Transcript: * Stored in the Gallerie dell'Accademia in Venice, Italy * Based on the correlations of ideal human proportions with geometry described by the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius in Book III of his treatise "De Architectura". * Measures 34.4 cm × 25.5 cm *The length of a man's outspread arms (arm span) is equal to his height * The distance from the bottom of the chin to the nose and from the roots of the hair to the eyebrows is, in each case the same, and like the ear, a third of the face. * The length of a man's foot is one-sixth of his height * The length of the hand is one-tenth of a man's height *The distance from the elbow to the tip of the hand is a quarter of the height of a man. *The space between the legs will be an equilateral triangle. Leonardo Da Vici ~ Leonardo Da Vinci ~ A great page from where you can find more info on Facebook Notes Vitruvian Man ( Canon of Proportions ) Asma Naser hope you enjoyed "The noblest pleasure is the joy of understanding." Body Portions Made By :
Transcript: Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva What are the Symptoms? Pt.3 This condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. Most cases of FOP results from new mutations in the gene. These cases occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. In a small number of people, an affected person may or may not have inherited the mutation from one affected parent. There is no known cure for FOP. Attempts to surgically remove the bone results in more vigorous bone growth. Any activity that involves impact or the risk of falling should be avoided as injuries from this can speed up the growth of the bone. What are the Symptoms? Pt.2 FOP is a genetic disease. Children born with this have deformed toes, possibly missing a joint or simply presenting with a notable lump at the joint. The first sign of FOP usually shows before the age of 10. The bone growth progresses from the top to bottom, just like bones growing in a fetus. A child with FOP will typically develop bones starting at the neck, then on the shoulders, arms, chest area and finally on the feet. Cited Sources Specifically, FOP is typically seen first in the dorsal, axial, cranial and proximal regions of the body. Later the disease progresses in the ventral, appendicular, caudal and distal regions of the body. Often, the tumor-like lumps that characterize the disease appear suddenly. This condition causes loss of mobility to affected joints, including inability to fully open the mouth limiting speech and eating. Extra bone formation around the rib cage restricts the expansion of lungs and diaphragm causing breathing complications. How Common is this? http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/fibrodysplasia-ossificans-progressiva http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibrodysplasia_ossificans_progressiva http://www.ifopa.org/fop-fact-sheet.html http://www.ucsfbenioffchildrens.org/conditions/fibrodysplasia_ossificans_progressiva/ How do people inherit this? Because the disease is so rare, the symptoms are often misdiagnosed as cancer or fibrosis. However, those born with FOP tend to have disfigured toes or thumbs which help distinguish this disorder from other skeletal problems. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), also known as Stone Man Syndrome, is a disorder in which muscle tissue and connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments are gradually replaced by bone. The extra bone forms outside the skeleton (extra-skeletal or heterotopic bone) and constrains most of the user's movements and causes disfigurement where the extra bone would be. What are the Symptoms? Is there a Cure? What is FOP? Tyron Ilano Mrs. Neal Anatomy and Physiology A Block November 19, 2014 FOP is a very rare disorder, believed to occur in approximately 1 in 2 million people worldwide. Several hundred cases have been reported. Since the 1800s, there have been cases in medicine describing people who apparently "turned to stone"; some of these cases may be true due to FOP. There have approximately been 700 confirmed cases across the globe from an estimated 2500.
