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Computer Components

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Jack Wales

on 14 October 2013

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Transcript of Computer Components

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Computer Systems
Processer
The central processing unit (CPU) or the processor is part of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program. The processor is the primary component that carries out the computers functions.
Motherboard
The motherboard is the main circuit board of your computer; this allows all the components of the computer to receive power and to communicate with one another.
All the components in a computer will all have to be connected to this to work in the computer.
BIOS
This stands for: -Basic, -Input, -Output, -System

The job of a BIOS is to make sure all the other chips, hard drive, ports and CPU function together.
The BIOS contains all the code that is required to control the keyboard, display screen, disk drives and many more.
The BIOS is typically found in the ROM chip that the computer comes with.
Power Supply
As the name suggest, the power supply gives power to all of the components in the computer, without this the computer would not be able to turn and run. The power supply converts the alternating current (AC) from your mains plug at home to the direct current (DC) needed by the computer to run.
Fan, Heat Sink or Cooling
Heat sink is used to cool the CPU; this can sometimes require a fan as well. Heat sinks are generally made of an aluminum alloy and often have fins. If modern computer don’t have a heat sink, they couldn’t run at the speeds they do.
Hard Drive Configuration and Controllers
Ports
Internal memory
Parallel Ports
A parallel port can send data simultaneously on several channels (wires). This port has now been replaced by the USB port, but you can still find them on some computers. The main use for the ports is to connect these devices to your computer printers, scanners and external drivers, other than that there inst much use for them now.
Serial
These ports are one of the oldest types of interface standards. Before internal modems and external were connected to the computer via serial ports.
These ports are still used today to connect things like projecters to the computer.
Ram
(Random access memory) Ram is also known as computer memory, and it can read and write data. RAM doesn’t store information or memory but can remember information while your computer is on. This means that any information stored on this will be erased (lost) when you turn off the computer. Also the more RAM your computer has the faster it can run.
Cache
The processor cache is memory that is used with the processor. Cache typically consists of two levels, which are the L1 cache and L2 cache. L1 cache is directly accessed by the computers processor and holds data that the processor needs to execute instructions. The L2 cache pulls information from the system’s main memory.
Rom
(Read only memory) A ROM is a computer memory containing data that can only be read. ROM contains the programming that allows your computer to regenerate each time you turn on your computer. Unlike RAM the data in ROM is not lost when the computer is turned off. So this is where all you documents and anything else will be stored.
Specialized Cards
Network Card
A network card acts as the interface between a computer and a network cable. The purpose of the network card is to prepare, send and control the data on the network.
Graphic Cards
A graphics card, also known as a video card, is a piece of hardware installed in a computer that is responsible for rendering (loading) the image on the computer’s monitored or display screen.
Internal system unit components
Output Devices
Peripherals
Input Devices
Scanner
A scanner, will scan a document or a picture so that it can make another copy of it, but this time it will be a computer file instead. This means that you will have a copy of whatever you scanned on your computer.
Cabling
Coaxial
This is a type of cable that is used in video, communications and audio. This tpye of cable is mostly used for connecting TVs to cable TV services. They are now however being used in networks to allow a broadband cable Internet connection.
Optical
Twisted pair
Backing storage
Disks
CD ROM: Short for Compact Disc-Read Only Memory. They are CD players inside computers that can have speeds in the range from 1x and more. They have the capability of playing audio CDs and computer data CDs.

CD-R - These are the most cost efficient storage device. They are also capable of holding up to 700MB.

