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Transcript: SSSRIs Fluoxetine & Fluvoxamine inhibit CYP-1A2, leading to failure to fully metabolize caffeine. Thus those people taking these antidepressants may experience toxicity, intolerance to caffeine, and ‘caffeinism.’ In cigarette smokers, caffeine’s half life is shortened; however, during smoking cessation caffeine’s half-life is extended. This mechanism may exacerbate cigarette withdrawal symptoms by inducing agitation. Energy Drinks Coffee Pills Also Tea and Chocolate (not pictured) Caffeine: the active ingredient By Tracy Markowitz Psychopharmacology Class November 12, 2012 Caffeine and You Caffeine As a vasoconstrictor, can constrict blood vessels thereby decreasing blood flow to the brain by 30% which can produce relief from headaches especially migraines. Caffeine can also produce an antiasthmatic effect or bronchial relaxation Caffeine has been associated with improved glucose tolerance and lower risk of type 2 diabetes Contains antioxidants Also produces alertness & can aid cognitive functioning by delaying fatigue Potential for Abuse The Many and Varied Forms of Caffeine Caffeine is primarily metabolized by the liver. Specifically, the CYP-1A2 enzyme metabolizes caffeine. as caffeine is broken down, metabolizes into theophylline & paraxanthine which behave similarly to caffeine. The third metabolite, theobromide does not produce caffeine like effects. Caffeine’s half-life can be from 2 ½ - 10 hours. Some are predisposed to longer caffeine half-life- taking longer to metabolize caffeine. “Slow metabolizers” may be more susceptible to negative effects of caffeine consumption Negative Pharmacokinetics Positive and Negative Effects of Caffeine Decaffeinated Teas and coffees still contain trace amounts of caffeine (5-15mg) An average cup of coffee contains 100 mg of caffeine Some energy drinks may contain as much as 300 mg of caffeine Treatment of Abuse (?) Caffeine is most often absorbed orally. As caffeine is water soluble, it equally disperses across all parts of the body. Maximum blood levels of caffeine are reached 30-45 minutes after imbibing Half life of caffeine is variable. Adenosine is a neuromodulator While there are not discrete and direct CNS pathways, gradual increase of Adenosine over the course of the day produces sedation by stimulation GABAergic neurons which act as an inhibitor to dopaminergic system Thus, when caffeine BLOCKS adenosine receptors, we see the effects that we all have come to know and love: wakefulness and increased mental acuity. Caffeinism How much is too much? Pharmacokinetics cont’d Adenosine Youtube clip: As previously discussed, caffeine only indirectly stimulates the dopaminergic ‘reward’ system; thus it does not possess the hallmarks of an addictive drug: interaction with nucleus accumbens and involvement in reward motivation and addition While caffeine does not possess the true potential for addiction, consumption of moderate to high levels of caffeine( more than 5 cups of 500 mg/day) will result in tolerance and withdrawal symptoms. Withdrawal symptoms include headache, drowsiness, and fatigue Only mildly behaviorally reinforcing: p. 52 As caffeine is not a true drug of abuse and dependence, there are no formalized treatments specifically designated for caffeine. Over the Counter Medication: Medications such as NoDox contain as much as 200 mg of caffeine per tablet Excedrin contains 75 mg Chewing Gum:Jolt Gum or ThinkGum typically contain 10mg of caffeine per piece Delicious: Chocolate: up to 25 mg per ounce Positive Adenosine’s Job: *Yawn* When intoxicated, caffeine does increases alertness Drinks like Vodka-Redbull or other alcohol & caffeine combinations create the feeling of being wide-awake- drunk As a behavioral stimulant, caffeine increases activity while the motoric and cognitive distortions produced by alcohol remain intact. The End Psychological Agitation Panic Can induce or intensify anxiety disorders Physical Nigh time Wakefulness Tremors Insomnia Gastrointestinal Upset Tachycardia Drug interactions On a molecular level, caffeine looks remarkably similar to the endogenous adenosine. Thus it binds to the adenosine receptors and becomes an adenosine antagonist by blocking these recepetors. Symptoms of CNS: Anxiety Agitation Insomnia Symptoms of PNS: Tachycardia Hypertension Cardiac Arrhythmias Gastrointestinal Disturbances Brought on by 500 - 1000mg or roughly 5-10 cups of coffee Most doctors suggest imbibing no more that 3-5 cups per day: For those of you that have forgotten, a cup is 8 ounces… A Grande at Starbucks is 16 ounces 2x 16= 32= some hit this point before doc sem Adds up quickly! Caffeine and Alcohol TWINS How does it work? Ellen is Fabulous Other Caffeine Sources

