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Immune System

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Devin Weiss

on 21 April 2015

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Transcript of Immune System

The Immune System
Chapter 39 in home and class text.
What is disease?
How is disease spread?
How does our immune system protect us?
HIV and AIDS
California Bio Standards 10 a, b, c, d, & e.
Immune System and Disease Notes
You don’t get he same “flu” ever year.
Vaccinations cause you to build antibodies so “if you are exposed to a pathogen your body already recognizes it and launches a defense…you don’t usually get sick!
Once you have antibodies created your cells will recognize that pathogen (invader) again and will launch a defense against it as soon as you are
exposed.
Antibodies…the BIG idea.
In most cases, as AIDS progresses, infectious diseases or certain forms of cancer take advantage of the body’s
weakened
immune system and homeostasis is severely disrupted.
People don’t die of HIV. They die of AIDS and opportunistic diseases that can take advantage of a weak system.
AIDS and the Immune System
Transmission of disease
Pathogens can be transmitted to a host from reservoirs in four main ways:
by direct contact:
Colds, flu and
STD’s
by an object:
Money, toys or
towels
through the air
Cough, sneeze, drops of mucus
in the air
by an intermediate organism called a
vector
Insect or arthropods ex. Mosquitoes are vectors for malaria and west nile.
AIDS and the Immune System
HIV is transmitted when blood or body fluids from an infected person are passed to another person through
direct contact
, or through contact with objects that have been contaminated by infected blood or other body fluids.
Inflammation of body tissues
If a pathogen manages to get past the skin and body secretions, your body has several other nonspecific defense mechanisms that can destroy the invader and restore
homeostasis.
Inflammation is a way to get these mechanisms to the fight.
The body’s earliest lines of defense against any and all pathogens make up your nonspecific, innate immunity.
Nonspecific =
fight anything
They don't remember or profile what to fight (anything that looks shady.
AIDS and the Immune System
HIV contains the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which allows the virus to use its
RNA
to
synthesize
viral DNA in the host cell.
HIV takes over the human cell and turns it into an HIV virus factory. Producing more and more virus to infect more human white blood cells.
Acquired Immunity
The cells of your innate immune system continually survey your body for foreign invaders.
Innate =
non specific
What causes the symptoms of a disease?
When a pathogen invades your body, it encounters your
immune system
.
If the pathogen overcomes the defenses of your immune system, it can metabolize and
multiply,
causing damage to the tissues it has invaded, and even killing host cells.
Most of the damage done to host cells by bacteria is inflicted by
toxins.
Toxins are poisonous substances sometimes produced by microorganisms.
HIV kills helper T cells and leads to the disorder known as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, or
AIDS.
AIDS and the Immune System
In 1983, the pathogen causing a immune system disease had been identified as a retrovirus, now known as Human Immunodeficiency Virus, or HIV.
Antigens are usually proteins present on the surfaces of whole organisms
In a foreign area antigens that cause an immune response.
Acquired Immunity
Defending against a specific pathogen by gradually building up a resistance to it is called acquired immunity.
Acquired Immunity
This acquired immune response enables these white blood cells to inactivate or destroy the pathogen.
Acquired = specific to a certain pathogen.
Certain white blood cells gradually develop the ability to recognize a specific foreign substance.
Acquired Immunity
As the infection continues, another type of immune response that counteracts the invading pathogen is also mobilized.
Phagocytosis of pathogens
Phagocytes are white blood cells that destroy pathogens by surrounding and engulfing them. Types of phagocytes include:
Monocytes which develop into macrophages.
Neutrophils
Dendritic cells
Inflammation is characterized by
four
symptoms—redness, swelling, pain, and heat.
Inflammation of body tissues
Mucus is continually swallowed and passed to the stomach, where acidic gastric juice destroys most bacteria and their toxins.
Skin and body secretions
Because mucus is slightly
viscous
(thick), it also traps many microorganisms and other foreign substances that enter the respiratory and digestive tracts.
In addition to the skin, pathogens also encounter your body’s secretions of mucus, oil, sweat, tears, and saliva.
Skin and body secretions
Intact skin is a formidable physical barrier to the entrance of microorganisms.
Skin is one of the
most important
forms of non-specific defense against infection
They transmit pathogens when they land on infected materials, such as animal wastes, and then land on fresh food that is eaten by humans.
Transmission of disease
Flies also are significant vectors of disease.
Soil
harbors pathogens such as fungi and bacterium that causes botulism, a type of food poisoning.
Water
contaminated
by feces of humans and other animals is a reservoir for several pathogens, especially those responsible for intestinal diseases.
Reservoirs of pathogens
The major nonliving reservoirs of infectious diseases are soil and water.
Reservoirs of pathogens
The body can be a reservoir of disease-causing organisms.

