Transcript: “Good fences make good neighbors,” wrote the American poet Robert Frost as he explained the importance of property boundaries. Living things have their own “fences,” and none is as important as the skin—the boundary that separates the human body from the outside world. The skin, the single largest organ of the body, is part of the integumentary (in-teg-yoo-MEN-tuh-ree) system. The word integument comes from a Latin word that means “to cover,” reflecting the fact that the skin and its related structures form a covering over the entire body. Skin and its related structures—the hair, nails, and a variety of glands—make up the integumentary system. body systems endocrine The messages carried by the nervous system are electrical signals called impulses. The cells that transmit these impulses are called neurons. Neurons can be classified into three types according to the direction in which an impulse travels. Sensory neurons carry impulses from the sense organs to the spinal cord and brain. Motor neurons carry impulses from the brain and the spinal cord to muscles and glands. Interneurons connect sensory and motor neurons and carry impulses between them. Although neurons come in all shapes and sizes, they have certain features in common. The figure at right shows a typical neuron. The largest part of a typical neuron is the cell body. The cell body contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm. Most of the metabolic activity of the cell takes place in the cell body. Neuron Structure Spreading out from the cell body are short, branched extensions called dendrites. Dendrites carry impulses from the environment or from other neurons toward the cell body. The long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body is called the axon. The axon ends in a series of small swellings called axon terminals, located some distance from the cell body. Neurons may have dozens of dendrites but usually have only one axon. In most animals, axons and dendrites are clustered into bundles of fibers called nerves. Some nerves contain only a few neurons, but many others have hundreds or even thousands of neurons. In some neurons, the axon is surrounded by an insulating membrane known as the myelin sheath (MY-uh-lin). The myelin sheath that surrounds a single long axon leaves many gaps, called nodes, where the axon membrane is exposed. As an impulse moves along the axon, it jumps from one node to the next, which increases the speed at which the impulse can travel. If you had to get a message to just one or two of your friends, what would you do? You might use the telephone. Wires running from your house to theirs would carry the message almost instantaneously. The telephone is a good way to reach a small number of people, but what if you wanted to get that same message to thousands of people? You might decide to broadcast it on the radio, sending the message in a way that made it possible to contact thousands of people at once. For: Links on the endocrine system Visit: www.SciLinks.org Web Code: cbn-0391 Your nervous system works much like the telephone: Many impulses move swiftly over a system of wirelike neurons that carry specific messages from one cell to another. But another system, the endocrine system, does what the nervous system generally cannot. The endocrine system is made up of glands that release their products into the bloodstream. These products deliver messages throughout the body. In the same way that a radio broadcast can reach thousands or even millions of people in a large city, the chemicals released by the endocrine system can affect almost every cell in the body. In fact, the chemicals released by the endocrine system affect so many cells and tissues that the interrelationships of other organ systems to one another cannot be understood without taking the endocrine system into account. nervous excretory integumentary
Transcript: Ileum: Roasted Asparagus Nose Most of the chemical digestion takes place in the small intestine. The glucose, amino acids and fatty acids are absorbed into the bloodstream in the small intestine. The digested food then passes through the wall of the small intestine and into the blood stream. Only small soluble substances can pass through the wall. The inside wall of the small intestine needs to be thin with a really big surface area. This allows absorption to happen quickly and efficiently. Digestion is the process of breaking down food into little pieces. Your body takes out the macronutrients from the food and sends in into your blood stream. The process of digestion starts in your mouth from when you start chewing and goes all the way down to your intestines. The large intestine is the final destination for your food. It is about 5 feet long. The left over food goes into your large intestine and where bacteria feeds off of it. By doing this it helps with the left over foods