Caffeine presentation

Transcript: Caffeine Other names for caffeine Other names for caffeine - joe -dirt -mud - joe -dirt -mud stimulant Drug Classification Drug Classification Caffeine can look like many different things. It can look like coffee, tea, choclate,etc. What it looks like What it looks like How it enters your system you can either eat it or drink it How it enters your system Short term effects of caffeine Short term effects of caffeine 1. Increased blood pressure 1. Increased blood pressure 2. improved performance in athletics 2. improved performance in athletics 3. flight or fight response is provoked 3. flight or fight response is provoked 4.alertness and energy levels go up 4.alertness and energy levels go up 5.adds muscular endurance 5.adds muscular endurance Long term effects of caffeine Long term effects of caffeine 1. Insomnia 1. Insomnia 2. Nervousness 2. Nervousness 3. Restlessness 3. Restlessness 4. stomach irritation 4. stomach irritation 5.respiration 5.respiration signs and symptoms of addiction signs and symptoms of addiction depressed mood, headaches, muscle pain, stiffness depressed mood, headaches, muscle pa... withdrawl effects of caffeine withdrawl effects of caffeine Nausea, vommiting, lethargy Nausea, vommiting, lethargy anyone can have caffeine in moderation laws about caffeine laws about caffeine ht tps:// 1-866-638-3916 Treatment Options and Hotlines Treatment Options and Hotlines 1. some people are highly sensitive to the effects of caffeine 2. Diet pepsi max has the most caffeine out of all soft drinks 3.400 mg of caffeine is a healthy amount per day 4.caffeine is found in more than 60 plants Other Facts Other Facts

