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Solar System

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Barbara .

on 19 January 2015

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Transcript of Solar System

The Solar System
Uranus's Moons
Neptunes Moons
Comparison Earth and Mars
Gas giants
The rings of Saturn
What do the rings of Saturn consist of?
Relationship Earth and Earth's Moon
Dwarf Planets

Nine, sorry eight, planets
The Small Solar Bodies
Astroid Belt
Oort Cloud or Kuiper Belt

- Night/day
- Seasons
- Water Level of river (e. g. Iguazu Falls in Argentina)
4.6 billion years ago
By Inez de Bruijn and Barbara Sakic
How long ago did the Solar System form?
A: 46000 million years ago
B: 5 billion years ago
C 4600 million years ago
D: 6.4 billion years ago
Answer C is correct!
Formation of the Sun
Formation of the Planets
Our Sun
Solar wind
The effect of the Sun on the planets(e. g. Earth)
Common misconseption!
Common misconseption!
Changing distance between the Earth and the Sun causes seasonal changes  (with the two closer in summer and the two farther apart in winter).

True or false?
False! It is caused by the tilted axis of the Earth
Rocky planets
Dwarf planets
What makes a planet a planet?
The Small Solar Bodies
High & low tide >Moon's gravity pulling on the Earth
Length of the day on Earth > The pull of the Moon on the Earth slows the Earth's rotation
Climate stablilizer > formation caused the tilted axis
Eccentricity: a measurement for orbits (0= a perfect circle & close to 1= a more elliptical orbit)
Orbits of Asteroids > In asteroid belt (between orbits of Jupiter and Mars)
Orbits of Comets > elongated elliptical orbits
6. What is the eccentricity of the orbits( 1 & 2)?
A: 1: 0.2
2: 0.5
B: 1: 1
2: 0.8

Anwer A is correct!
Quiz: Let's see what you still remember
1. Planetary systems form
a. within the dense disks of material surrounding
very young stars
b. when young stars capture smaller bodies that formed near them
c. in near-collisions of young stars that pull matter our of them
d. in eruptions of material from stars settling onto the main sequence
e. from convection cells in jets from young stars
3. Fill in the blanks:
4. Match the terms with the right definition:
Atmosphere: Nitrogen (78%)
Oxygen(21%), Argon(1%) Carbon Dioxide(0.038%)
1 Earth day: 24 hours
1 day on Mars: 1.03 Earth days
Axis tilt :23.5 degrees
Axis tilt: 25.2 degrees
One orbit around the Sun:
365 Earth days)
One orbit around the Sun:
687 Earth days
Geology: valley networks,
outflow channels etc.
Geology: valley networks,
outflow channels etc.
Average temperture: 15°C
Average temperture: -63.15 °C
A: Mostly of ice and rock pieces
B: Snow
C: Gases
Correct answer is A!

The Moon(The Earth's moon)
1. Eccentricity
2. Solar flares
3. Asteroid
4. Comet
5. Solar spots
A: Dark, planet-sized regions that appear on the "surface" of the Sun
B: The measurement of how different the orbit is from a circular shape
C: A large, irregularly shaped object in space that orbits our Sun.
D : A sudden eruption of magnetic energy released on or near the surface of the sun
E: A small, icy object that orbits the sun
Quiz: Let's see what you still remember
Quiz: Let's see what you still remember
Quiz: Let's see what you still remember
Answer a is correct
Atmosphere: Carbon dioxide(95.32 %)
Oxygen( 0.13 %)
Minor amounts of: Water, Nitrogen Oxide, Neon