digestion. They also create useful substances such as vitamins K and B which are then absorbed and sent to your bloodstream. The water is also absorbed here. The food that can't be absorbed such as dead bacteria and fiber are eventually passed out of the body through your rectum. Straweberry Protein Smoothie This is the middle section of the small intestine. It is about 3 feet long. This is where most of the nutrients are absorbed Endocrine Function: The main function of the rib cage is to protect vital organs and blood vessels. The rib cage also expands and contracts with the lungs to let breathing take place. Carbohydrates are either digested to glucose or fructose. The glucose is used by our cells for energy. The fructose in converted into glycogen and the stored in our muscles and used for energy The liver is a large organ that is on the right side of your belly. It weighs about 3 pounds. There are two main parts to the liver. The right and the left lobes. The liver produces bile. Bile is a fluid that helps with digestion. It breaks down the fats in the food into fatty acids. The bile that the liver produces is stored in the gallbladder till it's needed. The liver also stores vitamins and sugars. The Gall Bladder is located under the liver. It is where the bile is stored after it is produced in the liver. In response to signals the gall bladder squeezes the stored bile into the small intestine through tubes called ducts Liver Large Intestines THANK YOU :) The mouth is where the the whole process of digestion begins. Your whole digestive system is bordered by a mucus lining. This is there so that the stomach doesn't get digested by it's own enzymes. Lungs Total Sugar = 14.3 Grams Jejunum: Proteins are digested into amino acids Amino acids are needed by our bodies to make new proteins. The Stomach is a stretchy bag that holds your food temporarily after you eat. An enzyme called pepsin breaks down the protein in your food into amino acids and sends it your blood stream and a chemical called hydrochloric acid which is produced in the stomach helps with the digestion of the proteins and it kills harmful micro organisms that might be left in the food. This is chemical digestion. The layers of muscle that line the stomach mash up the food and the stomach churns which moves the food around and breaks it down. This is mechanical digestion. A very good source of carbohydrates. Has less Fat and less Proteins. Raspberries also provide your body with Vitamin C. O2 + Glucose -----> CO2 + H2O + Energy Mouth The Esophagus is a tube that connects your stomach to your mouth. The Esophagus is approximately 25cm long. Once the food enters the esophagus it doesn't just drop down to the stomach. The muscles in the esophagus expand and contract pushing the food down to your stomach. This is mechanical digestion. Humans and other mammals have a double circulatory system. It is called this because the blood travels around our body twice. One is the oxygenated blood and the other is the deoxygenated blood. Other animals have a single circulatory system which sends the organs and tissues a mixture of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Esophagus Mouth The nose is made of cartilage, bone, muscle and skin. The nasal cavity is the space within the nose and skull. It is lined with hairs and mucus membrane. The nasal cavity's job is to filter the air before it reaches the lungs. The hairs and mucus lining trap dust, mold, pollen etc before it gets into our body. The air that is going out through the nasal cavity provides the nasal cavity with moisture and heat. Breathing is the action of taking in air through either your nose or mouth. Cellular respiration is a chemical reaction that takes place in your body. This chemical reaction produces energy which is then sent to our cells. The formula is Chemical Digestion Vocal cords Diaphragm How are all the systems connected? Trachea Stomach Physical Digestion At the end of the trachea the airways splits into the right
Transcript: Endocrine System Structures: Hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas,ovaries(in females) testes(in males) Function: Conrtols growth development and metabolism, maintains homeostasis. Makes hormones to reproduce Reproductive System Structures: Testes, epididymis, vas deferens, uretha, and penis(in males) ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina(in females) Function: Produces reproductive cells, in females nutures and protects developing embryo. You eliminate waste products through the reproductive organs Excretory System Structure:Skin, Lungs, kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, uretha. Function: Eliminates waste products from the body in ways that maintain homostasis. Integumentary System Structures: Skin, hair, nails, sweat, and oil glands Function: Serves as a barriar against infection and injury. Helps to regulate body temperature, provides protection against ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Protects organs. Body Systems
