Transcript: OLD CARS Moreno Rodriguez Abraham Antonio Olguin Garcia Adriana Oropeza Pichardo Ariadne CONCLUSION ENERGY REFORM SPEED LIMITS Fishbone procedure TRAFFIC JAM When to use fishbone diagram? INCREASE OF TRANSPORTATION COSTS SOURCES MEXICAN PETROLEUM DECREASE LONG DISTANCE Fishbone diagram Cause and effect When identifying possible causes for a problem. Especially when a team’s thinking tends to fall into ruts. TRAFFIC REGULATIONS CHANGES What´s cause and effect diagram? DOLLAR COST The fishbone diagram or cause and effect diagram identifies many possible causes for an effect or problem. It can be used to structure a brainstorming session. It immediately sorts ideas into useful categories. Materials needed: flipchart or whiteboard, marking pens. Methods Machines (equipment) People (manpower) Materials Measurement Environment Write the categories of causes as branches from the main arrow. Brainstorm all the possible causes of the problem. Ask: “Why does this happen?” Write sub–causes branching off the causes. And generate deeper levels of causes indicate causal relationships. Focus attention to places on the chart where ideas are few. TRAFFIC TICKET http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/cause-analysis-tools/overview/fishbone.html http://www.dictionary.com/browse/cause-and-effect https://www.superteacherworksheets.com/causeeffect.html https://www.flocabulary.com/unit/cause-and-effect/ http://examples.yourdictionary.com/cause-and-effect-examples.html Agree on a problem statement (effect). Write it at the center right of the flipchart or whiteboard. Draw a box around it and draw a horizontal arrow running to it. Brainstorm the major categories of causes of the problem. If this is difficult use generic headings: Is useful to analyze process dispersion with this simple, visual tool. The resulting diagram illustrates the main causes and subcauses leading to an effect
Transcript: What it looks like Fishbone Diagram Classic fishbone diagram Analyze your diagram. By this stage you should have a diagram showing all the possible causes of your delay / problem. Depending on the complexity and importance of the problem, you can now investigate the most likely causes further. This may involve setting up interviews (see getting patient perspectives), carrying out process mapping or surveys which you can use to decide whether the causes identified are correct. Take each of the main categories and brainstorm possible causes of the problem. Then, explore each one to identify more specific 'causes of causes'. Continue branching off until every possible cause has been identified. Where a cause is complex, you might break it down into sub-causes. Show these as lines coming off each cause line. Patient Re-admission Process-type cause and effect diagram Firstly, identify the problem. Write it in a box and draw an arrow pointing towards it. Think about the exact problem in detail. Where appropriate, identify who is involved, what the problem is, and when and where it occurs. CONTD.... A cause and effect diagram, also known as an Ishikawa, and it is a graphic tool used to explore and display the possible causes of a certain effect. It helps to identify areas for improvement. When causes group naturally under the categories of Materials, Methods, Equipment, Environment, and People Classic Diagram FISHBONE DIAGRAM Visually explanation To show causes of problems at each step in the process. It graphically displays the relationship of the causes to the effect and to each other. When you need help fully understanding an issue and to identify all the possible causes - not just the obvious. If you know the cause of the delay, you are then better placed to implement the solution. Variety of benefits Teach-a-tool It helps teams understand that there are many causes that contribute to an effect Solutions Identify the major factors and draw four or more branches off the large arrow to represent main categories of potential causes. Categories could include: equipment, environment, procedures, and people. Make sure that the categories you use are relevant to your particular problem / delay. When is it used Application to the real world How is it created? Process-type cause and effect diagram Creates a clear understanding