The function of the solar wind is to carry ... to the ... and beyond. The solar wind and ... interact with ... in complex ways, generating phenoma such as the ... .
Valley network on Mars
Will we live on Mars?
Is the Moon a planet?
Our Moon
Choose from: planets, planetary magnetic
fields, aurora, IMF (2x)
3. Fill in the blanks:
Quiz: Let's see what you still remember
The function of the solar wind is to carry
solar energy
to the
and beyond. The solar wind and
solar energy
interact with
planetary magnetic fields
in complex ways, generating phenoma such as the
Choose from: planets, planetary magnetic
fields, aurora, solar energy (2x)
The largest and most complex ring system in the solar system with 62 moons
Why? > It may be too big so its gravitational pull is so strong that it has been able to snatch debris from space > the debris comes from impacts with Moons or from ancients Moons breaking apart
Gas giants
Planetary motions
Kepler's First Law of Planetary Motion
Newton: 'Gravity is an universal force.' > it also acts on the Moon
Newton's book: 'Principia' (1687)
Quiz: Let's see what you still remember
2. A key characteristic of the cloud from which the Solar System formed was its
a. rotation
b. color
c. age
d. shape
e. ability to have chemical reactions
Orbit a star
Big enough that gravity makes it into a sphere
Doesn't cross other orbits
All bodies that orbit around a planet should be smaller than the planets themselves
A large, round object in space (such as the Earth) that travels around a star (such as the sun)
Answer a is correct!
7. Characteristics of Hercules: Hercules has a pink color. It is cold and never receives any form of heat nor energy. Hercules has a circular shape and an orbit with an eccentricity of 0.54
Is Hercules a planet?
No! It does not orbit a star
Thank you for joining us on this journey through our Solar System!
Solar activity
(The brightness of the Sun)

Water level in the river
Scientists think so > Water appears to be trapped within the ice caps at the north and south poles of Mars
Quiz: Let's see what you still remember
5. Why are sunspots seen as dark spots on the surface of the sun?
They are colder than the areas around them.
Quiz: Let's see what you still remember
8. What two elements is the universe made primarily of?
A. Carbon & Nitrogen
B. Hydrogen & Helium
C. Iron & Nickel
D. Silicon & Oxygen
Answer B is correct!
How does the Sun acquire its tremendous amount of energy?
A) Nuclear fusion
B) Combustion
C) Nuclear fission
Anwer A is correct!
- The Orgin: Impact between the Earth and a mars-sized body
- Its influence: on cultures and the calender
Quiz: Let's see what you still remember
Particles began to stick together, forming clumps (protoplanets). Drawing materials to themselves, they grew into planets.
Dark, planet-sized spots on surface sun
Caused by magnetic field of sun welling up to the surface
Solar wind:
sun's energy + other materials
200-800 km/s
Causes aurora + magnetospheric storms
Caused by particles from the sun colliding with particles in our atmosphere. After coallision joining the atmosphere, causing it to wobble for hours.
Northern/Southern lights
Main composition: metallic core with surrounding mantle
Main composition: liquid rocky core surrounded by gases (mainly hydrogen and helium
Objects which aren't quite planets, but not asteroids/comets either.
Believed to be the left-overs from the formation of the solar system
Round or odd shaped
Lumps of ice and dust
Travels towards the sun
When evaporating, leaves long tails, falling stars
A cloud of gas and dust in space was disturbed by a supernova(the explosion of a star) Waves were made which squeezed the cloud, made it collapse as gravity pulled the gas and dust together, forming a spinning solar nebula.
The cloud grew hotter and denser in the center, with a disk of gas and dust surrounding it that was hot in the center but cool at the edges. Eventually it became so hot, a star(our sun) was formed.
The protostar not yet powered(our Sun) blew most of the gas and dust of the new Solar System with a strong stellar wind, The young protostar was a ball of hydrogen and helium not yet powered.

Takes up 99% of mass of the Solar System
Hydrogen atoms are fused at high pressure > forming helium and energy
The energy travels outwards from the core> as a photon through the radiative zone > as a motion of gases through the convection zone.
The sun will run out of hydrogen and it will swell up into a red giant, because a lot of energy will be created
Caused by the Earth turning around it's axis
More sunspots, more radiation so more solar activity, so a higher water level in the river
Cyanobacteria consume carbon dioxide and produce oxygen as a waste gas
Both planets have seasonal changes
Water on Mars?
Mars One thinks we will in 2025
It is many smaller bands combined & the particles range in size from a couple cm to over a km in size.
Moon's linear distance from Earth is increasing at a rate of 3.8cm > might become planet in the future because then it might not orbit the Earth anymore

=The paths of celestial bodies or artificial satellites as they revolve around another body.
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