Transcript: huddle Mrs. Rossi huddle to crowd together crowd huddle separate
Transcript: Muscular system Lymphatic System Main organs: - Pituitary gland - Thymus - Adrenal gland - Gonads - Pineal gland Function: Hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual funtion etc. Main organs: - The heart - The tongue - The biceps - The triceps - Gluteous maximus - Bone deltoids Urinary System Main Organs: - Kidneys -Ureters -Bladder -Urethra Function: Keeps chemicals such as Potassium, Sodium and water balanced and removes a type of waste called Urea from your blood. Main organs: - The thymus gland - The spleen - The tonsils - The appendex Function: For maintaining your body's fluid balance. The nervous system front and back of the muscular system. By: Harley rogers and Ivette Aguirre Function: Locomotion or mobility, strenght, heart production, shock absorption, shaping the body and maintaining the posture and respiration. Major Organs: - Bone marrows - Thymus gland -Spleen -Lymph nodes Function: Protects the human body from diseases. Main organs: - Brain - Brain stem - Spinal cord Function: Provides the frame work for communication sensation, thoughts, emotions and memories in the body. Signals are transmitted to and from the central nervous system Systems powerpoint Systems Powerpoint Immune System Endocrine system Muscular system
Transcript: The Immune System Body Systems Help One Another By Brady, Jayda, Hector, Emily What is the Cardiovascular system? Cardiovascular System The cardiovascular system (also known as the circulatory system) is the system that circulates blood and lymph throughout the body. The main components are the heart, blood, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and glands. Pulmonary Circulation The Systemic Circulation Different Parts of the Cardiovascular system The Different organs of the body system Immune System How does the Cardiovascular system affect the immune system? It doesn't really but the Immune System reacts to the failure of the heart in the cardiovascular system so the Immune System is always there fighting off virus and diseases and reacts to one which does affect the cardiovascular system. The skeletal system The skeletal system In the bones we have there is marrow ( a substance in the cavities of our bones where blood cells are produced) when the cardiovascular system interacts with skeletal system the marrow that is inside our bones helps produce the cells inside our blood How does the cardiovascular system affect the Skeletal system? Our muscles need oxygen to produce ATP energy (Adenosine triphosphate) so the cardiovascular system brings oxygen and nutrients to the muscles, it also removes waste. How does the Cardiovascular System help Muscular System? Muscular system The Nervous System The Nervous System is made up of the brain, the spinal cord, and the nerves. The brain sends messages to your heart, in order for it to tell your heart to beat. How does the Cardiovascular system help the Nervous System? The Nervous system consists of the brain, the nerves, and the spinal cord. In order for you heart to pump blood, the brain sends messages to the heart telling it to do so. The cardiovascular system helps the Respiratory System because blood cells need oxygen, when the blood cells are deoxygenated, the heart sends them to the lungs, filling them up with oxygen and releasing the carbon dioxide. How does the Cardiovascular System help the Respiratory System? Respiratory System Urinary system How does the Cardiovascular System help the Urinary System? The Cardiovascular system is directly connected to the urinary system because the kidneys are what cleans and takes the toxins out of the blood The Endocrine Chemicals and hormones circulate threw the How does the cardiovascular system Help the endocrine system Endocrine System
Transcript: By Imogen Trafford Overview: We have manly been looking at the heart, veins, arteries and how the blood circulates around the body and how it circulates around the heart. Coronary Arteries are on the outside of the heart, they supply blood to the muscle of the heart itself. Heart Attack: •Blockage in the arteries •Part of the heart dies When digesting the food. The Esophagus's mussels tighten to squeeze the food down the esophagus. Digestion In The Stomach The epiglottis is a flap located at the end of the larynx. It is a gate to permit food traveling down the larynx and into the esophagus. This prevents chocking as if we did into have an epiglottis the food would go into the respiratory system. The epiglottis is thin and leaf-shaped. It is project into the pharynx and it is located below the tongue. Two ligaments hold the epiglottis in place. The thyroepiglottic and the hyoepiglottic ligament. Gases