Caffeine Presentation

Transcript: Thank You! Caffeine Description Overall Description Caffeine is categorized as a psychostimulant and under drug schedule III. Its main method of use is through food and drink consumption such as coffee, tea, sodas, chocolate, and many others. It is also an ingredient in many over-the-counter medicines. Caffeine has no street names. Caffeine can be obtained through stores, restaurants, bars, and many other places since it is legal. Did you know? Caffeine is consumed daily by 90% of the world's people. Roughly 80% of U.S. adults consume caffeine every day. Short and Long Term Effects - stimulating effect on the central nervous system, heart, blood vessels, and kidneys. -mild diuretic -irritability, nervousness or anxiety -headaches and insomnia -dehydration -delays the time it takes for the consumer to fall asleep and reduces depth and quality of sleep Effects of Caffeine Long Term -dizziness and ringing in the ears -muscle tremors -weakness and fatigue -rapid heart rate and quickened breathing rate -poor appetite, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea -irregular heart rate or rhythm -low blood pressure -confusion or delirium. -increased risk of heart disease Effects on Unborn Child Effects on Pregnancy -It is suspected that a consistent large daily intake of caffeine increases the risks of miscarriages. -2-3 cups of coffee have no effects, while 10 cups or more appear to cause the children after birth to be more fussy and irritable. -It is recommended for pregnant mothers to cut caffeine out completely For context: 14% of caffeine users consume more than 400mg or 4-5 cups of coffee per day. Addiction Withdrawal Addiction and Withdrawal Local and National Help The Mayo Clinic and many other national websites, clinics, or hospitals offer tips on how to cut down on or withdraw from caffeine effectively. If withdrawal ever gets to the point where you are in danger, local help can be any hospital near you or the Pittsburgh Poison Center. Legally and medically, caffeine is not recognized as a dangerously addictive substance. However, although it is not considered addictive there are still mild withdrawal symptoms. Withdrawal is not considered dangerous but more so unpleasant. Listed below are some common caffeine withdrawal symptoms: -headache -marked fatigue or drowsiness -dysphoric, depressed mood or irritability -difficulty concentrating -flu-like symptoms (nausea, vomiting or muscle pain/stiffness). Treatment Methods As mentioned above, many places offer tips on how to effectively withdraw from caffeine. The most common way for caffeine withdrawal is to gradually wean oneself from caffeine in order to minimize any symptoms by tapering off slowly and substituting cups of caffeinated drinks with decaffeinated varieties or other caffeine-free beverages. Withdrawal is not harmful: Only 11% in a case study reported withdrawal symptoms from stopping caffeine intake, and only 3% said their symptoms interfered with daily living. Medical Uses of Caffeine Medical Uses and Legal Risks Caffeine is available by prescription as a solution of caffeine citrate. Caffeine is also an active ingredient in many headache medicines, both by prescription and sold over the counter, as well as in nonprescription aids and herbal preparations for alertness and dieting. Caffeine is also approved as a prescription drug for treating premature infants who are born before their lungs and brain are mature enough for automatic breathing. These babies may have a condition called apnea, in which they cease breathing, which could cause damage to the brain and other organs. Caffeine has been demonstrated to aid in keeping premature babies breathing regularly. There are no legal consequences since caffeine is not a seriously addictive drug and is considered nation-wide as legal. Legal Risks of Caffeine Sources Bibliography American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013. Blachford, Stacey L., and Kristine Krapp, eds. Drugs and Controlled Substances: Information for Students. Detroit, MI: Gale, 2003. "Butalbital, Aspirin, and Caffeine." Last modified September 13, 2019. "Caffeine." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. "Caffeine." National Center for Biotechnology Information. National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Database. Caffeine, CID=2519, (accessed on Apr. 14, 2020). "Caffeine: How much is too much?" Mayo Clinic. "Caffeine in Pregnancy." March of Dimes. Accessed April 14, 2020.

Caffeine Presentation

Transcript: Cons A drug made of the same materials as caffeine... N The question many seem to pose is whether Caffeine is adicitive. So, to answer the question which raged on since 1820, the answer is yes. Why? While you may not be addicted right now, if you take too much Red Bull (5 cans), or a lot of Coca-Cola (unknown), you can get addicted, ergo, proving that over time, with many of its effects, you will be able, eventually causing death, due to overdose. So, while there are positives to caffeine, at the same time, there are a lot of negatives, so remember, be wise to your caffeine! Error 000: The requested information does not exist. Please try again. Helps energize humans Acts as a natural pesticide for insects Comes in various forms, like coffee, to Cola Wards off drowsiness, and is a stimulant Moderate consumption can actually increase alertness. Effects do not last forever. Really, they don't. Energy Drinks may reduce sleep times, meaning that those that are tired may not sleep, and be addicted to caffeine. It coulld kill animals, from dogs, to horses, and parrots If you overdose on caffeine, you could have a lot of medical problems, from frequrent urination, to liver disease, anxiety, ringing ears, and sensitivity to touch, or pain Extreme overdose could result in anyone ceasing to be, with the lethal dose in rats at 192 milligrams per kilogram. Some people may clench until they have caffeine into their system. Caffeine MAY be addictive. Coffee Cup of Joe Soda Red Bull Caffeine Tea Pros (not a real drink) Caffine is a substance that is bitter to the Human taste Scientists isolated Caffeine from Coffee in 1820, in France. One of the Scientists, Pelliter coined the term, caffeine. Found in varying quantities of food and seeds Acts as a natural pesticide for some insects It is a stimulant, meaning it energizes you What it is Pros and Cons Caffeine 101 Caffeine 101 Source CH3 By Odin Swidzinski Fairhaven's Kim Jong-il Expert CH3 Is Caffeine Adictive? H3C The main sources I got my news and report from is Wikipedia, from the article of caffine, as well as my own knowledge. Now, who wants to discuss about the topic of caffeine? O Coca-Cola Pepsi Cola Coke Cocoa Leaves Et cetera... O N Common Names N Caffine in Drinks Chemical Structure of Caffeine N Coffee Coca-Cola Pepsi Diet Coca-Cola Tea Doctor Pepper Red Bull Mixed Coffee (GDR) Cocoa Leaves Cocaine

