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Black and White Film- Preservation

Transcript: By Katherine Jones & Haley Songchild All film stock has the same structure, which consists of two primary layers, the base and the emulsion. The base is thick, transparent, plastic, and provides support for the emulsion. The emulsion is thin and “…carries photosensitive materials in a gelatin binder. Both the base and the emulsion are subject to decay” (NFPF, 2004, p. 8). To guard the original film artifact from unnecessary handling, archives can create surrogate copies (NFPF, 2004). Storage Considerations Because of its instability, reformatting film onto more stable stock is the best option for preservation. In fact, for film, duplication and preservation are sometimes thought of as the same thing. Long-term Protection: In order to safeguard the original film artifact over the long term, preservationists can create a master film copy onto polyester film stock. This “master” replicates the visual and aural content and can be used to create more copies without returning to the original. The copies of the “master” are surrogates and are used for exhibition, research, and loan. The original is then protected in cold storage, where physical decay is slowed. “The four major film archives in the United States all keep original materials” (Nichols & Smith, 2001, p. 37). However, this strategy is costly and time-consuming. Access Copies: Access copies are created for public use. In order to create easily accessible and viewable copies, film stock can be copied to analog VHS videotape. This strategy is relatively cheap and the VHS videotape is acceptable for 20-30 years. The film can also be copied to digital videotape called Digital Betacam, which can be replicated without significant loss and is easier to copy to DVD and other media. However, this strategy is much more expensive, and digital is not yet a practical film preservation solution. The most common strategy is still to copy old film onto new film stock and store it in a cold, dry vault. Because of its expense, preservationists sometimes have to select which titles warrant a more aggressive preservation strategy. The factors for choosing artifacts include, “…the film’s historical significance and uniqueness as well as research demand, availability of funding, and institutional priorities” (NFPF, 2004, p. 44). Treatment Options The following are the most common treatment options for damaged film: Wet-gate Printing: During the film duplication process, many defects can be carried over in a regular “dry printing” lab. With wet-gate printing, film is temporarily immersed in a chemical bath, which fills in scratches. Optical Printing: This option works like a projector. The printer projects the image through a lens and copies the film to unexposed stock, frame by frame. This method is also used to duplicate film to different formats and duplicates shrunken film. Restoration: Restoration involves reconstructing a specific version of the film by “…comparing all known surviving source materials, piecing together footage from these disparate sources into the order suggested by production records and exhibition history, and in some cases, enhancing image and sound to compensate for past damage” (NFPF, 2004, p. 4). Film restoration always involves duplicating the original artifact. Digital Image Restoration: In this strategy, the film is scanned to a digital file. Imperfections are corrected digitally, and then the images are output back to film stock or video. This process is very expensive. Digital Sound Restoration: In this process, the film soundtrack is transferred to a digital file, where anomalies are corrected. Then the restored file is output back to the film. Re-dimensioning: This process is for severely shrunken film and involves a chemical treatment that affects the plastic. After treatment, the film is returned to a relatively normal size, and then it is fed through a printer before the chemical wears off. However, this is a very destructive process and should be used only when there are no other options. Prevention: The most important factor for treating film is proper storage. By adhering to the previous storage guidelines, preservationists can buy valuable time until funding becomes available for more aggressive preservation strategies. Film preservation is an ongoing process as standards and techniques improve, and film needs continual care to extend its life. On-site for researchers: Film, video, or digital copies are used for on-site exhibition and research. VHS copies are inexpensive, convenient, easy to use, can be readily replaced, and researchers can play tapes without supervision or instruction. Internet exhibition: Some films are available for viewing on the library of congress website at Other online exhibits include the “History and Motion” exhibit, which includes a famous early film, The Great Train Robbery (1903) The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Preserved Silent

