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Transcript: Braille What is Braille? The Braille system is a method that is widely used by people who are visually impaired to read and write, and was the first digital form of writing What does it look like? How could this benefit someone "disabled?" It can befefit them because they can be able to read even though they can't see, and it could help them communicate with other people. How can braille benefit other people? Braille also benefits other people because it helps blind people learn. So that might make it easier for teachers and parents and students. How much does it cost? The braille itself is free, but braille printing machines cost from around $2,500 for a Perkins Brailler to $15,000 for an electronic braille note taker. What other 'products' are there besides braille? Theres quite a few. There's watch minder, hearing aids, wheelchairs/wheelchair ramps, teletext, etc. Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors. Various scales have been developed to describe the extent of vision loss and define blindness. Total blindness is the complete lack of form and visual light perception and is clinically recorded as NLP, an abbreviation for "no light perception." Blindness is frequently used to describe severe visual impairment with residual vision. Those described as having only light perception have no more sight than the ability to tell light from dark and the general direction of a light source Since Braille is one of the few writing systems where tactile perception is used, as opposed to visual perception, a Braille reader must develop new skills. One skill important for Braille readers is the ability to create smooth and even pressures when running one's fingers along the words. There are many different styles and techniques used for the understanding and development of Braille, even though a study by B. F. Holland[15] suggests that there is no specific technique that is superior to any other. Braille symbols are formed within units of space known as braille cells. A full braille cell consists of six raised dots arranged in two parallel rows each having three dots. The dot positions are identified by numbers from one through six. Sixty-four combinations are possible using one or more of these six dots. A single cell can be used to represent an alphabet letter, number, punctuation mark, or even a whole word. The enclosed braille alphabet and numbers card illustrates what a cell looks like and how each dot is numbered. Braille symbols are formed within units of space known as braille cells. A full braille cell consists of six raised dots arranged in two parallel rows each having three dots. The dot positions are identified by numbers from one through six. Sixty-four combinations are possible using one or more of these six dots. A single cell can be used to represent an alphabet letter, number, punctuation mark, or even a whole word. The enclosed braille alphabet and numbers card illustrates what a cell looks like and how each dot is numbered. There are 189 different letter contractions and 76 short-form words used in Grade 2 braille. These "short cuts" are used to reduce the volume of paper needed for reproducing books in braille and to make the reading process easier. The Braille alphabet is the building block for language skills; it is a means for teaching spelling to children who have vision loss, as well as the most direct means of contact through written thoughts of others. Books written in Braille are available in every subject area, from modern day fiction writings all the way through mathematics, law, and music Braille was invented centuries ago by Louis Braille (1809-1852). Louis Braille was a French teacher of persons who were blind. He created a system of patterns of raised dots that are arranged in cells of up to six dots in a 3 X 2 configuration. Each cell represents a letter, number, or punctuation mark; some letter combinations or words that are used more frequently have their own cell patterns. Braille is being used for everything from labeling of objects to the taking of notes. Braille adapted devices to include playing cards, watches, games, and even thermometers are examples of just some of the many both recreational and practical uses of braille in the world today. All around America, dedicated volunteers work in communities produce braille materials for persons with visual impairments Volunteers produce materials which serve to supplement both magazines and books that are produced in quantities by nonprofit organizations for the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS) of the Library of Congress. All of these volunteers have completed a lengthy and detailed course on Braille transcription that results in an award by the Library of Congress and a Certificate of Proficiency in the appropriate Braille code The activities these volunteers pursue include transcription of printed material into Braille, binding


