Transcript: Well...we are going to find out together! Biological Gifts What is Tularemia? Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers What is Bioterrorism? Image retrieved from www.papermasters.com Nursing Implications Epidemic? Pandemic? Why would bio-terrorists use botulism? What is botulism? Transmission? Symptoms? Image retrieved from en.wikipedia.org Image retrieved from www.foodpoisonjournal.com Smallpox group, enlighten us on this profound disease. Has it ever been used in a bioterroristic act before? When and how was it eradicated? Who is credited with vaccine implementation/discovery? Smallpox Botulism Ring: educate your peers on the history of the biological agent. Horn: you are a terrorist interested in causing mass trauma and chaos, explain how will you accomplish this, think transmission. Bracelet: you are infected, tell the class your incubation time and symptoms. Image retrieved from aapredbook.aappublications.org Who picked Anthrax? Okay now it is your turn to educate your peers! Briefly tell us of your agent, transmission, incubation, symptoms, and prognosis. spydat3ko. (2011, September 6. CNN-is the u.s. prepared for bioterror? - false flag terrorism. Retrieved from Tularemia terrorist acts involving the use of harmful agents and products of biological origin, as disease-producing microorganisms or toxins. Per Dictionary.com Biological Warfare 101 How does all of this information pertain to our profession? Lets begin by searching for Biological Agents The Damage Image retrieved from www.theverge.com Black Death Tularemia group tell the class about Tularemia and how is it transmitted. What are the symptoms? What is the prognosis? Bioterrorism Kendrea Todt, BSN Masters in Nursing Student King University Image retrieved from vaccinenewsdaily.com A Gift That Potentially Keeps On Giving!! Image retrieved from http://ihm.nlm.nih.gov/luna/servlet/detail/NLMNLM~1~1~101456105~211562:Achetez-le-timbre-antituberculeux Communicable Diseases Anthrax Pneumonic Plague What type of biological agents are used? Pneumonic Plague Smallpox Bioterrorism Tell us about some of the hemorrhagic fevers, including history. Transmission? Incubation? Symptoms? Prognosis? Image retrieved from en.wikipedia.org Image retrieved from top-10-list.org Now Everyone Open Up Your Gift! Everyone Go to the CDC website and lets get started on learning about Bioterrorism. Okay group that had the plague, tell us about the history, incubation,transmission, and the symptomatology of this disease. There are how many categories of agents? Class please explain to me the significance of the classification system and the associated risks/threats. Anthrax: the Damage
Transcript: photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli What is Bioterrorism? Tartar army was able to succesfully capture Caffa in Crimea (present day Ukraine) by catapulting infected dead bodies Bioterrorism 6th century BC 5 1346 History Assyrians poisoned enemies with a fungus disease By: Michelle Chan, Bowen Sam, Yannie Tse Bio - Life Terrorism - the act of producing fear and attention from certain populations through the use of violence and biological weapson Bioterrorism: the unlawful release of hazardous biological agents, using them as biological weapon to cause disease, sickness or death in other people. Includes the use of viruses, biotoxins ,bacteria and prions. This became a major concern in the US after 9/11 attacks.
Transcript: Biological weapons facts The CDC categorizes the agents into A, B and C and regulates the laboratories that can possess, use or transfer select agents within the United States http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/video/biosignature-fingerprinting The History of Bioterrorism Bibliography agents that are used as weapons of war Category A agents: anthrax, tularemia, smallpox, botulinum toxin, bubonic plague and viral hemorrhagic fevers These are moderately easy to disseminate and have low mortality rates Category A Category C agents: Nipah virus, hantavirus, SARS, H1N1 and HIV/AIDS -Biological weapons are hard to use without endangering ones own troops and population or terrorism United States conscientious objectors were used as consenting test subjects for biological agents in an operation called Operation Whitecoat What are the biological agents? Bioterrorism By Kayleigh Kuchyt -Organisms that can be biological weapons are bacteria, viruses and fungi Letters laced with anthrax were sent to news media offices and US congress; 5 were killed http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/ovic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetails Window?displayGroupName=Reference&disableHighlighting=true&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=GALE%7C00000000LVVH&documentId=Gale%7CPC3021900023&mode=view&userGroupName=s2041&jsid=bd1ee0a6686c5d2169f55574ccbfec28 Biological weapons: live, disease-causing -They can be 100 to 1,000 times as effective in killing people as -They are hard to detect because they can be invisible and have no odor or taste There are three methods of EW: -Infecting insects with a pathogen and then dispersing the insects over target areas -This warfare uses insects to attack an enemy -Using uninfected insects, like bees, Secret Imperial Japanese Army Unit 731 did research on biological weapons, conducted fatal human experiments on prisoners which incluced testing the lethality of certain biological agents and produced biological weapons for combat use during the 2nd Sino-Japanese War Members of the Rajneeshee put salmonella on fruits and vegetables, and in blue cheese dressing, coffee