spread out CO2- defuse out O2- defuse in Chemical digestion is a possess to help break down food. One of the chemicals is saliva. Saliva is a mucus and it contains Amylase. Amylase breaks digests starch into glucose molecules. Diffusion in the Alveoli Conclusion Liver (n) There are to types of digestion in the mouth. The first is chemical digestion and the second in physical digestion. Placed end to end- blood vessels would stretch 100,000km(2.5 times around earth) Rectum and Anus Stomach Lab Arteries- take blood away from the heart. Veins- take blood to the heart Capillaries- join Arteries & veins + exchange Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide Arteries- receive blood at higher pressure- have thicker walls- muscular and elastic to withstand high pressure Veins- not as high pressure- thinner & no elastic fibres Veins- contain valves to stop blood flowing backwards Physical Digestion I cup of Spinach- 30g The Esophagus is a long pipe connecting to stomach and the pharynx for leftover Carbohydrates, proteins and fats to pass through. Gall Bladder (n) Intercostal Muscles between ribs and diaphragm- contract-ribs pulled outwards & upwards when you inhale Trachea, Bronchi and Bronchus. Bronchi- divides into 2 left and right- left smaller Want most of your air to go into right- because of heart Digestion is a posses to swallow and adsorb nutrients into the body. The mouth is the first stage in the Digestive System. This concludes that pepsin only works with Hydrochloric acid. My meal Consists of..... Diarrhea is caused by the body reacting to a bacteria it wants out of the body. This means instead of the water being absorbed into the sides of the intestine, the water continues to push the feces out of the body and will withdraw water from the walls of the intestine. This leads to dehydration. Put a cracker on your tongue. After a few minutes the cracker will become sweet. This is due to the Amylase breaking down the starch into glucose molecules The Epiglottis An Introduction to the Circulatory System Baked Potato- 100 grams Try this yourself! Heart, Atria, ventricles, Tricuspid valves There is two types of digestion; physical(Manual) and chemical. Chemical: Carbohydrates are broken down in the mouth. Complex carbohydrates such as starch is made up of small glucose molecules. The saliva contains amylase which works at 37˚c. The amylase breaks down the starch into glucose molecules. Physical: Physical Digestion(manual) is manly the teeth and tongue. There is 32 teeth to masticate the food. There is also a tongue to push the food to the teeth to masticate. Salivary glands produce a liquid to soften the food. This secretion is called Saliva. There are 3 The whole wheat pasta has 26.5g of carbohydrates, 5.3g Protein, 0.5g of Fat and altogether 124 calories. Fact: The heart pumps 8000 litres of blood per day! The Gall Bladder is an organ in the Digestive system. Even though is is part of the Digestive system, the food doesn't pass through the Gall Bladder; it is simply a store for the Bile. Hollow and pear-shaped, the Gall Bladder is a small organ, only 7.62cm long and only 3.81cm wide at its widest point. My meal is made up of 38% Carbohydrates, 37% Protein and 25% fat. Mouth, Pharynx, Liver, Gall Bladder, Pancreas, Stomach, Esophagus, Small intestine and Large intestine. Breathing and Cellular Respiration In the stomach; protein and leftover carbohydrates are digested. The Stomach contains enzymes called protease. Protease digests protein into amino acids. Digestion is assisted by stomach acid which is Hydrochloric acid. This kills harmful micro-organisms that might be in the food. A Journey Through The Digestive System Diaphragm is a muscle Its what makes you breath Contracts when you inhale Relaxes when you exhale Can be temporarily replaced with ventilator The Rectum and Anus are the last steps of digestion where the waste is expelled. It is usually kept closed by the sphincter muscles and is relaxed at will. When it wants to open, it will send a message to the brain telling it to relax the muscles. 1/2 Chicken breast -172grams
Transcript: Body Systems Alexis Guitreau The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells known as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. It connects all parts of the body together. Nervous System Nervous System Skeletal System The skeletal system is something that connects a lot of the human body together, much like the nervous system. The skeletal system allows us to bend our limbs and control them more easily. It, besides our nervous system, is the thing we are dependent on in order to move. Skeletal System Subtopic 1 Our skull is one big protective layer for our Brain. PICTURES PICTURES TOPIC 3 Muscle System TIMELINE TIMELINE 2018 MAP MAP Location 1 Location 2 Location 3 TOPIC 4 Circulatory System
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