Transcript: Ligaments of the Subtalar, Midtarsal and 1st Metatarsophalangeal Joints By: Kim Nguyen, HeeJae Chung and Deanna Falvo Anatomical Joint: a joint in which two or more facets share a joint capsule & joint cavity (ex. calcaneocuboid joint) Joints Review Functional Joint: a joint where actions are performed made up of more than 1 anatomical joint sometimes called "clinical joint" and referred to by function (ex. functional subtalar joint) no common joint capsule, cavity or synovium/synovial fluid Ligaments dense connective tissue that connects two bones arranged in parallel bundles of fibers What is a ligament? Functions: help move the joints through their normal range of motion assist with proprioception passively stabilize joints and support the arches of the foot Ligament Injuries Injuries sprain or tear creep: deformation or elongation under a constant or repetitive load with joint injury or inflammation (i.e. osteoarthritis) excessive creep can result in joint laxity joint laxity then predisposes joint to further injury Subtalar 1.5 Anatomical Joints: -Anterior & middle facets of the talocalcaneal joint (0.5 posterior part of the talocalcaneonavicular joint) -posterior facets of the talocalcaneal joint (1 anatomical subtalar joint) Function: to adapt the foot to transverse plane motions via triplane motions (pronation & supination) Functional Subtalar Joint Lateral Talocalcaneal Ligament Weak ligament Lateral aspect of sinus tarsi Runs from the anteroinferior aspect of the lateral talar process and extends downwards & posteriorly to insert on the calcaneus just lateral to posterior articular surface Limits inversion of STJ Lateral Talocalcaneal Ligament Interosseous Talocalcaneal Ligament (2 bands) Located in the sinus tarsi sulcus tali + sulcus calcanei Anterior: runs from the calcaneus in the area of the apex of the anterior sulcus calcanei,superiorly & laterally to insert on the inferior surface of the talar neck Limits inversion & eversion of STJ Interosseous Talocalcaneal Located in the sinus tarsi Posterior: originates in the area of posterior edge of the sulcus calcanei and runs obliquely; superiorly, posteriorly & laterally insert just anterior to posterior facet of the talus Limits inversion & eversion of STJ Interosseous Talocalcaneal Cervical Ligament Very small, strong ligament Located in the sinus tarsi Runs from the anterolateral aspect of the sulcus calcanei (near the base) and takes an oblique course upward anteriorly, medially to insert on to the cervical tubercle on the inferior aspect of the apex of the talus Limit STJ inversion Cervical Ligament Divides the foot into midfoot and rearfoot sections Midtarsal Joint AKA Chopart joint Midtarsal Bones involved: Talus Calcaneus Navicular (keystone of MLA) Cuboid (keystone of LLA) Functional Midtarsal Joint Made up of 1.5 anatomical joints: • Talonavicular part (anterior part) of the talocalcaneonavicular (0.5) • The calcaneocuboid anatomical joint (1.0) Functional Midtarsal Joint Two Axis of Rotation 1. LONGITUDINAL AXIS - Formed by the talonavicular joint Frontal plane motion (inversion and eversion) Small amounts of transverse (abduction, adduction) and sagittal plane motion (plantarflexion and dorsiflexion) Midtarsal Joint: Axis of Rotation 2. OBLIQUE AXIS -Formed by the calcaneocuboid joint Transverse (abduction, adduction) and sagittal plane motion (plantarflexion and dorsiflexion) Small amounts of frontal plane motion (inversion and eversion) Dorsal and Plantar Ligaments 1) Dorsal Talonavicular 2) Dorsal Calcaneonavicular* medial band of the bifurcate ligament 3) Dorsal Calcaneocuboid* lateral band of the bifurcate ligament 4) Dorsolateral Calcaneocuboid 4 Dorsal Ligaments of the Midtarsal Joint 1) Plantar Calcaneonavicular (Spring Ligament) 2) Plantar Calcaneocuboid (Short Plantar Ligament) 3) Long plantar 3 Plantar Ligaments of the Midtarsal Joint Passes from the sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus to insert on the inferior aspect of the navicular Supports the head of the talus 1) Plantar Calcaneonavicular Ligament (Spring Ligament) Short band that lies deep to the long plantar ligament Arises from the anterior tubercle of the inferior aspect of the calcaneus It fans forwards to attach to the entire surface of the cuboid tuberosity Helps to maintain the lateral longitudinal arch 2) Plantar Calcaneocuboid ligament (Short Plantar Ligament) • Lies superficially to the short plantar ligament • Passes from the tuberosity of the calcaneus • Attaches to the bases of metatarsals 2, 3, 4, 5 • Helps to maintain the lateral longitudinal arch 3) Long Plantar Ligament Clinical Significance Chopart injuries involve dislocation of the mid-tarsal joint and often fractures of the calcaneus, cuboid or navicular as a result of trauma to the foot most commonly caused by motor vehicle accidents or falls Following a Chopart injury, patients will clinically present with medial displacement of the forefoot most commonly cause by laxity of ligaments Chopart is