creamers and potato salads at various restaurants and supermarkets; 751 people got sick to kill or incapacitate an enemy Cold War -A direct attack on crops Category C 1995 http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm048251.htm http://www.pbs.org/cgi-bin/wgbh/printable.pl?http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pbs.org%2Fwgbh%2Fnova%2Fbioterror%2Fhist_nf.html Category B agents: brucellosis, salmonella, e. coli, glanders, Q fever and water supply threats like vibrio cholerae These are emerging pathogens that could be engineered for wide dispersion because they are readily available, easy to make and disperse, they have a high mortality rate and they can cause a major health impact -Some are classified as weapons of mass destruction http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bioterrorism&printable=yes Biological warfare: the use of these weapons 2001 -The effects of biological weapons are killing by poison or disease, destruction of crops or livestock and incapacitating people WWII (1939-1945) 1972 http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,176937,00.html Entomological Warfare http://blog.dhs.gov/2011/10/s-supporting-our-biodefense-system-to.html Category B 1984 These are high-priority agents that pose a risk to national security, can be easily transmitted and dispersed, result in high mortality and have a potential for major public health impact In Chicago two college students were arrested for planning to poison the city's water supply with typhoid -They have a long incubation time, in between when they are dispersed and when disease symptoms first start -They are easy to make and cost less to make than nuclear and conventional weapons do Bioterrorism: terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents -Biological agents can cause widespread fear and panic beyond the actual physical damage they can cause http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index/php?title=Biological_warfare&printable=yes to directly attack the enemy http://www.dhs.gov/files/labs/gc_1166211221830.shtm Aum Shinrikyo released sarin gas in a Tokyo subway; this killed twelve and injured thousands chemical weapons of the same weight
Transcript: Anthrax can be injected,eaten, and inhaled Anthrax is so tiny and small you will not be able to taste,smell, or see it Anthrax is a nearly fatal disease the cutaneous anthrax death rate is 20 percent without antibiotic treatment and less than 1 percent with it. There have not been enough cases of inhalation anthrax to know the precise anthrax death rate. Anthrax was thought to have been originated in Egypt What should a parent or educator tell children in the event of bio terrorism? Planning and Coordination Surveillance, Investigation, and Protective Health Measures Vaccine, Antibiotic, and Anthrax Immune Globulin Utilization Policies Healthcare and Emergency Response Communications and Outreach Anthrax and YOU How To Reduce Children’s Fears Help your children feel safe. Let them talk about their fears and worries. Stick to family routines that help children feel comfortable and secure. Reassure them that parents, teachers, doctors, and government officials are doing everything possible to keep them safe and healthy. Limit children’s viewing of television news. Children may be frightened, overwhelmed, or traumatized by news reports about bioterrorism. Supervise what they watch on television, and when they do watch, be sure to allow for family-discussion time during and after viewing to let them air their fears and concerns. Arm yourself with the facts. Education is your best protection against unnecessary fear. Your children will be less fearful if they see that you are not afraid and if you spend time with them answering all of their questions. No, because the threat of a bio-terrorist attack is different from a real attack. A threat will cause panic and if there is no attack then it just looks bad on the U.S. government. Should the U.S. government inform citizens about the potential bio-terrorist threat? What might be the governments best course of action? Explain the issue relating to the use of anthrax as a bio weapon that the public should be educated about
Transcript: Biological Warfare isn't new pre modern armies tried to use diseases to their advantage in wars. One of the earliest record of biological warfare is during the fifth century B.C. The Scythians archers used poisoned tipped arrows they would get venom from poisonous adders, mix it with human blood and dung then put it in a sealed vessel. The archers had a range of 1600ft and could launch 20 arrows per minute. During the 14th century the Tartar army tried using the bubonic plague against the city of Kaffa. The Tartar army used a combination of psychological and bio warfare. When some of the Tartar troops got infected with the bubonic plague the army would catapult the dead bodies over the city of Kaffa's walls. Once the people of Kaffa got the plague they started to feld and the Tartar army won. During the war some European traders had been trading at the Crimean port. When some of the traders returned to Italy most likely they brought the disease with them. Premodern Biological Warfare Another use of biological agents was during 190 B.C. Hannibal leader of the Cathagian used venomous snakes in a naval battle against Pergomon. What he did was he filled up earthen jars with the venomous snakes and covered them then putted it on his ships. When the Pergomon naval ship got within range Hannibal hurled the jars at the ship releasing the snakes among the enemy and Hannibal got an easy win.