film powerpoint

Transcript: mise-en-scene we chose this film for mise en scene because it contains mist and its dark which boosts the fear factor. It;s a great film to talk about because it makes the hairs from the back of your hair rise and it's a great movie. Furthermore the tension of the scene created makes you want to see what happens. this is the first scene we picked to demonstrate Mise-En-Scene An example of mis-en-scene in this clip is this the mist on the floor makes the house feel remote and deserted, which makes the father look alone. Also the dim lighting creates an air of mystery and tension because you have no idea what's going to happen next. Another example is the candles all over the house they tell you that this house is probably in a different time period, also there not very bright and are the only visable source of light apart from the torch. I think they were put there because it illustrates how different this alternate reality is from our own and therefore increases the hopelessness of the situation. Their clothes make them seem as if there from the 1960s, they live like the american dream. They look like the ordinary rich american family. But there like two face, half of them are good the rest are deceptive.... There is blue lighting making it seem cold. This can be used to make the scene more gloomy and creepy . The backround music is there to add tension to the scene. In the section where the women blinks you suddenly here a drum beat out of no-where this takes the audience by surprise, this removes the tension which is sadly the cost of creating a shock factor. Camera Angles and the Rule of Thirds! watch closely............. Did you see the example of the rule of thirds? It looks as if its focusing on the boy but really its tracing the man, the camera is following his every move. Going further when the man is shaking the camera also shakes too which makes you feel as if your're in the room with him. In other words the director is trying to make you feel as if your in the fathers shoes. why do we use close shots and long shots? This shows very little background, and concentrates on either a face, or a specific detail of mise en scène. Everything else is just a blur in the background. This shot magnifies the object (think of how big it looks on a cinema screen) and shows the importance of things, be it words written on paper, or the expression on someone's face. The close-up takes us into the mind of a character. In reality, we only let people that we really trust get THAT close to our face - mothers, children and lovers, usually - so a close up of a face is a very intimate shot. A film-maker may use this to make us feel extra comfortable or extremely uncomfortable about a character, and usually uses a zoom lens in order to get the required framing. Close Up The close-up takes us into the mind of a character. In reality, we only let people that we really trust get THAT close to our face - mothers, children and lovers, usually - so a close up of a face is a very intimate shot. A film-maker may use this to make us feel extra comfortable or extremely uncomfortable about a character, and usually uses a zoom lens in order to get the required framing. Extreme-Close Up As its name suggests, an extreme version of the close up, generally magnifying beyond what the human eye would experience in reality. An extreme close-up of a face, for instance, would show only the mouth or eyes, with no background detail whatsoever. This is a very artificial shot, and can be used for dramatic effect. The tight focus required means that extra care must be taken when setting up and lighting the shot - the slightest camera shake or error in taking the shot can ruin everything is very noticeable. Here you will see how camera angles make people seem inferior! As you can see the camera angle has changed to a low level in order to make the people look inferior and the others stronger! Sound ADR What does it Mean? Dubbing is the post-production process of recording and replacing voices on a motion picture or television soundtrack subsequent to the original shooting. The term most commonly refers to the substitution of the voices of the actors shown on the screen by those of different performers, who may be speaking a different language. The procedure was sometimes practiced in musicals when the actor had an unsatisfactory singing voice, and remains in use to enable the screening of audio-visual material to a mass audience in countries where viewers do not speak the same language as the original performers. "Dubbing" also describes the process of an actor re-recording lines spoken during filming in order to improve audio quality or reflect dialog changes. This process is called Automated Dialogue Replacement, Additional Dialogue Recording or ADR for short. Music is also dubbed onto a film after editing is completed. In shorter words: when the actor/actress' voice is replaced by someone in a recoring studio, e.g the red demon's voice.

Black and White in Black and White

Transcript: Points of Interest For Discussion What is the point: Cinematography/ mise en scene Leitmotif History/ Colonial Ideology Identity What is the significance of Diouana asking for the mask back? Langford argues that we can use these systems to determine the identities of colonial and post-colonial subjects. Looking at the characters, do you agree? Are there any moments when characters move from one economic system to another? How can we interpret the last scene, when Monsieur returns the mask? Do you think cinematography of the movie being black and white emphasizes the microcosm? Give specific examples. How does the interior and the props (of being black and white) important? Do you agree with Langford that it emphasizes microcosm? Group One: Group Two: Group Three: Group Four: Summary: The article was written by Rachael Langford It focuses on the film La Noire de... that touches upon the issues of colonized and post-colonial identity Collaboration!!! Questions Questions Do you side with Mylkus and Armies or Langford pertaining to the voice over? How does Diouana form a sense of identity within the film? How is the act of suicide, the leitmotif of the mask, and themes of money, gift and production central to the film's confrontation with colonial and neo-colonial discourse on African identity In the beginning of the film, it showed a sequence of Diouana and monsieur driving from the port to the apartment. As they were driving, it illustrated them driving through the beach and people having fun. What is the significance of this scene in terms of identity and Diouanna’s perspective of France? In the end of the film, Diouana commits suicide. How did the French media respond? Did her death help link France and Dakar and if so what was that connection? Danielle Lee Mack Lim Danielle Magalhaes Chino Uy Professor. Hoffman May 8 2015 ENGC72 Black and White in Black and White Identity and Cinematography in Ousmane Sembène's La Noire de.../ Black Girl (1966) By: Rachael Langford Thesis Langford argues that through cinematography and narrative content the movie shows the structural power the French had over Africa, thus preventing Africa and African from being equal (from being independent ) and determines their identity Main Points Identity- inferiority/ representation History/False Colonial Ideology Leitmotif of Mask / Gift giving Mise en scene and cinematography reflects the bigger problem between the French and African

Photo Project -Black and White Film

Transcript: Testing! Since shooting in black and white was all about the different shades of the colors, the main thing directors had to do was test every aspect of film(make up, props, ect.) and make adjustments on where the light was shining based on if things need to be lighter of darker. The Maltese Falcon Film Characters in Black and White Early directors had to be especially careful with lighting, as film as in black and white. The sets, which my have looked good live and in color, did not always translate well in black and white. Directors had to use lighting techniques to show contrast between and highlight costumes, make up, ect. Film Noir Techniques General Techniques Why? Hero Portrayal- The hero would normally be shown in a glowing, strong light Villain Portrayal- Normally cast in shadow cinematic elements- suspense- switching lighting on characters as to be unsure of good or evil, using blinds to create striped shadows on a character's face 1.Creating contrast by using a large, low key and only adding smaller lights is necessary to avoid creating too many gray. Film noir was known for its high contrast through dramatic shadows and bright lights. 2. Choose a filming location where shadows and lighting variations exist naturally, like a long street with streetlights. 3. Create strong contrast by either adjusting the aperture and F-stops the camera or increasing the intensity of the harshest light source Lighting in Black and White Film Examples from Popular Films

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