Transcript: Why should I use it? Cause-Effect Analyze your diagram. By this stage you should have a diagram showing all the possible causes of your problem. Depending on the complexity and importance of the problem, you can now investigate the most likely causes further. This may involve setting up interviews (getting patient perspectives), carrying out process mapping, or using surveys to help decide whether the causes identified are correct. Prioritizes further analysis and corrective actions Steps 4 - 5 Brainstorming Approach Focuses on identifying and grouping causes by categories: Methods People Machines Equipment Materials, Environment Management FISHBONE DIAGRAM When you need help fully understanding an issue and identifying all possible causes, not just the obvious ones. Once you understand all causes of a problem, you are positioned to implement a solution. Organizes discussion to stay focused on the current issues Involves the workforce in problem resolution and educates the whole team Fishbone Diagram Visually represents the many causes that contribute to a problem Step 7 Steps 1 - 3 What it looks like Explore each one of the specific 'causes'. Continue branching off until every possible cause has been identified. Where a cause is complex, you might break it down into sub-causes. Show these as lines coming off each cause line. Patient Re-admissions Step 6 1) Fold your paper in half (left to right) 2) Draw a line on the fold. On one end, draw an arrow with a big circle in front of it. 3) Within the circle, write the main problem being address. Think about the exact problem in detail. Identify who is involved, what factors cause it, and when/where it occurs. A fishbone diagram, also known as an Ishikawa diagram, is a graphical tool used to explore and display the possible causes of a problem, or effect. Classic Diagram Benefits Straightforward Communication Easy to learn Visual Steps, on how to create a Fishbone Diagram What is it? Promotes "System Thinking" through visual linkages 4) Draw four or more branches stemming from the middle line. Draw a box at the end of each branch. 5) Fill in these boxes with the Factors/Causes that are relevant to your problem. These could include: equipment, environment, procedures, and people. When is it used? Application to Healthcare Process-type Cause and Effect Diagram Patient Re-admissions
Transcript: A key strength of the fishbone diagram is that it is easy to use and understand. It allows decision makers to brainstorm ideas in a systematic, holistic, and logical way. Z Quiz Weakness of a fishbone diagram The 4M’s is a method used to identify different categories of an issue, problem or causes. M A WHAT ARE THE 4 M's? The fishbone diagram model tends to be rather simplistic for some real-world problems. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF A FISHBONE DIAGRAM? Z When the fishbone diagram is completed, discussion takes place to decide on the most likely root causes of the problem. The ultimate purpose of the fishbone diagram is to find the key source(s) of the problem so they can be targeted for improvement. WHAT ARE THE 4 P's? M What is it? Z A Causes of Management includes, unsuitable management style or miscommunication within the workforce. Causes for manpower includes unskilled workers and lack of training. Causes for machinery includes technological failures and faulty equipment. Causes for materials includes poor quality materials and delayed deliveries. M 1) Create a head, which lists the problem or issue to be studied. 2) Create a backbone for the fish 3) Identify at least four “causes” that contribute to the problem. Connect these four causes with arrows to the spine. 4) Brainstorm around each “cause” to document those things that contributed to the cause. 5) Continue breaking down each cause until the root causes have been identified. How to create a fishbone diagram Aisha, Zenan, Meteb Examples FishBone Diagram The 4M’s consist of Management Manpower Machines and Materials Using the fishbone diagram can help identify certain causes of each M. A THE FISHBONE DIAGRAM IS ALSO CALLED...? The Fishbone Diagram is a graphical representation of the most likely causes and effects of an important decision. Also known as the ‘Cause and Effect diagram’, the fishbone diagram demonstrates the problem or issue of a certain situation. It was devised in the 1960s by Japanese guilty guru Professor Kaoru Ishikawa. The 4P’s are paraphernalia policies procedures and people They are the bones often used for administrative and service-related problems. A The 4M's M A Strength of a fishbone diagram A Z The 4 P's WHAT IS A FISHBONE DIAGRAM? Z
Transcript: People Brainstorm all the possible causes of the problem. "Why does this happen?" Why Did we miss our 59 Second time Point When to Use a Fishbone Diagram When identifying possible causes for a problem. Especially when a team’s thinking tends to fall into ruts. PK Draws Brainstorm the Major Categories of Causes to the Problem - Methods -Machines/Equipment -People/Manpower -Materials -Measurement -Environment Methods or Process Equipment What can go wrong with Agree on a problem statement (effect) Use The 5 Why Method Continue to ask "Why does this happen?" for each cause -Includes Training Environment