Transcript: Way 1 Way 3 Funding for studying pathogenic organisms, developing vaccines, researching treatments, and determining preventive actions notification of the public when a high- risk situation is detected Bioterrorism the use of microorganisms or biological agents, as weapons to inflect humans, animals, or plants. strict infection-control measures and public education about the measures 5 Ways To Be Prepared For A Bioterrorism Attack. Way 2 Strict guidelines and restrictions for purchasing and transporting pathologic microorganisms Way 5 community- based surveillance to detect early indications of a bioterrorism attack Way 4
Transcript: The Costs of Biowarfare By: Brandon Reiman Definition of Biological Warfare Three Facts 1. In 1979, an accidental release of a minute amount of anthrax spores occurred at a bioweapons facility around the Soviet town of Sverdlovsk. About 77 people were sickened, and 66 people died a horrific death. All the affected people were 4 kilometers downwind of the facility. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/biological_warfare.aspx 3. In the Western hemisphere, Native Americans were among the earliest mass victims of biowarfare, part of the campaign to clear up the ownership of the "New World" on behalf of invading Spanish, French and British forces. Spanish Conquistador, Francisco Pizarro, offered them gifts of clothing infested with smallpox pus http://www.rotten.com/library/history/war/wmd/biological-weapons/ We live in shadows, surrounded by fear. In darkness lurks the monster that kills. The one we will not see, nor smell, nor here. Until the day it reaps our wills. Wicked it’s called, but yet so bantam As people look for wisdom flasks Our enemies leave such a horrific phantom. Our only hope are these bloodcurdling masks. This mask would make any baby cry But this is our only way to survive A protector from fear opens the sky The shadow can no longer deprive. For now our freedom is back align This mask saved our bloodline. (Shakespearean sonnet) 2. Attempts to utilize biological warfare agents date back to antiquity. Scythian archers infected their arrow heads by dipping them in decomposing bodies or in blood tainted with manure (400 BC. Persian) http://www.emedicinehealth.com/biological_warfare/article_em.htm#history_of_biological_warfare The use of disease-producing microorganisms, toxic biological products, or organic biocides to cause death or injury to humans, animals, or plants. Obtained from: http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/biological%20warfare
Transcript: Class A) Consists of the most dangerous of diseases, bacteria etc etc. such as anthrax & radioactive material Class B) the somewhat potent uses such as Salmonella and glanders Class C) the least dangerous but easiest to get a hold of usually consisting of new diseases Is there threat today? History of use In the end... Classifications In the end Bio-terrorism isnt as big threat do to the fact that most dangerous materials are hard to get a hold of but i believe it will pose a larger threat since technology keeps advancing. During WW1 German scientist intended to infect many horses and mules in North America with ganders to no affect, in 1972 two college students were arrested in Chicago after attempting to infect the city's water supply, Allen Schwander and Stephen Pera were part of a terrorist group known as R.I.S.E. in 1984 a group in Oregon tried to poison lettuce, doorknobs and anything else that will be in contact with people in 11 different restaurants with Salmonella, the ended up infecting 751 people with no fatalities The amount of Bio-terrorism has boomed since the early 2000's due to the increase in technology. The most common form of bio-terrorism in 2001 was the use of lacing letters with anthrax sending them to news offices and the U.S congress, killing 5 people and infecting hundreds. A couple months ago a unstable radioactive material was stolen while being moved, although unable to make a nuke, terrorists can use this to make a dirty bomb, (a bomb that releasing radioactive gas over an entire city.) Bio terrorism What is Bio-terrorism Although Bio-Terrorism is the easiest form for terrorists to use, it is also the least effective usually failing, blowing up in their face or barely causing any damage, however if they are able to weaponize more dangerous materials such as the radioactive material stolen from new Mexico it could pose a much larger threat. Bio-terrorism is the use of weaponizing viruses, germs, bacteria etc, in a gaseous form that covers a large area. it is very hard to detect and is one of the more dangerous tactics terrorists use, although not always meant to kill but to cause panic and potentially damage the economy. although it usually causes problems for the user. Whats being done? since it is very hard to detect counter terrorist groups don't usually find out till last minute, but they have increased surveillance on any chemicals and diseases that could be weaponized.
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