Transcript: Connective Tissue Disorders BY caleb howe and dylan nordstrom Symptoms - Raynaud's phenomenon in which the fingers suddenly become very pale and tingle or become numb or blue in response to cold or emotional upset Joint inflammation Swollen hands Muscle weakness Difficulty swallowing Heartburn Shortness of breath Lupus like rashes may develop Skin changes similar to those of systemic sclerosis also may occur, such as tightening of the finger skin The hair may thin out MIxed connective tissue disorder MIxed connective tissue disorder Hydroxychloroquine can treat mild mixed connective tissue disease and prevent flare-ups. Medications, such as nifedipine and amlodipine relax the muscles in the walls of your blood vessels and can be used to treat Raynaud's phenomenon. Therapy options for MCTD Therapy options for MCTD There is currently no cure for mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). However, treatments can help manage symptoms of the condition. For example, medications such as over-the-counter or prescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may help with inflammation and pain of the muscles or joints. Cures for MCtd Cures for MCtd images images Symptoms of Eczema Irritated skin Rash appearing in the face, back of knee, wrist, hands, or feet. Dry, thickened, or scaly appearing skin. Reddish or brown discoloration of the skin. eczema eczema These treatments made with hydrocortisone steroids can quickly relieve itching and reduce inflammation. They come in different strengths, from mild over-the-counter (OTC) treatments to stronger prescription medicines. OTC hydrocortisone is often the first thing doctors recommend to treat mild eczema therapy options for eczema therapy options for eczema Currently there is no cure for Eczema cures for eczema cures for eczema images images
Transcript: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Emily Barnard PTSD is a pychiatric disorder that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, a serious accident, a terrorist act, war/combat, rape or other violent personal assault. What is PTSD? What is PTSD? Intrusive Thoughts-repeated involuntary memories, distressing dreams, or flashbacks Avoidance- avoid reminders of the event which can include people, places, and situations that cause a feeling of distress Negative Thoughts and Feelings- ongoing and distorted beliefs about oneself or others, ongoing fear, horror, guilt or shame and becoming detached or estranged from others Arousal and Reactive Symptoms- being irritable, behaving recklessly, being easily startled, having problems concentrating or sleeping Symptoms in Adults Symptoms 6 and Under- bedwetting after learning to use bathroom, inability to speak, acting the trauma out when playing, being clingy with an adult 6-12- may remember the trauma in a different order then it occurred, feeling that there was a sign that the event was going to take place, acting out trauma or expressing it through play, pictures, and stories Symptoms in Children Children 12-18 - teens generally tend to display similar symptoms to adults, but they can show disruptive, disrespectful, impulsive or aggressive behavior, feel guilty for not acting differently during the event or consider revenge Symptoms in Teens Teens Have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event Experience at least one intrusive symptom (flashbacks) Experience at least one avoidance symptom (avoid going to certain places) Experience at least two negative mood or thought symptoms ("They want to hurt me" or feeling emotionally numb) Symptoms must last at least one month Symptoms must cause distress or function impairment Symptoms are not due to medications, substance use, or another illness Diagnosis Diagnosis Some doctors will have individuals with suspected PTSD get a brain scan done (MRI) to ensure it really is PTSD. People with PTSD have increased activity in the brain regions that are involved in fear processing and emotional regulation (limbic system, prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, and temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes) Brain Scan Brain Scan Brain Scan Comparison Scan Short and long-term use of therapy and medications together is the best way to improve the lives of those struggling with PTSD The main goals of therapy is to improve the individuals symptoms, teach them skills to help them deal with their PTSD, and restore their self-esteem Congnitive behavioral therapy- changes the thought patterens that are disturbing ones life. Many different therapies are used that fall under the category of cognitive behavioral therapy Treatment Treatment talk about the traumatic event and how one's thoughts