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DNA Powerpoint

Transcript: Composition How DNA Works DNA is made of subunits called nucleotides arranged in two strands. A nucleotide consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a base. The two sides of the double helix are made of alternating sugar parts and phosphate parts The rungs of the ladder are made of a pair of bases. Adenine on one side of a rung, always pairs with thymine. DNA DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is the genetic material of living things. It determines inherited characteristics. DNA looks like two twisted ladders. DNA is found in the nucleus of all eukaryotic cells. DNA contains four basic building blocks or bases: adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. Fun Facts Long strands of chromatin are usually bundled loosely within the nucleus. A single strand of chromatin is made up of a long strand of DNA that is coiled around proteins. Each strand of DNA contains two halves that are connected in the middle and twisted in a double helix. When the cell is ready to divide, it has already copied its DNA. The copies stay attached as the chromatin is packaged into chromatids. Then, the two identical chromatids form a chromosome. The shape of DNA is a strand of DNA that looks like a twisted ladder. Structurally, DNA is made up of nucleotides. Nucleotides hook together to make the sugar-phosphate backbone of every strand of DNA. The bases pair up with opposite, matching bases on the other strand of DNA. The other two strands of DNA are linked together by weak hydrogen bonds and stacked like a ladder, and spirals around each other to make the double helix. In the 1950s, a biochemist named Erwin Chargaff found that the amount of denine in DNA always equals of adenine. A british chemist, Rosalind Franklin, was able to make images of DNA models. She used a process called x-ray diffraction to make the images Two other scientists named James Wattson and Francis crick, were also trying to solve how to find DNA's structure. So, Maurice Wilkins shared Franklin's data, without their knowledge, with James and Crick. DNA PowerPoint Structure Composition The pairing of bases allows the cell to replicate, or make copies of DNA. For example, the sequence CG AC will bond to the sequence CG TG. DNA is copied during the S or the synthesis phase of interphase. Two strands of DNA split down the middle so that a copy can be made. A new strand forms along each of the original strands. James Wattson and Francis Crick. History Each cell contains nine feet of DNA. In an average meal, you eat approximately 55 million cells. A human genome is approximately 3 billion base pairs in length (haploid). It takes 8 hours to completely copy its DNA. DNA was first isolated in 1869 by Friedrich Meischer. Every living thing has DNA, like a tree, a zebra, and a mushroom. Replication Process


Transcript: For 23 cities, minimum distance is 1798.7 FUTURE WORK A number of genetic algorithm techniques have been analyzed and surveyed for solving TSP The research work can be extended for different hybrid selection, crossover and mutation operators Applications of GA include for advanced network models like logistic network, task scheduling models, vehicle navigation routing models etc. seed for the random number generator. Fixed - duplicate previous results CONCLUSIONS import city lists from XML files Special features: - Emphasizes combining information from good parents (crossover) - Many variants eg. reproduction models, operators Crossover Selects genes from parent chromosomes and generates new offspring Crossover point is chosen randomly On Solving Traveling Salesman Problems by Genetic Algorithms by Heinrich Braun no. of cities close by which greedy GA uses to link cities Chromosomes Representation (Encoding) of solution percentage that each child after crossover will undergo mutation A Genetic Algorithm for solving Travelling Salesman Problem by Adewole Philip, Akinwale Adio Taofiki and Otunbanowo Kehinde Parameters: A search technique used in computing to find approximate solutions to optimization and search problems. - Global search heuristics - Uses crossover and mutation operators using the principle GA Approach Good solutions for various problem sizes; depends on: For a good solution, a trade-off must be made between run-time and the solution quality initial number of random tours GA OPERATORS - the way the problem is encoded - which crossover and mutation methods are used EXPERIMENTAL RESULT a-genetic-algorithm-to-the-travelling-salesman-problem/5 Presented by, Sumithra Pandiaraj Yamini Papudesi Shubhalakshmi Shetty Hariharan Jayaraman Replace repeated city with nearest city Example Parent 1: F A B E C G D Developed: USA in the 1970s Typically applied to: Discrete optimization Attributed features: Good heuristic for combinatorial problems the no. of crossovers run before the algorithm is terminated GA Overview ECE 602 Performs a number of iterations, then the process is terminated and the best optimal tour is chosen. PROBLEM : You've got a number of cities to visit GIVEN : Distances between cities CONSTRAINTS : Visit every place exactly once Return to where you started OPTIMAL SOLUTION: Work out the shortest route HOW? GENETIC ALGORITHM EXAMPLE CASE percent chance the initial population will link to a nearby city Crossover Problem Parameters: Mutation Operation makes random, but small, changes to an encoded solution - all solutions into a local optimum - extends the search space of the algorithm Traveling Salesman Problem(TSP) using Genetic Algorithm Number of cities = 23 Applying Genatic Algorithm for Travelling Salesman Problem Choose initial population Evaluate the fitness of each individual in the population Repeat Select best-ranking individuals to reproduce Breed new generation through cross over and mutation (Genetic Operation) and give birth to offspring Evaluate the individual fitness of the offspring Replace worst ranked part of population with offspring Until <terminating conditions> “Survival of the fittest” Optimal solution for different number of cities randomly placed “Traveling salesman is a busy man. So many places to go, so little time” REFERENCES GA Pseudo-Code GENETIC ALGORITHM To account that tour "A B C D E F G" is the same as "G F E D C B A", We can store the links in both directions for each tour. Population Size Mutation % Group Size Maximum Generations # Nearby cities Nearby city odds % Random Seed City list each generation, no. of tours randomly chosen from the population


