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Transcript of Cloning Presentation
Cells can be removed from embryos that have stop developing and would have otherwise died
Cells are removed at a stage when embryos have no nerve cells and cannot feel pain 16.) Define Clone:
a group of individuals identical in genotype or a group of cells descended from a single parent cell
17.) Give 3 Examples of naturally occurring clones:
-Vegetative Propagation in Plants (Asexual Reproduction)
-yeast germes and protozoa (single celled organisms) 18.) Dolly the Sheep was produced by cloning using a differentiated nucleus.
a.) Define differentiated nucleus:
A nucleus that is specialized to perform a specific function
b.) Suggest why the differentiated nucleus was taken from an udder cell.
Udder cells are able to be reprogrammed and differentiated to suit a different function
c.) Suggest one reason why Dolly died younger than normal, but of age-related illnesses.
Dolly was cloned from an adult sheep with half of their telomeres; therefore, Dolly was born with half the life span of a normal sheep
d.) Outline the method used to clone Dolly the Sheep
1. Udder cells removed from sheep
2. Cells grown in a culture to turn off their genes
3. Embryos removed from sheep
4. Nuclei removed from embryos
5. Embryos and udder cells fused by electricity to form zygotes
6. Zygotes developed to form embryos
7. Embryos implanted into Sheep 3 (the surrogate mother)
8. Dolly develops and becomes first born clone (identical to sheep 1) 19.) Distinguish between reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning
-Reproductive: creates an exact whole copy of an already existing mature life form.
-Therapeutic: creates a whole copy of an already existing mature life form but does not allow the cloned embryo to come to full term resulting in birth; produces cells for use in growing replacement organs or for tissue engineering designed to heal or cure disease in human beings.
20.) State some of the medical applications and benefits of therapeutic cloning.
-Stem cells have the capacity to divide and differentiate into any type of human cell
-They can be used to replicate tissues or organs that have been damaged 21.) Discuss the ethical considerations of therapeutic cloning in humans.
cells can be removed from embryos that have been stopped developing, would have died anyways
cells are removed at a stage when embryos have no nerve cells, can feel no pain
stem cells can be used for therapeutics that save lives and reduce suffering
More embryos may be produces when needed, so some may have to be killed
Stem cells develop into tumor cells
Every embryo is a potential human being, should be given the chance to develop
22.) Suggest why stem-cell programming might mitigate the negative opinions of human therapeutic cloning.
a.) IPS Cells (Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells): adult cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell–like state by being forced to express genes and factors important for maintaining the defining properties of embryonic stem cells.
b.) IPS cells are are genetically modified by the integration of up to four DNA-transcription factors into the adult cell genome.
Are not derived from human embryos Questions 19 + 20 May allow scientists to sidestep other controversial methods, notably cloning (which is both ethically questionable and difficult to do routinely) http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/cloning/clickandclone/ Cloning: the production of identical copies of genes, cells, or organisms.
Clone: a group of genetically identical organisms or a group of genetically identical cells derived from a single parent cell Why Use Cloning? Cloning is very useful if an organism has a desirable combination of characteristics and more organisms with the same characteristic are wanted (known as reproductive cloning).
Cloning is sometimes used to produce skin or other tissues needed to treat a patient (therapeutic cloning) Cloning in Plants and Animals Most plants can be cloned quite easily from pieces of root, stem, or leaf. However, animals cannot be cloned in the same way; if animal embryos are divided up at an early stage into several pieces, each piece can develop into a separate animal. Furthermore, it is difficult to predict which embryos will develop into animals with desirable characteristics The first successful reproductive cloning of an adult with known characteristics was Dolly the Sheep. Disadvantages: Advantages: Every human embryo is a potential human being, which should be given the chance to develop
More embryos may be produced than are needed, so some may have to be killed
There is a danger of embryonic stem cells developing into tumor cells Techniques are being developed to create human embryos, from which embryonic stem cells can be obtained for medical use. These stem cells have the capacity to divide and differentiate into any types of human cell. They could be used to replace tissues or even organs that have become damaged or lost in a patient. There are many ethical issues involved, which has resulted in therapeutic cloning being banned in various countries.