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Transcript: The Canaan of the New World African American Emigration to Haiti, 1860-1862 ? What distinguished Haiti from other African American emigration projects in the mid-nineteenth century? - distinct from African colonization - Haiti held great symbolic value - the Haitian government provided incentives - emigrating to Haiti meant participating in a Black nationalist nation-building project - emigration to Haiti was not a repudiation of their American identity African American Emigration African American Emigrationism American Colonization Society African Colonization The plan of removing free Black people to West Africa resonated with many white Americans in the nineteenth century. The most important vehicle was the American Colonization Society (ACS), which established the colony of Liberia shortly after its founding in 1816. The ACS membership certificate illustrates the organization's goal of presenting itself as a benevolent society. Even though individual African Americans had supported the ACS from the beginning and several thousand indeed resettled to West Africa, most Black leaders accused the organization of promoting racial hatred. After its activity and support had died down considerably in the 1840s, colonizationist ideas once again gained vast popularity in the tense political and social climate of the 1850s. This context is significant to understanding the arguments made by the supporters of the Haitian emigration movement. They stressed that they were in no way affiliated with the ACS and that emigration and African colonization were fundamentally different. 1 Madison, James, and American Colonization Society. American Colonization Society to James Madison. Membership Certificate. 1816. Library of Congress. National Emigration Convention (1854) National Emigration Convention The Cleveland Convention was part of the Colored Conventions Movement, which comprised a number of national and state-wide meetings organized by African American leaders and activists. Instead of presenting a more open forum for debate, the delegates who came together in Cleveland all supported emigration. While the focus was on Canada, the minutes provide insights into general pro-emigration arguments (which are clearly responding to the more dominant anti-emigration sentiment among other African American spokespersons). Emigration is presented as a positive act of self-determination and self-respect and the only path to freedom. Several of the organizers became affiliated with the Haitain emigration movement a few years later. 2 Proceedings of the National Emigration Convention of Colored People. Pittsburgh: By A. A. Anderson, Print, 1854 Frederick Douglass Opposition Identifying the United States as the only true homeland of African Americans, Frederick Douglass was among the most outspoken critics of African American emigration, and especially colonization. This article published in Douglass’ Monthly in 1861 represents a brief moment in his career, in which he seemed to have been more open to the idea of emigration, and in which he weighed in on the specific benefits of Haiti as a destination. This is an important source because it shows how pervasive the idea of emigration was in the early 1860s, even among African Americans who has previously staunchly rejected it. It also demonstrates the particular appeal of Haiti over other destinations, since Douglass continued to reject places such as Liberia, Haiti seemed to be a different story. 3 “Emigration to Hayti.” Douglass’ Monthly III, no. VIII (January 1861): 386-7. "Frederick Douglass," 1856. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. The Haytian Emigration Bureau The Haytian Emigration Bureau The Haytian Emigration Bureau, based in Boston, was founded to promote the emigration of African Americans to Haiti. While the promise of economic advancement was part of the Bureau's recruitment strategy, this poem, disseminated through the Bureau's weekly newspaper, illustrates a different argument used to promote Haiti. In direct contrast to the United States, Haiti would be a welcoming home(land). African American readers of the paper may have a roof over their head in the US, but they were part of a generally hostile society. Just because the United States was the country of their birth did not make it a loving home. 4 The Pine and Palm 1, no. 14 (August 17, 1861). James Redpath (1833-1891) James Redpath This source represents 27 handwritten reports by James Redpath related to his work as General Agent of the Haytian Emigration Bureau in Boston, as well as a number of letters. Since the Bureau was funded by the Haitian government, Redpath wrote detailed weekly reports on his recruitment activities to Victorin Plésance, Haiti’s Secretary of State. This source reveals some of the strategies Redpath used to promote emgiration. One major part of the effort was enlisting African American leaders as agents of the Bureau. Other entries also suggest that Redpath actively tried to

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Transcript: SIMPLE TEMPLATE Earth is the third planet from the Sun and largest of the terrestrial planets. Surprisingly, while it is only the fifth largest planet in terms of size and mass, it is the densest (5,513 kg/m) of all the planets. Earth Earth sun Sun -The sun lies at the heart of the solar system, where it is by far the largest object. -The Sun has a diameter of roughly 1.4 million kilometers (870,000 miles). -The Sun accounts for 99.86% of the mass in the solar system. -Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System. -Its orbital period around the Sun of 87.97 days is the shortest of all the planets in the Solar System. Mercury Mercury -Venus is the second planet from the Sun and the third brightest object in Earth's sky after the Sun and Moon. -Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system with an average surface temperature of 462°C . -One day on Venus is longer than one year. Due to the slow rotation on its axis, it takes 243 Earth-days to complete one rotation. The orbit of the planet takes 225 Earth-days – making a year on Venus shorter on day on Venus. Venus Venus Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and is the second smallest planet in the solar system. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere composed primarily of carbon dioxide. Mars has the largest dust storms in the solar system. On Mars the Sun appears about half the size as it does on Earth. Mars Mars Jupiter Jupiter The planet Jupiter is the fifth planet out from the Sun, and is two and a half times more massive than all the other planets in the solar system combined. Jupiter orbits the Sun once every 11.8 Earth years. Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System. In the Solar System, it is the fourth-largest planet by diameter, the third-most-massive planet, and the densest giant planet. Neptune is 17 times the mass of Earth, slightly more massive than its near-twin Uranus. Neptune Neptune Uranus (from the Latin name Ūranus for the Greek god Οὐρανός) is the seventh planet from the Sun. It has the third-largest planetary radius and fourth-largest planetary mass in the Solar System. Uranus is similar in composition to Neptune, and both have bulk chemical compositions which differ from that of the larger gas giants Jupiter and Saturn. Uranus Uranus Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter. It is a gas giant with an average radius about nine times that of Earth.[13][14] It has only one-eighth the average density of Earth, but with its larger volume Saturn is over 95 times more massive. Saturn Saturn

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Transcript: Javier Perez Living things in their environment Natural Habitats Living things meet their needs from living and nonliving things in ecosystems. Plants are important in ecosystems. They are food for many animals. Plants use water from the soil, carbon dioxide from the air, and energy from sunlight to make their own food. Some examples of living things are organisms such as plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria. ... Other living things in the forest might include mushrooms or even bacteria living in the soil. These living things interact with the nonliving things around them such as sunlight, temperature, water, and soil. Ecology is the study of the relationship between living organisms and their environment. An ecologist is someone who studies those relationships. An ecosystem is a place, such as a rotting log, a forest, or even a schoolyard, where interactions between living and non-living things occur. Organisms: All living things in the environment are organisms, such as plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms. ... Ecosystem: An ecosystem is made up of both the community of organisms in an area and their abiotic surroundings. Animals depend on their physical features to help them obtain food, keep safe, build homes, withstand weather, and attract mates. These physical features are called called physical adaptations. ... Each adaptation has been produced by evolution. This means that the adaptations have developed over many generations. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. ... Major forms of pollution include: Air pollution, light pollution, littering, noise pollution, plastic pollution, soil contamination, radioactive contamination, thermal pollution, visual pollution, water pollution. TOPIC 01 Living things in environmet Subtopic 01 subtopic 01 subtopic 02 Subtopic 02

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