Transcript: THE STRUCUTR OF DNA IS CALLED A DOUBLE HELIX and the two strands of the DNA must be separated , the weak hydrogen bonds are broken. Once all of that is done they must be held together to allow new nucleotides to be parther together. a enzyme named DNA polymerase moves along the uncovered dna and creates new bonds creating new nucleotide . DNA ENDING by tyler bates first separated by a twisted strand into two untwisted molecular, this happens is a area of the chromesomes called the origins. the enzyme that does this is a helicase because it unwinds the strands. then an enzyme called dna polymerse copies each strand using the base pairing rule. both of the strands are not copied te same way also the DNA polymerse enzyme doesn't do it all of its own it has the help of other enzymes. What is DNA? DNA Strucutre ( Double helix) DNA IS : Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses nucleotides are also made up of deoxyribose sugar Dna is made up of molecules called nucleotides. each nucleotide contains phroopshate groups. the nitrogen bases are called cytosine, thymine, adenine and guanine. the smaller bases are always paired with the bigger ones DNA Replication With these facts. this shows you what DNA is and more of a clear in site of what's going inside of our bodies. first the DNA is unwound... how copies of DNA are written and copied DNA POWERPOINT

DNA Powerpoint

Transcript: Jacques Monod and François Jacob (1965) DNA Structure Once all of the bases are matched up an enzyme strips away the primer. The gaps where the primer were are then filled by more complementary nucleotides. The new strand is proofread to make sure there are no mistakes Finally, an enzyme called seals up the sequence of DNA into two continuous double strands. the new DNA automatically winds up into a double helix. l Definition of DNA DNA by : Anahita Moayedifar Jacques Monod and François Jacob were the first to discover how genes were turned on and off. l Gregor Mendel discovered the fundamental laws of inheritance. He found out that genes come in pairs and are inherited. l Thomas Hunt Morgan established the chromosomal theory of inheritance. Leading strand DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the gene material in humans and almost all organisms. DNA is past down from parent to offspring. A offspring has some genes from both the parents. DNA Composition DNA is a molecule that transfers genetic messages to every cell of your body. When an egg and sperm met to form the first cell that was later to become you you, you were given the complete genetic code that all of your cells will use for rest of your life. DNA is like a boss and its workers, the boss gives information to its workers to do a certain job. DNA Powerpoint History of DNA: Timeline Sugar Phosphate Backbone Base pairs Cytosine Adenine Thymine Guanine ________________________ How DNA Works The first step in DNA replication is to ‘unzip’ the double helix of the DNA This is carried out by an enzyme which breaks the bonds holding the complementary bases of DNA together The two separated strands will act as the templates for making the new strands of DNA One of the strands is placed in the 3’ to 5’ direction, this is the leading strand. The other strand is moved in the 5’ to 3’ direction, this is the lagging strand. As a result of their different positions, the two strands are replicated differently Multiple RNA primers are made by the enzyme and bind at different points along the lagging strand. Chunks of DNA are then added to the lagging strand also in the 5’ to 3’ direction. This type of replication is called discontinuous Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase (1953) Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Guanine (G) Cytosine (C) Phosphate Gregor Mendel (1866) Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase did the Hershey-Chase blender experiment that proved phage DNA, and not protein, was the genetic material. Thomas Hunt Morgan (1911) DNA DNA Replication Process Lagging strand A piece of RNA comes along and binds to the end of the leading strand. The primer acts as the starting point for DNA synthesis. DNA polymerase binds to the leading strand and then goes along it, adding new complementary nucleotide bases to the strand of DNA in the 5’ to 3’ direction. This sort of replication is called continuous. l

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