related to it have affected thier life the individual writes about what they experienced Cognitive Processing Therapy Cognitive processing Helps the individual confront things that they have been avoiding Therapist will teach breathing techniques to ease anxiety when they think about the trauma Individual makes a list of things they have been avoiding and they learn ways to face each of them Prolonged Exposure Therapy Prolonged Exposure Brains of individuals with PTSD have an imbalance of neurotransmitters so they have an easily triggered "fight or flight" response leaving them on edge and jumpy Doctors normally start an individual on a medication that will affect the neurotransmitter serotonin (SSIR) Zoloft (Sertraline) Paxil ( Paroxetine) The FDA has only approved these two drugs for treating PTSD Medications Medications Educate themselves and others- the more one understands the eaiser it will be to explain to others what they are going through Connect with others- talk to others that also have PTSD Spend time with loved ones- even just sitting in the same room will improve one's mood Excerise- getting one's body moving regulates their mood and emotions Go to therapy- provides individuals with the skills they need to be successful Healthy Lifestyle- eat a well-balanced diet and avoid drugs and alcohol Living With PTSD Living with PTSD
Transcript: Sensory input: monitors changes occurring in and outside the body.Taking in information Integration: Processes what needs to be done Motor Output: response by activating muscles or glands Functional Classification Structural Classification -glia cells line central cavities of brain and spinal cord -help circulate cerebrospinal fluid to cushion and protect around the CNS Autonomic Peripheral Nervous System (Cranial and Spinal Nerves) -spiderlike phagocytes -monitor health of neurons -dispose of debris efferent division: carries impulses from the CNS to effector organs, the muscles, and glands--causing a response. Satellite Cells (PNS) -form myelin sheaths around nerve fibers Anatomy and Physiology Oligodendrocytes (CNS) What is the Nervous System? -Regulated events that are involuntary(like activity of smooth, cardiac muscles and glands) 2 parts: -Sympathetic (stimulates) -Parasympathetic (inhibits) Somatic Microglia (CNS) Integration The nervous system is the master controlling and communicating system of the body. Every thought, action, and emotion reflects its activity. Its signal device communicate with body cells with electrical impulses, causing immediate responses. Spinal nerves carry impulses to the spinal cord. Cranial nerves carry impulses to and from the brain. These nerves link all parts of the body by carrying impulses from the sensory receptors to the CNS and from the CNS to appropriate glands and muscles. Afferent division: Consists of nerves that convey impulses to the central nervous system from the sensory receptors located in various parts of the body. Somatic Sensory Fibers: impulses from Muscle, joints, skin Visceral sensory fibers: transmit impulses from internal Organs -glia that wraps flat extensions around nerve fibers -produce myelin sheaths as insulating coverings. Topics: Organization of Nervous System & Structure/Function of Nervous tissue -Occurs in the CNS and PNS -"lumped" together as nerve glue/glia/neuroglia -support, insulate, and protect neurons Peripheral Nervous System 3 Overlapping functions of nervous system Schwann Cells (PNS) -protective, cushioning cells Supporting Cells Sensory input (afferent) Astrocytes (CNS) -starshaped glia -Most abundant -Extensions anchor neurons to blood capillaries -determines capillary permeability -protect neurons from harmful substances -control chemical environment (cleaning leaking potassium ions and recapturing released neuro transmitters). Central Nervous System (brain and spinal cord) Acts as the integrating command centers of the nervous system. They intrpret incoming sensory information and issue instructions based on past experience and current conditions. -Allows voluntary control of skeletal muscles -Voluntary nervous system Organization of the Nervous System Ependymal (CNS) Motor Output (Efferent)
