Transcript: Enzymes Enzymes are protein molecules that can speed up chemical reactions in cells. These reactions include; - respiration, - photosynthesis, - making new proteins. Enzymes are sometimes called biological catalysts. Enzymes can also speed up chemical reactions occurring outside of living cells. Examples of this include: - DNA replication - Protein synthesis - Digestion Each enzyme will only speed up one reaction as the shape of the enzyme molecule needs to match the shape of the molecule it reacts with (the substrate molecule). The part of the enzyme molecule that matches the substrate is called the active site. Biological catalysts Yes! Enzymes have an optimum temperature and also an optimum PH which they work best at. At low temperatures, enzyme reactions are slow. as the temperature rises the reactions speed up and eventually an optimum temperature is reached. After this point the reaction will slow down and eventually stop. Most enzymes work fastest in neutral conditions. Making the solution more acidic or alkaline will slow the reaction down. At extremes of pH the reaction will stop altogether. Some enzymes, such as those used in digestion, are adapted to work faster in unusual pH conditions and may have an optimum pH of 2 (very acidic) if they act in the stomach. Do enzymes have an optimum? Examples Temperature... PH... What is it? This is when an enzyme changes shape and the active site does not fit the substrate. Below is a diagram of how this works. Denaturing Examples of enzymes... protease - digests protein lipase - digests lipids/fats amylase - digests starch Examples
Transcript: Serving Size: 5 PIECES (92g) Servings Per Container: 50 Amount Per Serving Calories from Fat 140 Calories 260 % Daily Value* 25% Total Fat 16g 20% Saturated Fat 4g Trans Fat 0g Polyunsaturated Fat 5g Monounsaturated Fat 6g 25% Cholesterol 75mg 19%Sodium 450mg 5%Total Carbohydrate 15g 4%Dietary Fiber 1g Sugars 1g 28%Protein 14g Vitamin C 0%Vitamin A 0% Iron 6%Calcium 4% Just don't think about the chicken abuse or pink slime you just put in your mouth. Pretty gross Favorite Food Dinosaur Chicken Nuggets NOT good for you!!! Although there isn't any trans fat, there is a lot of saturated and unsaturated fats. This can cause future heart and obesity problems if eaten in excess. Long-term effect. Nutrition Facts Contains trace amounts of Methyl Cellulose Chicken plants are horrible places where they abuse the chickens they use to make the dinosaur chicken nuggets, so don't eat them even if they are good. Biology PowerPoint Krysten and Marina, p4 There's a lot of gross stuff in these nuggets but they taste good so there doesn't seem to be much of a problem, despite the long term effects. So the chicken is good tasting, eat it This food is probably worth eating Which is a chemical used in laxatives, which is really gross to have in chicken nuggets. Short-term effect. Tyson is not a good company, though! Extremely gross, processed chicken byproducts (bones, tendons, skin, etc)
Transcript: Living Arrangement Diet Scales Mating Arrangements Two long rows of brown spots on back By: David Nuuanu-Joy November 29, 2012 Mates in June It can function without it's tail attached to their body. Names The color gets lighter in very hot temperature. Open sandy desert washes Goetting, A., & Testerman, M. (2011). University of Michigan. Retrieved from http://animal diversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Callisaurus_draconoides/ Lays eggs in June to August Desert pavement Grasshoppers Bees Leaves Flowers Ants The males mate with multiple females Adaptations Callisaurus draconoides Exothermic Lays eggs Brennon, T. (2008). Bobcat montana. Retrived from http:/www.reptilesofaz.org/Lizards-Subpages /h-c-draconoides.html Males attract mates exposing themselves in a open area and perform a series of push-ups. The position of the eyes Cold-Blooded Zebra-tailed Lizard Common Name 6-10cm from tail to snout. Interesting Fact The tail of the lizard looks like zebra stripes. Lizard changes it's skin color Scientific Name Flattened tail The Zebra-tailed Lizard is a reptile. Yellowish tan with long slender limbs Four-Legs Sand Dunes Appearance References The diet of a lizard consists of: Mojave Zebra-tailed Lizard Gridiron-tailed Lizard This animal is autonomous. Open areas Organism
Transcript: Laughter relaxes your body! A good, hearty laugh relieves physical tension and stress, leaving your muscles relaxed for up to 45 minutes after. Laughter boosts the immune system Laughter decreases stress hormones, and increases immune cells and infection-fighting antibodies, thus improving your resistance to disease. Laughter triggers the release of endorphins Endorphins promote an overall sense of well-being and can even temporarily relieve pain. Laughter protects the heart! Laughter improves the function of blood vessels and increases blood flow, which can help protect you against a heart attack and other cardiovascular problems. It's healthy to laugh so why not laugh all the time! Instead of taking everything so serious, just laugh! Laughter Laughter is part of the human vocabulary All members of human species understand it, because we don't have to learn how to speak it. We're born with the capacity to laugh. When you laugh it's a message that you send to people, because we rarely laugh alone. Laughing is social and contagious. Laughter is triggered by many sensations, and thoughts Laughter occurs unconsciously. You don't decide to laugh, because we can't consciously produce it. That's why it is very hard to laugh on command or to fake it. Why do we laugh? Benifets of Laughing Laughter Tickle-me-Elmo Just laugh!
