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Copy of Quitting Smoking

How Psychology can be used to quit smoking and which methods lead to the most sustainable cessation of smoking
by

Davonta Lee

on 11 December 2012

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Transcript of Copy of Quitting Smoking

Quitting Smoking Which methods lead to the most sustainable cessation of smoking? Nicotine Replacement
?? Cold Turkey?? Medicine ?? Facts - 19.3% of all adults (aged 18 years or older), in the United States smoke cigarettes - Cigarette smoking is more common among men
than women - Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death
in the United States - Cigarette smoking accounts for approximately 1
of every 5 deaths, in the United States each year Hypothesis Being a former smoker, I've decided to form my hypothesis based on my own experiences. I predict the most effective way to quit smoking will be
using the Cold Turkey method. Not only did this method work for me but it also seems to be a very popular method amongst others who wish to cease smoking. Gradual Reduction vs. Cold Turkey Counseling Medicine Goal of study: To determine whether Bupropion SR, is effective for smoking cessation in a multi-country study.

Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial enrolled 707 smokers. A total of 527 received Bupropion SR 300 mg daily for 7 weeks and 180 received placebo. A total of 11 clinic visits and 10 telephone contacts were scheduled, during the course of 1 year.

Results: smoking abstinence rates were significantly higher in the Bupropion SR group compared with placebo.

Cite: Tønnesen, P. P., Tonstad, S. S., Hjalmarson, A. A., Lebargy, F. F., van Spiegel, P. I., Hider, A. A., & ... Townsend, J. J. (2003). A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1-year study of Bupropion SR for smoking cessation. Journal Of Internal Medicine, 254(2), 184-192. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2796.2003.01185.x Nicotine Replacement Therapy Goal of study: Research new strategies that address both nicotine dependence and the psychological dependence on cigarettes as the source of nicotine.

Method: Single-blind, randomised trial recruited 1,410 participants through the national telephone-based Quitline service in New Zealand. Participants in the treatment arm were asked to stop smoking nicotine-containing cigarettes on their chosen Quit day and smoke ad libitum nicotine-free cigarettes for six weeks. At the same time people in this group will be asked to start using NRT patches, gum and/or lozenges (as recommended by Quitline) for eight weeks. Participants in the control arm were asked to stop smoking completely on their chosen Quit day and start using NRT patches, gum and/or lozenges (as recommended by Quitline) for eight weeks. Data collection occured at baseline, three and six weeks, and three and six months after Quit day.

Results: The use of cigarettes with reduced nicotine content, in combination with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) helped reduce withdrawal symptoms and increase quit rates.

Cite: Walker, N. K., Howe, C., Bullen, C., Grigg, M., Glover, M., McRobbie, H., & ... Whittaker, R. (2011). Study for a randomised trial of nicotine free cigarettes as an adjunct to usual NRT-based cessation practice, in people who wish to stop smoking. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 1-8. doi:10.186/1471-2458-11-37 So what is the most effective method for quitting? After researching through the many methods to quit smoking, I've learned that Cold Turkey is the most affective method. More research should be done on this method, outside of big tobacco companies. Other methods can be affective in smoking cessation but from the research I was able to find Cold Turkey is the most affective. References: Fiore MC, Novotny TE, Pierce JP, et al. Methods Used to Quit Smoking in the United States: Do Cessation Programs Help?. JAMA. 1990;263(20):2760-2765. doi:10.1001/jama.1990.03440200064024.

Bailey, S. R., Crew, E. E., Riske, E. C., Ammerman, S., Robinson, T. N., & Killen, J. D. (2012). Efficacy and Tolerability of Pharmacotherapies to Aid Smoking Cessation in Adolescents. Pediatric Drugs, 14(2), 91-108.

Li, Y., Wileyto, E., & Heitjan, D. F. (2011). Statistical analysis of daily smoking status in smoking cessation clinical trials. Addiction, 106(11), 2039-2046. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03519.x

Taylor, M., Leonardi-Bee, J., Agboola, S., McNeill, A., & Coleman, T. (2011). Cost effectiveness of interventions to reduce relapse to smoking following smoking cessation. Addiction, 106(10), 1819-1826. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03493.x

Kahler, C. W., Spillane, N. S., & Metrik, J. (2010). Alcohol use and initial smoking lapses among heavy drinkers in smoking cessation treatment. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 12(7), 781-785. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntq083 Analysis & Applications Q. Was your hypothesis supported? A. Yes, I thought Cold Turkey was the best method and turns out it was. Q. What conclusion can you draw? A. If you're planning on quitting smoking cigarettes Cold Turkey is actually the way to go. The most effective way is quitting cold turkey and the second is NRT. Conclusion So what is the big idea? For the best results, when quitting
smoking the most effective way to
quit is by Cold Turkey. Electronic Cigarettes Goal of study: Research improved approaches to smoking cessation

Methods: : In this prospective proof-of-concept study we monitored possible modifications in smoking habits of 40regular smokers (unwilling to quit) experimenting the e-Cigarette with a focus on smoking reduction and smoking abstinence. Study participants were invited to attend a total of five study visits: at baseline, week-4,week-8, week-12 and week-24. Product use, number of cigarettes smoked, and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO)levels were measured at each visit. Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were calculated.

Results: Use of e-Cigarette substantially decreased cigarette consumption without causing significant side effects in smokers not intending to quit.

Cite: Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-Cigarette) on smoking reduction and cessation: a prospective 6-month pilot study. (2011). BMC Public Health, 11(1), 786-797. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-786 -This study examined the reported use, and the impact of quitting gradually or Cold Turkey.

Methods: The ITC-4 is a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of a cohort of more than 8,000 adult smokers from the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, and Australia, with a 75% follow-up rate. The results indicated that 68.5% of the smokers who had made a quit attempt between waves reported using the cold-turkey method. Of those who used the cold turkey method, 22% and 27% succeeded at Waves 2 and 3, respectively, compared with the 12% and 16%, respectively, who used the cut-down method.

Results: They found that smokers who used the cold-turkey method to quit were almost twice as likely to abstain for a month or more in their attempt.

Cite: Yooseock, C., Hua-Hie, Y., & Borland, R. (2007). Does how you quit affect success? A comparison between abrupt and gradual methods using data from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Study. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 9(8), 801-810. doi:10.1080/14622200701484961 Goal of study: A pilot study combining individual-based smoking cessation counseling, Pharmacotherapy, and Dental hygiene intervention.

Methods: Smokers willing to quit underwent an 8-week smoking cessation intervention combining individual-based counseling and nicotine replacement therapy and/or bupropion, provided by a general internist. In addition, a dentist performed a dental exam, followed by an oral hygiene treatment and gave information about chronic effects of smoking on oral health.

Results: 39 adult smokers were included, and 27 (69%) completed the study. Global acceptability of the dental intervention was very high (94% yes, 6% mostly yes). Annoyances at the dental exam were described as acceptable by participants (61% yes, 23% mostly yes, 6%, mostly no, 10% no). Participants provided very positive qualitative comments about the dentist counseling, the oral exam, and the resulting motivational effect, emphasizing the feeling of oral cleanliness and health that encouraged smoking abstinence. At the end of the intervention (week 8), 17 (44%) participants reported smoking abstinence.

Cite: Gonseth, S., Abarca, M., Madrid, C., & Cornuz, J. (2010). A pilot study combining individual-based smokingcessation counseling, pharmacotherapy, anddental hygiene intervention. BMC Public Health, 10348-352.
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