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Senses and Sensations

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shhs students

on 10 June 2015

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Transcript of Senses and Sensations

There are five main senses in humans. These senses help us find out about the world around us and are very important in all aspects of our everyday life.
These senses are:
What are the 5 senses?
Senses and Sensations
• The organ of sight is the eye
• The eye works by absorbing light in the lens at the front of the eye.
• It then focuses the image onto the retina (the back of the eye).
• The retina contains rods and cones. Rods help us see shapes and work better in the dark. However, cones help us see colour and work better in light.
• These images are then sent to the brain through the optic nerve.
• The eyes see images upside-down and then the brain turns them the right way round.
• The brain also adds 3D to what we see, allowing us to understand depth.
• Sight is the most developed sense in humans, followed by hearing. However, animals such as owls have a much stronger sense of sight than us.

How does sight work?

The ear is the organ of hearing.
• It is divided into two parts: the inner ear and the outer ear.
• The outer ear protrudes from the head and is shaped like a cup. It absorbs vibrations travelling past our ears.
• The inner ear or cochlea changes vibrations into sounds, which it then sends to the brain.
• The brain uses information from both ears to determine the distance and directions of sounds.
• Humans have quite a good sense of hearing and it is our second most developed sense.

How does hearing work?
• The organ of smell is the nose.
• The nose has smell receptors in its mucous membranes which detect the vapours of various substances.
• The sensors detect seven main types of smell sensations – camphor, musk, flower, mint, ether, acrid and putrid.
• The receptors then send this information to the brain through the olfactory nerve.
• Humans do not have a very good sense of smell. The sense of smell of dogs is hundreds of times more developed and strong than ours.
• Our sense of smell is also a very important part of our sense of taste.

How does smell work?
• The mouth is the organ of taste.
• Taste is detected by taste buds or papillae. These are located mainly on the tongue but also on the side and roof of the mouth,
• Taste buds can also taste 4 main flavours: sweet, salty, bitter and sour. All flavours are a combination of these main sensations.
• Each taste bud can detect only one of each of the main flavours.
• Taste buds all have nerves to send the sensations to the brain.
• As well as being able to detect flavours the tongue can also detect temperature and texture of food.
• The number of taste buds people have varies from person to person. The more taste buds you have, the more sensitive you are to flavours.
• Women generally have more taste buds than men and some people are insensitive to taste altogether.

How does taste work?
• The sense of touch is found all around the body.
• It is detected by nerve endings that connect to the brain.
• Some areas, such as fingers, have more nerve endings and are more sensitive to touch.
• Hairs increase sensitivity and touch and can help the body detect things early.
• There are 4 sensations the body can detect in relation to touch: cold, heat, contact and pain.

How does touch work?

Although the five senses are the best known senses there are also some other minor senses.
These include:
• Balance, which is controlled by a combination of all the other senses and can be altered by a change in any of them.
• Temperature
• Pain
• Pressure
• Motion

Are there any other senses?
• Kinesthesia, which is a very accurate sensation of movement. It allows us to coordinate the movement of muscles and joints.
• Synesthesia is a rare condition which effects around 0.1% of people. It is hereditary and results in people who have it feeling one sensation as another, often completely different, sense. For example, some people with synesthesia feel sounds as colours, letters as numbers or smells as shapes.

Are there any other senses?

How do people feel sensation?
Sensation is the process that allows our brain to take in information due to our five senses, which can then be experienced and interpreted by the brain.
When sensation occurs, our five sensory systems transfer information from the environment to our brain quickly due to the fact that each system has a unique pathway to the brain.
How are sensation and senses linked?
Sensations and the five senses are very closely related.
Senses are the main reason why sensation occurs.
Sensation happens because our five senses send messages to the brain.
The brain then interprets these messages resulting in sensation.
How are sensations and emotions linked?
When you feel a certain emotion, you have regions of increased sensation in some areas but decreased sensation in other parts.
For example when you are happy you feel increased sensation throughout your body.
When you are sad, you feel around normal sensation in your torso but decreased sensation in your arms and legs.
The chart on the next slide shows the changes in sensation people feel while experiencing different emotions.
Sensations and emotions
How do people feel while doing different activities?
As part of our project on sensation we decided to research how different every day activities effected our sensations and emotions.
Here is some of what we found out!!!
How does sport effect how people feel?
During exercise, chemicals are released into the brain.
These chemicals are mind-boosting substances
, an example is endorphins,
and they are released during vigorous exercise.
They decrease the pain connected with exercise.
Other endorphins decrease stress,

decrease appetite,
improve immunity and euphoric feelings.
This means people have a feeling of great happiness and well-being.
How does eating effect how people feel?
While we eat different types of foods, chemicals are released.
One example is Serotonin; serotonin is released after we eat carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.
It makes us feel more calm and lessens depression and increases happiness.
High levels of serotonin control appetite and satisfy cravings.
Other chemicals that are released are Dopamine and Norepinephrine.
They are released after we eat proteins such as meats, poultry or dairy.
These enhance mental concentration and alertness. Carbohydrates and protein sources at meals may make us feel satisfied at the meal and after the meal.
One of the main reasons that many people are obese is due to the fact that fatty foods usually have serotonin and because they make us feel satisfied and happy we eat more of them.
It was found in 2001 that children enjoyed some fruit and vegetables to others due to the fact that they had more calories.
Bananas and potatoes were more likely to be chosen than other fruit and vegetables because they were particularly rich in calories.
This shows that children have a preference for foods that are rich in calories.
How does sleep effect how people feel?
When we sleep well, we wake up feeling refreshed and alert.
However if the sleep is cut short, our bodies will not have enough time to complete all the phases needed for our daily activities.
This means we wake up less prepared to concentrate, make decisions or engage fully in school.
Our levels of the hormone cortisol decrease at bedtime, but increase over the night while we sleep.
This helps us feel more alert in the morning.
Sleep balances our appetites by helping to control levels of the hormones ghrelin and leptin.
This means if we don’t have enough sleep, we may feel the need to eat more.
Thank you for watching our Prezi!!!
We hope you enjoyed it!!!
Nil Koksal
Lucia Henwood
Julia Markus
Aurelia Fung Roviras
Psychology A2 - complete companion student book
What we have learned
During our research and work, we have learnt many new things including how sensations, emotions and the senses are linked and the importance of them.
We have also learnt that there are more than 5 senses, that different types of foods that you eat can affect your moods and also that some people have a condition called synaesthesia.
We realised that we worked through our project much quicker than we had expected and managed to hand out tasks to everyone according to their strengths and interests.
Everyone knew what they were doing.
However on Monday, we had 2 members just doing music for the whole day, and the other 2 members just working on the computers.
Because of this on the next day we decided to make sure that everyone did something different to what they did the day before or that they did something that they enjoyed doing.

We felt that this worked quite well and enjoyed the experience of doing the project and exploring and learning new things that we didn’t know before.
Sensational Music
We composed a piece of music that was designed to create sensations in the person listening to them. The piece of music contained four parts and we each played our instruments.
The instruments we played were:
Julia Markus - viola
Nil Koksal - clarinet
Aurelia Fung Roviras - piano
Lucia Henwood - cello
Unfortunately we have not been able to access the music on prezi but you can listen to it on a phone, just ask one of us and we will play it for you.
We have left the sheet music on the table for the Clarinet (B Flat) and Viola, so feel free to have a look.
We have interviewed Ruby Slinn about sports...
We interviewed people in our year because, even though we researched (scientifically) why people enjoy sport, we know that lots of people in our year like sport and wanted to hear it from them.
We interviewed Amelie Todd about sport...
Full transcript