Transcript: Cancer: Breast Cancer Nicole Garafulic Cells in the breast sometimes change and no longer grow or behave normally. These changes may lead to non-cancerous (benign) breast conditions or in some cases, the changes to the breast cell can cause cancer (malignant) which is a group of cancer cells that can grow into and destroy the tissue. Most often, breast cancer starts in cells that line the ducts, which are the tubes that carry milk from the glands to the nipple. Introduction Introduction According to the Canadian Cancer Society: 26,900 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer. This represents 25% of all new cancer cases in women in 2019. 5,000 women will die from breast cancer. This represents 13% of all cancer deaths in women in 2019. The breast cancer incidence rate in women in Canada rose between 1984 and 1991. It is estimated that about 1 in 8 Canadian women will develop breast cancer during their lifetime and 1 in 33 will die from it. Statistics Breast Cancer Statistics Ductal carcinoma (most common) Lobular carcinoma (most common) inflammatory breast cancer Paget disease of the nipple triple negative breast cancer soft tissue sarcoma melanoma others... Types of Breast Cancer Types There are cancer cells only in the lining of a breast duct. This is called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). There is a buildup of abnormal cells in the breast lobules. This is called lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). There is Paget disease of the breast without any invasive carcinoma, DCIS or LCIS. Stage 0 Stage IA The tumor is 2 cm or smaller. Stage IB The tumor is 2 cm or smaller, or no tumor can be seen in the breast. A small number of cancer cells are found in the lymph nodes. Stage I Stage IIA Cancer cells are found in 1 to 3 lymph nodes under the arm. tumor is larger than 2 cm but not more than 5 cm. Stage IIB Cancer cells are found in 1 to 3 lymph nodes under the arm. the tumor is larger than 5 cm Stage II Stage IIIA Cancer cells are found in 4 to 9 axillary lymph nodes, or in internal mammary lymph nodes but not in axillary lymph nodes. the tumor is larger than 5 cm. Stage IIIB The tumor has grown into the muscles of the chest wall or the skin or both. The cancer may have also spread to 1 to 9 axillary lymph nodes or to internal mammary lymph nodes. It can be inflammatory breast cancer. Stage IIIC The cancer has spread to 10 or more axillary lymph nodes. The cancer has spread to more than 3 axillary lymph nodes and internal mammary lymph nodes. The cancer has spread to lymph nodes above the collarbone Stage III The cancer has spread to other parts of the body (called distant metastasis), such as to the bone, liver, lungs or brain. This is also called metastatic breast cancer. Stage IV A lump in the armpit Changes in the shape or size of the breast Changes to the nipple, such as a nipple that suddenly starts to point inward (called an inverted nipple) Discharge that comes out of the nipple without squeezing it or that has blood in it Signs & Symptoms Early Signs Late symptoms of breast cancer include: bone pain weight loss nausea loss of appetite jaundice shortness of breath cough headache double vision muscle weakness Late Symptoms how to identify breast cancer at home https://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/testing/types/self_exam https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yTHyMNBkbOY Other Resources Personal history of breast cancer Family history of breast and other cancers BRCA gene mutations Dense breasts Certain genetic conditions Other gene mutation Factors Risk The stage If you have reached menopause The hormone receptor status of the cancer The HER2 status of the cancer The risk that the cancer will come back, or recur (for early stage breast cancers) your overall health For treatment options the healthcare team will consider: Treatments Surgery Radiation Therapy Hormonal Therapy Chemotherapy Targeted therapy Options: Treatments The Basics of Breast Cancer Overview I hope you enjoyed the presentation! The quiz was designed to check what you got out of the presentation: https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/VJHC6HB Thank you! Quiz
Transcript: Evaluations are widely described as recommended to be brought under consideration because they could either; A. Help diagnose the type of cancer the person(s) have. B. Help refer to treatments or figure out if the cancer even exsists. Breast Cancer Developed from cells in the breast. Most common sign is a new lump or mass, skin irroting, dimpling, nipple pain or redness or scaliness. Can be diagnosed through treatments and symptoms. Evaluations Shylinn A & Jasmine S Development Founded By: Edwin Smith In year: 1862 Breast Cancer Diagnosed
Transcript: There are multiple kinds of surgery, the type of surgery will be determined by you and your doctor. Mastectomy vs. Lumpectomy will discuss the pros and cons of the types of surgery. Chemotherapy also called chemo is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Also chemo may help to control the tumors growth. Chemo may also cure the cancer stop the growth of tumors, it also can stop the cancer. Radiation Therapy called radio therapy is the careful use of high energy radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from spreading can either cure the cancer, stop the cancer slow the cancer the growth of the cancer, relieve symptons, or pain, or reduce pressure. Some people feel discomfort after this procedure. Ten best question for surviving breast cancer Lymph node removal, can be taken place during lumpectomy and mastectomy if the biopsy shows that breast cancer has spread outside the milk duct. Makayla, Tiaira,Domingo, and Ricardo Mastectomy is the complete removal of the breast tissue... and Lumpectomy is the removal of the tissue and a small amount of the surrounding tissue. Citation's Cryotherapy freezes cancer cells, and Prophylactic ovary removal is is a preventive surgery that lowers the amount of estrogen in the body. Breast reconstruction is the rebuilding of the breast after surgery which takes months to years to be rebuilt. Breast Cancer