Transcript: Example of a Jeopardy Template By: Laken Feeser and Rachel Chapman When creating without a template... http://www.edtechnetwork.com/powerpoint.html https://www.thebalance.com/free-family-feud-powerpoint-templates-1358184 Example of a Deal or No Deal Template PowerPoint Game Templates There are free templates for games such as jeopardy, wheel of fortune, and cash cab that can be downloaded online. However, some templates may cost more money depending on the complexity of the game. Classroom Games that Make Test Review and Memorization Fun! (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2017, from http://people.uncw.edu/ertzbergerj/msgames.htm Fisher, S. (n.d.). Customize a PowerPoint Game for Your Class with These Free Templates. Retrieved February 17, 2017, from https://www.thebalance.com/free-powerpoint-games-for-teachers-1358169 1. Users will begin with a lot of slides all with the same basic graphic design. 2. The, decide and create a series of questions that are to be asked during the game. 3. By hyper linking certain answers to different slides, the game jumps from slide to slide while playing the game. 4. This kind of setup is normally seen as a simple quiz show game. Example of a Wheel of Fortune Template https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Wheel-of-Riches-PowerPoint-Template-Plays-Just-Like-Wheel-of-Fortune-383606 Games can be made in order to make a fun and easy way to learn. Popular game templates include: Family Feud Millionaire Jeopardy and other quiz shows. http://www.free-power-point-templates.com/deal-powerpoint-template/ Quick video on template "Millionaire" PowerPoint Games Some games are easier to make compared to others If users are unsure whether or not downloading certain templates is safe, you can actually make your own game by just simply using PowerPoint. add logo here References Example of a Family Feud Template PowerPoint Games are a great way to introduce new concepts and ideas You can create a fun, competitive atmosphere with the use of different templates You can change and rearrange information to correlate with the topic or idea being discussed. Great with students, workers, family, etc. For example: With games like Jeopardy and Family Feud, players can pick practically any answers. The person who is running the game will have to have all of the answers in order to determine if players are correct or not. However, with a game like Who Wants to be a Millionaire, the players only have a choice between answers, A, B, C, or D. Therefore, when the player decides their answer, the person running the game clicks it, and the game will tell them whether they are right or wrong.
Transcript: They are made up of one or more chains of amino acids. the 3D structure is held together by weak but vital hydrogen bonds. Lock and Key It is thought that the active site changes shape so that the enzyme molds itself around the substrate. Enzymes As the temperature increase, the rate of reaction increases up to a critical temperature, when the enzyme denatures. increasing the temperatures gives molecules more kinetic energy, so they move around faster, more collisions happen between the enzyme and the substrate are more frequent. Each enzyme has a particular shape, with a pocket in the enzyme surface called the active site, and that exact shape to combine with the substrate, they are both complementary in terms of shape and chemical charges. lock and key Enzymes are catalysts- they speed up the reaction, but are not used up by the reactions. How enzymes work? The substrate binds to the active site to form an enzyme-substrate complex, then the substrate is transformed into the products. chemical reactions take place inside an organism are known as metabolism. The rate of these metabolic reactions is controlled by enzymes. Enzymes speed up the reactions by splitting up the reaction pathway into steps which require less energy. so that they take place more easily at lower temperatures. Enzyme temperatures The activation energy is often provided as heat, but living things cant create or survive in high temperatures. It is the energy that needs to be provided before a reaction. energy is needed to break existing bonds before new ones can form. However at high temperatures the enzyme molecule vibrates so that the weak bonds in the tertiary structure are broken, the change of the molecule changes and the enzyme can not work. a typical enzyme is denatures between 50 and 50 degrees Celsius. Activation energy Basics Induced fit hypothesis IMAGE
Transcript: Enzymes Enzymes break down these starches. What disease are caused by malfunctioning Enzymes? Where in the body to Enzymes work? Sources: Go.Grolier.com health.salempress.com limitless.libraries.com www.dummies.com biologyreference.com Things like ATP synthesis would not take place. Biologist scientist Doctor Enzymes can build structures inside the body, can help provide the body with energy or can break down structures or molecules in various places of our body An enzymes job is an everyday, 24/7 job. Enzymes help in digestion of food. They are needed for bodily functions such as digestion, and can be used in products such as food (mainly dairy food such as cheese). The importance of Enzymes in the digestive. Enzymes work as a catalyst which means they speed up the rate of the metabolic process and reactions occur in living organisms. Ph, an enzyme concentration. Without the lowering of activation energy necessary reactions would not take place. What careers are related to Enzymes? Complex carbohydrates, or polysaccharides (such as starches), are broken down into oligosaccharides (consisting of two to ten linked monosaccharides), disaccharides (such as maltose), or individual monosaccharides (such as glucose or fructose). A healthy enzymes system is also important in disease prevention. Enzymes work ALL OVER THE BODY. But they are mainly known for their job in the digestive system. The immune system depends heavily on enzymes to conduct its protective functions Enzymes are biological catalysts, (mainly proteins) generated by an organism to speed up chemical reactions. When are Enzymes harmful? What happens to the body when Enzymes do not function properly. This stops the digestive system Why does our body need Enzymes? never Enough Needed Zaps food Year round jobs Makes food disapear glucosE Super important substrate concentration : Temperature. Who discovered how Enzymes work? degeneration, hemophilia, blood clotting, and disorders. Why do we need Enzymes? Complex multicellular life, not to mention unicellular life, would not exist. What can affect the function of an Enzyme? They block the usage of hydrochloric acid. How do Enzymes work? What are Enzymes? : and the presence of any inhibitors or activators. Buchner in 1897.