Transcript: Resources Braille Benefits Title: Chess There are different types of braille including: Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Braille allows blind people to take notes and read. It allows them to do things they couldn't do before such as: musical and mathematical notations, playing chess, and studying science. Today, computer technology allows users to save and edit their writing and it can be read back to them verbally and printed out. Grade 2 Braille During this project, Nhylia and I learned many things about Braille. We learned how it helps the blind and its benefits. It was invented by Louis Braille. Braille is translated into many different languages and in many different grades. Grade 1 is the basic , grade 2 is moderate, and grade 3 is advanced. In conclusion, braille is a very interesting topic and has different levels. It allows the blind to do many things and not be left out. Types of Braille Braille was invented by Louis Braille in 1821. It originated from the military code called "night writing". Louis invented Braille, because he was blind and yearned for more books to read. Braille was officially published in 1932. It can be created with a typewriter with 6 keys and a space bar. Braille is used in different languages , even Chinese! Website: Title: Braille Grade 1 Braille By: Christine Lee and Nhylia Burl Grade 1 braille is where all words are written with every Braille alphabet letter. It is the same for symbols and punctuation marks. It is for beginners that are reading Braille. It is handy for marking items. History of Braille Grade 2 braille has 189 different contractions and 76 short form words It takes up less space on paper and is used in books, signs, in public places, menus, and the Bible. Conclusion Website: Title: Grade 2 Braille Date: December 18, 2008 Grade 1 Braille Grade 3 Braille Grade 3 braille is more sophisticated and advanced than the other grades. Words are shortened to a few letters and it is similar to shorthand. They are only used in personal letters, diaries,notes, and literature. There is no official standard for this version of Braille, because the writer combines words together in a certain ways that other writers may not comprehend.


Transcript: BEGINING OF BRAILLE CODE Braille code has became a very useful and popular method to communicate all over the world. As we can see in the photo, there are books made to blind and fey people. Such as ski... BRAILLE In 1927 Louis Braille (1809-1852) invented a code that let blind people read letters, numbers, symbols and musical notes. Louis, was a a blind student at Haüy college, and he improved it's system in order to the alphabet. In that way blind people could write and read. READING AND WRITING Braille is used to read and write, so in that way blind people can communicate not only by speaking. There is a federation, the IBSA, who is a nonprofit organization founded in 1981 in Paris. Its mission is to promote the full integration of blind and partially-sighted people in society through sport and to encourage people with a visual impairment to take up and practise sports. SPORTS THE FIRST USE OF THE SYSTEM In 1784 Valentin Haüy founded an institute where blind people could have an education . There people used Haüy system to read. The first man who tryed to use Haüy's system was Charles Barbier, a captain who tryed to send messages between soldiers in darkness. This method failed because the paper showed how the words sounded and not how they were written. of football. HISTORY BRAILLE ALPHABET The system consisted in characters in high relief with which blind people could read slowly, but they were inable to write. NOWADAYS This section have nothing to do with braille, but there are some aspects which could be interesting to know... HAÜY SYSTEM

Braille ~ Louis Braille

Transcript: A drawing of Louis Braille ----------> "Louis Braille Biography" Encyclopedia of World Biography. January 26, 2015 <> "Braille" Britannica School. January 27, 2015 <> "An Overview of Braille" Indiana University. January 29, 2015 <> BOOKS Donaldson, Madeline. Louis Braille. Minneapolis: Lerner 2007. Alder, David A. A Picture Book of Louis Braille. New York: Holiday House, 1997 Accomplishments and Setbacks Braille ~ Louis Braille The benefits of Raphigraphy was so that blind people could read easier. Some of the problems of Raphigraphy is that (some) sighted people can't read it because they don't need to or don't want to. This problem can be fixed and the way to fix the problem is for sighted people to learn Braille by taking classes or learning from blind people. I think that fixing the problem could be useful because if the book that you wanted to read was in braile, and you didn't know the title of the book, or if you wanted to read the book but it was only in Braille, you could learn Braille and read the book that you wanted. The Braille System --------------------> Video Link 1. Louis died of Tuberculosis on January 6, 1952. 2. The letter "w" was not originally put into Braille because words that started with a ''w'', like Wednesday and weekend, came from other languages. 3. Before Louis went to school to learn at The National Institute of Blind Youth, the school was a prison. King Louis Philippe ----> Bibliography The National Institute of Blind Youth ----> Someone reading Braille ------------> Society's Impact Raphigrapghy had a big impact on society because now, blind people can read! Raphigraphy was originally Braille, but people wanted to remember Louis, so they changed it to Braille. I don't really think that this change had a HUGE impact on society, but Braille is probably more well known than Raphigraphy. The Invention (part 1) The Invention (part 2) From prison to school for the blind ----------------------> Louis started expirimenting with cut shapes before he made Braille. Captain Charles Barbeir inspired Louis when Charles gave the students a lecture at the National Institute of Blind Youth. Louis learned that if you don't like the way somthing is, you have the creativity to change it. The only problem that was in his way was Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis had been spreading all throughout his school. Professional Career Someone Reading Braille <------- Interesting Facts Background Information Made by Caitlyn Frazier Louis Braille was born in Coupvray, France, on January 4, 1809. Louis' father was a saddle maker. His father was Simon-Rene Braille, his mother was Monique Baron-Braille, and his siblings are unknown. He also studied at the National Institute of Blind Youth. FYI: Embossed lettering was the first type of Braille, but Louis did not create the Embossed Lettering System. Louis Braille created a new way for blind people to read. Louis created Braille around 1839, but it was first called Raphigraphy. Louis created Raphigraphy so that blind people could read in an easier way than the Embossed Lettering System. Louis created a new way for blind people to read. Louis was noticed by a king for his new way of reading, Louis also played instuments in some churches, and Louis was a spectacular student in school even though he was blind. Even though people liked his way of reading, King Louis Philippe liked his idea, but sighted teachers were worried about smart, blind teachers stealing their jobs, so the King decided to stick with the Embossed Lettering system.