Transcript: While many people think that if the cancer hasn't spread and the tumor is removed, the patient is safe. But this is not the case. It turns out that everyone has cancerous cells "floating" around in their bodies but are only "activated" if the conditions and environment are good for the tumor to grow. For decades, conventional breast radiotherapy such as chemotherapy, was used to try and get rid of breast cancer. While this may usually work, it can damage other organs and parts of the body. Now, doctors are starting to use proton therapy. This targets the cancer without harmful side effects. Patients can also take drugs and have surgery to get rid of the tumor (even though they will probably need radiation later). Recent studies show that cancer is attracted to sugar. If you have diabetes, you may have a higher risk of getting cancer. Also, bad health, diet, and lifestyle may contribute to cancer as well. Breast Cancer is a type of cancer that originates from the breast tissue. While this specific type of cancer occurs mostly in women, it occasionally occurs in men. Perhaps the most recognized symptom of breast cancer is a lump or mass in the breast tissue. About 1 in 8 women are expected to get breast cancer at one point. It is also the most common cancer in women. Conclusion This diagram shows cancer cells bunching together to form a tumor. The uncontrolled cells divide and more appear. Then, they bunch together as before. Cancer is a group of diseases involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer, cells divide uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors. This cancer may spread through the body by having cancerous cells go through the bloodstream. Cancer is considered a genetic disease because certain genes may contribute to cancer cell production. Cancer is actually most common in people with no cancer history. By: David Harris Causes Tumors Treatment Options I decided to do breast cancer because someone very close to me has breast cancer and wanted to educate you all about the causes and treatments of this specific type. She has recently started chemotherapy and we have been sending her many drugs and medications. Also, other people I know have had breast cancer (such as my old neighbor and step grandmother) and it has played a big part in my life. Cancer: Breast Cancer What is cancer? Breast Cancer
Transcript: Breast Cancer http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/index http://www.news-medical.cet/health/History-of-Breast-Cancer.aspx http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/breast-cancer/DS00328/DSECTION=causes http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/breast-cancer/DS00328/DSECTION=symptoms http://www.breastcancer.org/treatment http://www.everydayhealth.com/breast-cancer-pictures/dr-oz-breast-cancer-prevention-tips.aspx#/slide-11 http://www.nationalbreastcancer.org/breast-cancer-facts First discovered in Egypt in approximately 1600 B.C Surgeon Jean Louise Petit and Benjamin Bell were the first to remove the breast tissue. William Stewart started performing mastectomies(the removal of the breast) 1882 some people who died of breast cancer were the mother of Louis XIV, Mary Washington, and Empress Theodora. Cure Beast Cancer is a malignant tumor is found mainly in women no cure can get rid of breast cancer if caught at an early stage. Breast cancer has been here since the 1600's Breast cells divide faster than the healthy and normal cells do. This causes a tumor to grow. Usually breast cancer begins in the milk-producing ducts. This type of cancer is called Invasive Ductal Carcinoma. Brest cancer can also occur in the milk glands, and it called Invasive Lobular Carcinoma. Breast Cancer can also be Inherited: 5 to 10% of Breast cancer is inherited The treatment may differ depending on what stage/or situation the patient is in. Surgery Chemotherapy Radiation Therapy Hormonal Therapy Targeted Therapies Medicine Definiton Breast CanCer - is a malignant tumor, were cancer cells grow and invade or surround a tissue. A person who is 175 lb has 25% more chance of having breast cancer that a person who is 132 lb Breast cancer is the 2nd leading cause of death in women By Nicole D Murakami Beard Avoid being overweight Exercise reduces the risk Avoid drinking alcohol Eat healthy Try not to use hormones Don't smoke Breastfeed Symptoms The End Treatment History Prevention Facts Current News Breast cancer survivor: Radiation tattoo a battle scar This News is about a mother who was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2002. She had a mastectomy, chemotherapy and then radiation, to cure the cancer. But her treatment left radiation tattoos. There is a place were this marks can be erased but Vivian Schwabish want's to keep them as a way to remember No cure, but if caught early there is the possibility of being stopped. Conclusion Lump or mass found in the breast. Bloody discharge from the nipple Change in size and shape Skin changes and indents can occur Inverted nipple Redness in the area over the breast Youtube video Causes Sources