Caffeine Presentation

Transcript: Whats In Our Cup? Dental Caries Caffeine As a Professional: Rank from highest amount of caffeine (mg) to lowest: 8oz of: Instant Coffee Starbucks Chai Tea latte AMP Coke Diet Coke Pepsi Starbucks Grande Coffee Full Throttle Sunkist Orange Soda Rockstar Energy drink High Caffeine Consumption TRIVIA 1. Starbucks Grande Coffee 160mg/8oz 2. Rockstar Energy Drink 80mg/8oz 3. Full Throtle Energy Drink 72mg/8oz 4. AMP Energy Drink 71.5mg/8oz 5. Instant Coffee 62 mg/8oz 6. Starbucks Chai Tea Latte 50mg/8oz 7. Diet Coke 31.33mg/8oz 8. Sunkist Orange Soda 27.3mg/8oz 9. Pepsi 25.33mg/8oz 10. Coke 23.33mg/8oz 1. Trivia 2. The Caffeine Kick 3. What Are You Drinking? 4. Caffeine Fix 5. The BIG Picture 6. As an RD Average consumption 70mg/day Main sources: Soda and energy drinks. Stronger Negative effect Peer Pressure Cynthia L. Ogden, Brian K. Kit, Margaret D. Carroll, Sohyun Park. Consumption of sugar drinks in the United States, 2005-2008. NCHS Data Brief. 2011.Accessed July 18, 2013. Rhonda S. Sbasatian, Joseph D. Goldman, Cecilia Wilkinson, Randy P LaComb. Fluid milk consumption in the United States. NHANES Food Surveys Research Group Dietary Info Brief. No. 3. 2010. Accessed July 18, 2013. Jennifer L. Temple. Caffeine use in children: what we know, what we have to learn, and why we should worry. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2009; 793-806. Available at NIH Public Access. Accessed July 19, 2013. Michael Moss. Salt Sugar Fat. New York, NY: Random House; 2013. Caffeine consumption - sources, time of day, association with foods Replacing nutritious choices Taste preference and reason for consumption Ethnicity or income contributes to diet The Caffeine Fix Sleep & Development Disruption Children/ Teens Obesity What Are You Drinking? 1. What is the average adult intake (mg) of caffeine per day? 2. What is the average children/teen intake (mg) of caffeine per day? 3. What is the concern of consuming caffeine? 4. Why do people consume caffeine? Adults 90% consume caffeine regularly Main sources: coffee, soda, and tea Less negative side effects The BIG Picture Consume 70mg/day; used to be 38mg/day. There is no known safe amount of caffeine for kids. Stronger effect of caffeine on function, and more likely to experience the negative effects. i.e. nervous, jitters, headache, nausea. More likely to consume soda and energy drinks because they are advertised to this age group. Can be peer pressured into consuming these beverages . The Caffeine Kick There are three main concerns References

