrinaldo Mennio, and Pierantonio Sallando. Alphabet design became a subject of study, and several technical treatises were published on writing styles. By the late 16th cent., with the secure establishment of the printing press, the art of calligraphy declined generally throughout Europe. Penmanship of a relatively inferior sort was taught in elementary schools in England and in the United States until the late 19th cent. The 20th cent. has experienced a revival of interest in the art, influenced by the work of Owen Jones and William Morris. Calligraphy now: Calligraphy continues to flourish in the forms of wedding and event invitations, font design/ typography, original hand-lettered logo design, religious art, various announcements/ graphic design/ commissioned calligraphic art, cut stone inscriptions and memorial documents. Also props and moving images for film and television, testimonials, birth and death certificates/maps, and other works involving writing. Calligraphy is the art of forming beautiful symbols by hand and arranging them well.It’s a set of skills and techniques for positioning and inscribing words so they show integrity, harmony, some sort of ancestry, rhythm and creative fire. Western Calligraphy: Western calligraphy is one of the most used forms of calligraphy today. It is mostly used in wedding and event invitations, business cards, religious decorations and in hand lettered business logos. This kind of calligraphy is based on the Latin alphabet ands a bit of Greek and Cyrillic forms. It was first done by reeds which were later replaced by quills. The first distinct style of this form was the Gothic style which was developed by monks who were reproducing the Bible into several copies. Later, an adaptation of this version appeared and was called, the Rotund. These two were majorly used in the 12th century. Styles available were the italic and the roundhand bookhand method which would later become dominant. The Gothic style was used in the making of the first printing press although this would see the decline of calligraphy as an art. Italic & Antiqua Calligraphy Styles: Another form was the Antiqua style which came a bit earlier than the Italic and was developed by the renaissance calligraphers. It was slow and difficult to write and Italic style also developed in Italy during the renaissance was preferred for its simplicity and elegance. The Italics style was originally known as the Corsiva in Italy. In present times, calligraphy in the western world continues to flourish. The art of calligraphy is also practiced with the limited letter alphabet of Arabic. Because the Muslim faith discourages pictorial representation and reveres the Qur'an, the Islamic peoples esteem calligraphy as highly as do those of East Asia. The earliest Islamic calligraphy is found in the beautiful Qur'ans, written with black ink or gold leaf on parchment or paper in formal, angular script. Begun by the 8th cent., this script was fully developed by the 10th. Elaborations, such as foliation, interfacing, and other complexities were invented later, but they are used only for decorative work.
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