Transcript: Which problems does trypsin solve? Collagenese is a good alternative for Trypsin because it has the same fuctions Alternatives for Trypsin Does Trypsin solve problems? What is Trypsin? bibliography Trypsins use in the industry - Mass production at a fast rate - Energy saving Why are enzymes used? - Low temperatures - Saves energy - Good for environment Protease Alternative for trypsin because it has same functions, might even be better then trypsin Advantages & Disadvantages Enzyme Presentation - Formed in pancreas - Low temperatures - Less energy needed - High activity at low temperature - Prevent aroma from forming - Gives fish a better texture - Makes meat more tender - Stabilizes beer - Hypoallergic food - Solves lack of enzymes - Applied to heal wounds - Medication - Hypoallergic baby food - Used widespread - Genetically Recognised As Safe (GRAS) Is there work scientist still need to do to improve the effectiveness of this enzymes use in industry? What are enzymes? - Food industry (natural) - Better then chemicals - Reduces energy consumption Enzymes are used in: - Detergent industry - Food industry - Textiles industry - Feed industry Economic 1.Chun, Hew Mun. "Enzymes." : Disadvantages of Enzymes Impacted on Mankind:. N.p., 31 July 2011. Web. 14 Dec. 2012.2.Ganderton. "What Are the Disadvantages of Using Enzymes in Industry?" WikiAnswers. Answers, n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2012.3.Radox. "What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Enzymes in Home and Industry?" - Yahoo! UK & Ireland Answers. N.p., 10 Dec. 2012. Web. 14 Dec. 2012.4.Sigust, Andrea. "3 Advantages of Enzymes." LIVESTRONG.COM. Demand Media, 8 Nov. 2011. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.5."Today's Applications." EuropaBio. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.6.": Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.7."Trypsin." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 25 Oct. 2012. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trypsin>.8.Meat Consumption and Cancer | Home | Exponent ." Exponent. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.exponent.com/meat-consumption-and-cancer/>.9."URBAN SAMURAI." URBAN SAMURAI. Wordpress, 19 Mar. 2012. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.urbansamurai.com/2012/03/medicine/>.10."Heineken." .Tumblr.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://heinekenbeer.tumblr.com/page/4>. "Trypsin." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Dec. 2012. Web. 12 Dec. 2012. "Uses of Trypsin." LIVESTRONG.COM. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2012. "Trypsin." /Food Ingredients/Food and Beverage. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2012. http://www.neovatech.com/pdfs/pancreatic/pancreatic_food.pdf Fun Fact - 1950 - Biotechnology Enzymes in the industry Advantages - Products can be mass produced at a fast rate - Enzymes are better then chemicals for food processing - Textile industry - Reduces greenhouse gasses - Detergent Environmental Temperature in can be stored in -Trypsin is recommended to be stored frozen if Trypsin gets hotter it can be denatured (-20 C to -80 C). To improve stability you can make it be able to function in higher temperature so that denaturing does not occur as quickly and storing it would be easier. Improvement Trypsin is an enzyme that is widely used in the food industry because it is made easily and has many different uses. Influences - Baking enzyme - Cheese and milk - Fish products - Meat products - Beer - Hypoallergenic food By Sophie de Jonge and Sophia nooter How effective is Trypsin? Disadvantages - Allergic reactions - Has to be kept at perfect temperature - Prevent Denaturing - Enzymes need a specific type of substrate for a chemical reaction to occur - Use a lot of energy and are expensive Trypsin - It's pretty useful and effective now already since it reduces energy consumption & environmental friendlyness - Only improvement would be to imrove stability so that it is not so easily denatured by change in temperature. Enzymes are usually classified the substrate they act upon. For example: - enzymes that break down proteins are called protease - enzymes that break down lipids are called lipases - cellulose is decomposed by enzymes called cellulases. Biological Catalysts a catalyst is a substance that begins and speeds up the rate of chemical reactions but it does not change itself by the reaction so it can be used over and over again.
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