Transcript: SNEEZING VS COUGHING Allergic trigger inflammation to respiratory airways Respiratory wall inflamed and thickened It become worse when smooth muscle tightened Group Members Mahfuzah Binti Muhammad Mohd Fahrizuan Bin Mohd Yusop Sukainah Suhana Binti Abdullah Difficult breathing Feeling tightness in the chest Shortness of breath (SOB) Wheezing (whistling sound) when breath out Coughing at night, may increase production of mucus or phelgm Causes? Cough Difference between Sneezing and Coughing - ResearchPedia.Info. (2015). Retrieved September 25, 2016, from http://researchpedia.info/difference-between-sneezing-and-coughing/ Division of V Cranial Nerve, Areas of Distribution. Ciliary Ganglion. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://intranet.tdmu.edu.ua/data/kafedra/internal/anatomy/classes_stud/en/stomat/ptn/1/21 Trigeminal nerve.htm Home Remedies for Asthma | Top 10 Home Remedies. (2016). Retrieved September 25, 2016, from http://www.top10homeremedies.com/home-remedies/home-remedies-for-asthma.html Macnair, P. (2016). Asthma. Retrieved September 25, 2016, from http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/conditions/allergy-and-asthma/a6099/asthma/ Mechanism of Cough and Sneeze. (n.d.). Retrieved September 25, 2016, from http://medchrome.com/basic-science/physiology/mechanism-of-cough-and-sneeze/ Tortora, G. J., & Derrickson, B. (2011). Principle of Anatomy & Physiology (13th ed., Vol. 2). Rosewood, Danvers: John Wiley & Sons. What Is Asthma? - NHLBI, NIH. (n.d.). Retrieved September 25, 2016, from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/asthma What happen during asthma? Sneeze RESPIRATORY SYSTEM REFERENCES What is Asthma? Respiratory diseases with chronic inflammation of the breathing airways. how does it feel? Normal Breathing VS Asthma Exposure to irritants and substance that trigger sign and symptom of asthma. its more to allergic reaction. example of substances include pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander, and even a particles of cockroach waste. Normal breathing Hard to breath Narrowed airway cause by thickened and tightened airway wall and muscle Easy breathing Normal respiratory airways Breathing with asthma
Transcript: presentation Fundamental composition of matter All matter such as solids, liquids, and gases, is composed of atoms. Therefore, the atom is considered to be the basic building block of matter. However, atoms are almost always grouped together with other atoms to form what is called a molecule. Topic 1 Three subatomic particles and their properties Topic 2 Protons, neutrons, and electrons are the three main subatomic particles found in an atom. Protons have a positive charge. Neutrons have no electrical charge. An easy way to remember this is to remember that both neutron and no electrical charge start with the letter "N." The role of electrons in chemical bonding Topic 3 Electrons play a major role in all chemical bonds. There is one type of bonding called electrovalent bonding, where an electron from one atom is transferred to another atom. You wind up creating two ions as one atom loses an electron and one gains one. Distinguish between ionic bonds, covalent bonds, and hydrogen bonds Topic 4 In a covalent bond, two atoms share one or more electrons. Water is a polar molecule. A hydrogen bond is a relatively weak bond between two oppositely partially charged sides of two or more molecules. In an ionic bond, an atom gives away one or more electrons to another atom. Distinguish between ions, cations, and anions Topic 5 Cations and anions are both ions. The difference between a cation and an anion is the net electrical charge of the ion. ... If the chemical species has more protons than electrons, it carries a net positive charge. If there are more electrons than protons, the species has a negative charge. The key difference between ionic and covalent bonds Topic 6 Covalent bonds are formed between two non-metals, whereas ionic bonds are formed between a metal and non-metal. Molecules formed by covalent bonds have a low melting point, whereas those with ionic bonds have a high melting point. The same relationship exists for boiling point. Four forms of energy important in human functioning Topic 7 Four forms of energy essential to human functioning are: chemical energy, which is stored and released as chemical bonds are formed and broken; mechanical energy, which directly powers physical activity; radiant energy, emitted as waves such as in sunlight; and electrical energy, the power of moving electrons. The role of salts in body functioning Topic 8 Salt plays a crucial role in maintaining human health. It is the main source of sodium and chloride ions in the human diet. Sodium is essential for nerve and muscle function and is involved in the regulation of fluids in the body. Sodium also plays a role in the body's control of blood pressure and volume. Four types of organic molecules essential to human functioning The four types most important to human structure and function are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleotides. Before exploring these compounds, you need to first understand the chemistry of carbon. Topic 9 Four types of lipids important in human functioning Major types include fats and oils, waxes, phospholipids, and steroids. Fats are a stored form of energy and are also known as triacylglycerols or triglycerides. Fats are made up of fatty acids and either glycerol or sphingosine. Topic 10
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