Transcript: School work Get in shape Get a Job BENEFITS Travel Procrastinate Pay for it Plane High school friends HISTORY Workout People Buddy system Fishbone diagrams, Herringbone diagrams, Cause-and-Effect diagram, or Ishikawa diagram. Created by Kaoru Ishiawa in 1968 The diagram shows the causes of a specific event Causes are usually grouped into major categories to identify sources of variation Then factors causing the overall effect are found Game plan Step by Step Product Design Quality Defect Prevention Situations Marketing Industry Eat Healthy Car Fishbone Diagram Swim trunks Ideal Situations By: Joel Jackson & Joe Pedrotty College Friends Sun screen Ask Parents Supplies Needed The fishbone diagram captures the associations and relationships among the potential causes and effects displayed in the diagram Any cause or causal chain featured on the fishbone diagram could be contributing to the problem. The fishbone diagram is a great way to stimulate and structure brainstorming about the causes of the problem The fishbone framework can keep your team focused as you discuss what data needs to be gathered Going on Spring Break Safety Do it ahead of time
Transcript: Time for an Activity! This would be a great to use in the elementary classrooms and with higher grades. It would help give the students a deeper understanding of the problem, because it gives several causes. How do you Create a Fishbone? Ideas Take 5 minutes to think about the following topic: What causes students to loose their recess? Fishbone Diagram Notes Create a head, which lists the problem or issue to be studied. Create a backbone for the fish (straight line which leads to the head). Identify at least four “causes” that contribute to the problem. Connect these four causes with arrows to the spine. These will create the first bones of the fish. Brainstorm around each “cause” to document those things that contributed to the cause. Use the 5 Whys or another questioning process such as the 4P’s (Policies, Procedures, People and Plant) to keep the conversation focused. Continue breaking down each cause until the root causes have been identified. Ideas a visualization tool for categorizing the potential causes of a problem in order to identify its root causes. Work Cited Definition This diagram is useful in brainstorming sessions to focus conversation. It is easier to follow other peoples train of thought. http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/fishbone-diagram Why Should We Use It? Ideas How do we use this?
Transcript: ? Diagram now shows all the possible causes Consider the following: Many branches under one category may need further study Few branches under one category may need more analysis If several major categories have only a few branches, they may need to be combined ? Brainwriting Method & Application ? ? Too many rejected bottles ? ? ? Environment ? Hard to break down complex problems No cross-linked cause-effect relationships represented Interactions and temporal dependencies are not covered Few thick clusters & specific causes may need further studies Step 3: Identify Possible Causes Good basis for discussion Easy to learn and apply Promoting a better understanding of problems Focus on the 'bigger' picture Thoughtful analysis without overlooking root causes Increases process knowledge 1915 - 1989 in Japan 1943 first introduction of the Fishbone diagram quality manager for Nissan (1941-1947) 1962 first introduction of the Quality Circles ? Machines Comparison ? The Fishbone Method Kaoru Ishikawa ? ? Kaoru Ishikawa ? Methods Find possible causes to your problem related to the factors Causes are shown on shorter lines coming off the 'bones' If cause is complex break it down into subcauses Step 1: Identify the Problem Pros & Cons Lessons from other Techniques 3M’s and P: Methods, Materials, Machinery, and People 4P’s: Policies, Procedures, People and Plant 6M’s: Machine, Method, Materials, Measurement, Man and Mother nature ? ? ? Step 1: Identify the problem Step 2: Major factors involved Step 3: Identify possible causes Step 4: Add detailed levels Step 5: Analyze your diagram ? ? Concept Fan Step 5: Analyze Your Diagram People Decide on the effect to examine Operational Definitions Phrase effect as positive (an objective) negative (a problem) Disadvantages Advantages Similarities ? Identify increasingly more detailed levels of causes Organize them under related causes or categories Ask series of 'why questions' ? ? ? ? The Fishbone Method ? ? Brainwriting: organize creation of diagram like a brainwriting session everybody gets a voice Concept Fan: try to see the broader picture, participants might be limited by framework (e.g. 6M‘s) encourage really creative thinking because participants are likely to think in their normal patterns Fishbone Step 2: Categories Involved Step 4: Add Detailed Levels ? Materials ? ? ? ? Value Engineering ? ? Ishikawa Diagram Ishikawa Diagram ? ? ? ? Measurements
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