Transcript: Assistive technology about braille. By; Tanna P. Mrs. Maurus 2nd hour! Braille If you use braille you have a disability of blindness or severe visual impairment. What disability or disabilities does your assistive technology target? This disability targets blindness or severe visual impairment. Describe and/or define what this disability is. The definition for severe visual impairment is nobility to read ordinary newspaper print, even with the aid of glasses, and impairment indicating no useful vision in either eye; includes those are who legally blind. Describe what your assistive technology does. This assistive technology does a lot for visual impaired people. It helps them read, right, and much more. How could this technology benefit someone with limitations? This assistive technology benefits a visual impaired person read and write. How could this technology benefit everyone (even those who do not have a disability)? You could be teacher that helps the blind. So there forth you would have to learn how to use Braille. Cost or average cost of the assistive technology you researched? The cost of a braille printer would be 1,800 dollars to about 5,000 dollars. Braille is a tactile system used for the blind/severe visual impairment. You can use braille in books,menus, signs, etc.. Braille is named after Louis Braille. Louis Braille went blind do to a childhood accident. At age 15, Louis Braille developed his code for the french alphabet in 1824 as an improvement on night writing. Braille characters are small rectangular blocks called cells that contain tiny palpable bumps called raised dots. Braille was based on a military code. It was called night writing. Braille is not a language. It is like a code.


Transcript: Braille He completed his system in 1824, at age fifteen. Rather than twelve raised dots used in Barbier, his system uses only six dots The code was too complex to use in its original military form, but it inspired Braille to think about a system of his own. went to the Royal Institute of Blind Youth at the age of 10 uses an alphabet of letters, or characters Now IT 'S TIME Blind people use their fingers to feel the characeter & i 'll show you how to be popular What is braille? The dots are organized into patterns that keep the system easy to learn ... Who is Braille Louise ? In 1821, learned of a writing system devised by Captain Charles Barbier from newspaper Who is Louise BRAILLE? named after Louis Braille next is some pictures to show you how brallie is Braille's new system had several advantages. The six-dot system allows the recognition of letters with a single fingertip Each character is made of a series of dots that rise out of the paper in a special pattern He developed his raised-dot system by using an awl, the same kind of implement which had blinded him hey babe, show me your teeth How HE FOUND BRAILLE? a hand reading wood-carved braille code where the word ⠏⠗⠑⠍⠊⠑⠗la première (premier, French for "first") can be read What is Braille? How He Found Braille? became blind at the age of three Thank You For listening Braille was a good student, especially science & music. a church organist & a teacher at the Institute of Blind Youth died at the age of 43 due to tuberculosis. not just text that can be express by braille but also there are notation for mathematics and music He share his invention called "Night writing", a code of raised dots and dashes that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having light or needing to speak because blind don't drive so i guess the manufacture of this product will win big Another very notable benefit is that because they were dots just slightly raised 1809 - 1852 can you read what is on the rubik cube ? is used by blind people to read and write

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