Sometimes, people can harbor pathogens without exhibiting any signs of the illness and unknowingly transmit the pathogens to others.
What is an infectious disease?
These microorganisms have a symbiotic relationship with your body.
Not all microorganisms are pathogenic. In fact, the presence of some microorganisms in your body is beneficial.
Bacteria in your
gut
is an example
Infected persons may eventually develop
AIDS.
We don’t have an AIDS vaccine even though HIV is a virus.
During this time, the virus reproduces and infects an
increasing

number
of T cells.
AIDS and the Immune System
The first symptoms of AIDS may not appear for eight to ten years after initial HIV infection.
Antibody immunity is a type of chemical warfare within your body that involves several types of cells.(10b)
Macrophage, T-cells, and B-cells
Antibody Immunity
Acquired immunity involves the production of two kinds of immune responses: antibody immunity and cellular immunity.
Some types of influenza, commonly known as the flu, rabies, and Lyme disease are transmitted to
humans from animals.
Reservoirs of pathogens
Animals are other living
reservoirs
of microorganisms that cause disease in humans.
This source can be either a
living
organism or an
inanimate
object on which the pathogen can survive.
The Spread of Infectious Diseases
For a disease to continue and spread, there must be a continual source of the disease organisms.
Macrophage
Phagocytosis of pathogens
Macrophages are white blood cells that provide the first defense against pathogens that have managed to enter the tissues.
Lysosomal enzymes inside the macrophage
digest
the particles it has engulfed.
Streptococcus
What is an infectious disease?
The main sources of pathogens are soil, contaminated water, and infected animals, including other people.
Disease-producing agents such as bacteria, protozoans, fungi, viruses, and other parasites are called
pathogens.
Proteins
AIDS and the Immune System
The HIV virus is basically two copies of RNA wrapped in proteins, then further wrapped in a lipid coat.
Lipid coat
The virus can then penetrate the cell, where it may remain
inactive
for months.
This is why an HIV positive individual can have the disease with out showing symptoms…“ but they look healthy.”
The knob-like outer proteins of the virus attach to a receptor on a helper T cell.
AIDS and the Immune System
Cellular Immunity
A cell that has been affected will raise the alert flag and draw a cytotoxic (killer) T Cell. These cells are used to kill the organism's cells that have gone bad or
cancerous.
RNA
First line of defense- keep bad stuff out
Skin
Mucus membranes
Stomach acid
Second line of defense-
Inflammatory response- bringing stuff to the fight
Phagocytes- phagein, "to eat" or "devour", and "-cyte", "cell"
Immune
Non- Specific
Barriers
1st line
inflammatory
Phagocytes
White Blood Cells (Leukocyte)
Specific
(Adaptive)
Lymphocytes
White Blood Cells
Cytotoxic T
Helper T
B- Lymphocytes
(Bone marrow)
T- Lymphocytes
(Thymus)
These individuals are known as
carriers.
ABC video #45
Antibodies are proteins in the blood that correspond specifically to each antigen.
example: Blood types
ABC Video #44
ABC Video #46
ABC Video #46
Full transcript