Transcript: Works Cited "Breast cancer - MayoClinic.com." Mayo Clinic. N.p., 29 Nov. 2011. Web. 4 Dec. 2012. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/breast-cancer/DS00328>. "Breast cancer - PubMed Health." National Center for Biotechnology Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001911/>. "Breast cancer - Risk Factors." University of Maryland Medical Center | Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2012. <http://www.umm.edu/patiented/articles/what_risk_factors_breast_cancer_000006_2.htm>. Radiation Therapy Prognosis Usually women, even though men have similar breast tissue. Over age 55 More common among white women, but African-Americans have more aggressive tumors. Causes/Risk Factors About 88% of women survive at least 10 more years. For some women the cancer might return after about 5 years. Prognosis is dependent on if the cancer spread or not. If it spread beyond the lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate is at 27%. The higher the stage at diagnosis, the poorer the prognosis. Prognosis also depends on the size of the tumor. Women may suffer psychologically, may need psychotherapy. Signs/Symptoms Breast Cancer Some symptoms are: Lumps on breast or under the arm Breast pain Change in breast size/shape Peeling, scaling, or flaking Redness Swelling Cancerous Normal Surgery (lumpectomy, masectomy, quadrantectomy, sentinel node biopsy, axillary lymph node dissection) Radiation Therapy Chemotherapy Hormone Therapy Drugs (Herceptin, Tykerb, Avastin) Clinical Trial By: Reem Salah Tumor Breast cancer is a tumor that forms in the tissues of the breast. The tumor can grow and spread to distant areas of the body. Treatments What is it? Population Affected Scientists don't know the causes of breast cancer, they do know that there is abnormal cell growth, but they do know some risk factors. Some risk factors are: Alcohol use Radiation Certain DNA changes Gender/race/age Family history of breast cancer Being overweight Use of Diethylstilbestrol (DES, drug thought would lower miscarriages during 1940s and 1960s)
Transcript: What is Breast Cancer? Regarding the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes: women with the defective gene have an 80% higher chance of developing breast cancer. Another "breast cancer gene" is HER2. HER2 helps cells to grow, divide and repair themselves. When this gene occurs too many times in cells, they grow too big and fast. Researchers say that women with HER2- positive breast cancer have a more aggressive disease, and a higher possibility of the cancer coming back after treatment. Although researchers have not found the exact cause of breast cancer, they say that there are a few genes linked to a higher risk of breast cancer: Breast Cancer is a disease that causes a malignant tumor to form in the breast tissue. A malignant tumor can be defined as a group of cancerous cells that can invade surrounding tissues or spread to another part of the body. It mainly occurs in women, but can infrequently be found in men. Genetics & Breast Cancer Cowdens Syndrome Peutz-Jehgers Syndrome Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) Genetics & Breast Cancer (Cont'd) Your genes are inherited from your parents. Well, there are defective genes which can be inherited as well The genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes. They slow cell division. An offspring may inherit a mutated form of this gene from their parents. Causing the tumor suppressors to stop working, making the probability for developing cancer higher. Breast Cancer By: Mariel Rotbart Genetics & Breast Cancer (Cont'd)
Transcript: Breast cancer can be treated by: Preventable Who can Breast Cancer be diagnosed? Is Breast Cancer curable? Breast cancer can be diagnosed by test such as: - Surgery -Radiation Therapy -Chemotherapy -Anti hormonal Therapy Breast Cancer Age -Radiation Therapy -Surgery -Chemotherapy Breast cancer is a non-communicable disease that can be genetic. Statistics What does breast cancer effect? Can you prevent Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is not based on race nor culture because anyone is prone to getting the disease. Environment can have a small effect on diagnosing breast cancer because what you do and how you control your health can play a small role. You cannot completely prevent yourself or anyone from breast cancer. But, there is evidence that lifestyle choices play an important role in breast cancer prevention. -Mammograms -Self-exams -Clinical Breast exams -Breast Biopsy Is it based on Race, Culture or environment? Having Breast cancer can cause harmful affects to the chest area. How old is the individual and when do they notice? -2011: There were more than 2.6 million cancer survivors in the United States. -About 226,870 new cases of breast cancer -About 39,510 deaths of breast cancer per year. -The cance of a women getting breast cancer throughout her life is 1 in 8. -The chance of a women dying from breast cancer is 1 in 36. Statistics Citations Breast Cancer is curable through some different types of therapy: What is breast cancer? Gender & Heredity How can Breast Cancer be treated? To be diagnosed with breast cancer, you do not have to be a certain age. Teens and kids are less likely to get the disease. Women, as they get older, they are more prone to getting breast cancer. Once the cancer begins to grow, it can be detected in several ways: there may be bumps, change in shape, and abnormal color. Physical: breast swelling, breast skin irritation, and thickening of the breast skin. Mental:Nervous Exhaustion, Anxiety, and Depression Heredity & Gender Curable? Emma McCurley Logan Martin Effects Breast cancer is linked to heredity because it can be passed down through genes from one carrier to another. Breast cancer is a more common disease for women, but men are capable of getting the disease as well. What are the Statistics of breast cancer? - www.cancer.org -www.cancer.net -www.breastcancer.org -www.cancercenter.com Diagnosis Treatment Race, Culture, Environment
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