Caffeine Presentation

Transcript: Psychological Dependence: People believe that they need caffeine to get going in the morning and can't function without it. Description Immediate Effects of Caffeine Long Term Effects You can't buy happiness but you can buy coffee and that's pretty close Medical term: 1,3,7 trimethylxanthine Slang terms: java, joe, mud, go, caffeine fix, go juice Works Cited Physical Effects: Dehydration which saps energy, heart damage due to rapid beating, Insomnia, and higher blood pressure. Meredith Blackburn, Sage Daughton, Brett Farruggia Caffeine Dangers of Caffeine Mental Effects: Can lead to long term anxiety, and depression due to mood swings. More than 4 cups of coffee a day linked to early death May raise blood pressure Increased risk of heart attacks Caffeine linked to gout attacks Caffeine may cause insomnia Slang Terms Physical Dependence: Physical addiction to caffeine can lead to mild withdrawal such as headaches caffeine occurs naturally in over 60 plants, such as the kola nuts, tea leaves and coffee beans synthetic caffeine can be added to medicines, foods and drinks worldwide, 90% of people consume caffeine in some form the average adult intakes 200 mg of caffeine a day-equal to 4 sodas 70 tablets of Caffeine+L-Theanine costs $11.88 one K-cup costs $0.69 one Starbucks cup of coffee costs $1.45 Physical: Increased Blood pressure, mild diuretic effects, heart rate increases, blood vessels dilate Mental: Alertness Thoughts & Ideas

Caffeine Presentation

Transcript: Presented by Ahriyanna Bullard, Taylor Bygrave and Sara Cahill Caffeine - Caffeine is made up of 8 carbon atoms, 10 hydrogen atoms, 4 nitrogen atoms, and 2 oxygen atoms - Works by stimulating the brain and central nervous system - It helps you stay alert and prevents the onset of tiredness - Caffeine blocks the effects of adenosine, which is a neurotransmitter that relaxes the brain and will make you feel tired What is it? What is it? - Caffeine is a naturally occurring compound found in the leaves and fruits of certain plants - It is most often found in coffee, tea, cocoa, soft drinks, and energy drinks Where is it Found? Where is it found? Sports Claims - Caffeine can increase endurance performance, endurance capacity, and reduction in perceived exertion Sports Claims - Mobilization of intracellular calcium and inhibition of specific phosphodiesterases, only occur at high non-physiological concentrations - Caffeine blocks the effects of adenosine, which is a neurotransmitter that relaxes the brain and will make you feel tired - Caffeine increases energy metabolism throughout the brain, while also decreasing cerebral blood flow Theory Behind Caffeine Mechanism Behind Aid - $4 for my personal bottle from GNC supplying 200 tablets - FDA cites that no more than ~400 mg a day (4-5 cups of coffee) or the average person is safe/not associated with any negative effects - Adults can safely consume up to 5.7 mg of caffeine/per kg of body weight Dosage and Costs Dosage and Cost - It mobilizes fat stores and encourages working muscles to use fat as a fuel - This delays the depletion of muscle glycogen and allows athletes to compete for longer durations - It allows endurance athletes to compete at a higher level, without being put at risk for major side effects and legal issues. Know Effectiveness Known Effectiveness - The research shows that up to 400 milligrams of caffeine a day appears to be a safe amount of caffeine - 400 milligrams is roughly about the same amount of caffeine in four cups of brewed coffee, 10 cans of cola or two energy shot drinks - Caffeine is safe for adults but children should avoid consuming caffeine - If you are experiencing, Insomnia, Nervousness, Migraine headache, Fast heartbeat Safety Safety - In the US there is a 65 mg limit of caffeine dosage per 12 oz of any liquid beverages - All caffeinated alcoholic drinks have been banned in the US (Four Loko, Joose, Sparks…) or these beverages on the shelves have had all caffeine removed from them Legal Issues Legal Issues - I would recommend that only serious endurance athletes should take this substance - Athletes should experiment ahead of time with the dosage as well as the use of this aid Our Recommendation Our Recommendation - The results were inconclusive - Week 1,2,3 dosages - It has been well studied - Effective if build into workout regime appropriately Test Results Test Results References References Thank You ! Thank You!

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