Floppy Disks: They are no longer the preferred method of storing data because they have a limited capacity
Pen Drives
Optical Media
Optical media like a CD (compact disk) is a way of storing media digitally. The data is written and read using a laser. That modern computers have, this is the CD-Drive.
A pen drive is a portable USB (Universal Serial Bus) flash memory device for transferring any type of digital data. Pen drives are mostly smaller then optical disks
SATA
SATA stands for "Serial Advanced Technology Attachment" and can be called Serial ATA. SATA is used to connect the hard drives. SATA has replaced PATA (Parallel ATA).
IDE
EIDE
Master/Slave
Ground
A+
A-
Ground
B-
B+
Ground
1
7
(Transmit)
(Receive)
This is what the plugs look like
IDE stands for Integrated Drive Electronics, and was an early way interface. IDE can only connect two hard drives (master and slave these will be explained in a bit).
This is what plug looks like.
This is the pin out of SATA.
EIDE stands for Enhanced IDE. EIDE is a newer version of IDE and it is about 3 to 4 times faster then IDE. EIDE is also able to support mass storage of up to 8.4 GB whereas IDE was only able to support up to 528 MB.
This is a model of communication where one device (this is the master) controls one or more devices (which are known as slaves).
For older computers using parallel interfaces can have two hard disks connected in a master/slave fashion.
EIDE has the same plug as IDE
Twisted pair cable is a pair of copper wires twisted together. They are used in CAT 5 data cabling witch connect up data networks. ADSL (Broadband) is delivered over the telephone network and arrives on twisted pair cables
Fiber optical cable is made from glass fibers. Fiber optic cables can carry more data and is also able to carry it faster.
Flash Memory Cards
A flash memory card is used for storing digital data. They are most commonly used in electrical devices such as digital cameras, mobile phones, laptops, MP3 players, game consoles. Flash memory cards are small, reuseable and can store data without any power.
Portable and fixed Drives
Fixed Drives are more commonly known as hard drives. They are built into the computer. They are the main storage device for the computer as it can access information quickly.




Portable Drives are found is small cases and can be transported from one computer to another. They can carry a lot of data
Output devices are computer hardware taht allows a computer system to communicate information to a user or another system. This information can be for sound or images.

Examples of output devices:
Monitor
Printer
Speaker/Headphones
Projector
Plotter
Input devices feed data or an instruction into the computer to be processed, displayed or stored. Here are some examples of input devices.
What is an Operating System?
An operating system is a computer program
This is the first piece of software that the computer uses when you turn on your computer
The operating system will also provide the default interface for the system

An example of Operating system is Windows 7 or Windows XP.
Different Operating Systems
DOS
This stands for
D
isk
O
perating
S
ystem
This was one of the first widely-installed operating system for personal computers.
Mac OS
Apple developed this operating system for their line of Macintosh computers
Microsoft Windows
This is a WIMP system, this stands for
W
indows,
I
cons,
M
enus,
P
ointer.
Windows was developed by Microsoft Corporation and sold under license
Linux
This is a type of operating system that is freely available to anyone with an Internet connection.
Some of the problems with Linux is that it is harder to manage than something like Windows
Command Line And GUI OS
GUI OS
Stands for
G
raphical
U
ser
I
nterface
GUI Operating Systems are much easier for end-users to learn and use because commands do not need to be known or memorized
Command Line
This is a user interface that it navigated by typing commands at prompts
This means that the mouse is not used
Operating system software
Software utilities
Virus Protection
As we all know virus can cause our computers to run slow.
There are things you can download to clean up your computer from viruses and prevent you getting anymore viruses
Firewalls
These are a protective barrier for computers
These are connected to a network
A firewall is designed to allow authorized programs to access data from the network
Firewalls are in place to prevent damage to the network
Clean Up Tools
Removal Of Cookies
This is the removal of Internet cookies.
These can store and track you usage on websites.
They normally contain two pieces of information; a site name and unique user ID
Internet History
This is your internet browser storing the website or search you have done
This means that you are able to see what sites you have been too
You can delete this memory doesn't really make your internet faster, it means that if you deleted it you cant view the websites you have been to
Drive Formatting
Storage devices have to be formatted to be recognised by a computer
Formatting is the process of arranging files and folders so that the operating system can interact with the storage device.
Defragmentation
This means that the files and folders on a computers hard drive break down or fragmented, they are disorganized.
This can cause the system to run slowly
Defragmentation is the processes of putting related data back together
As a result the computer can run faster
Operating system functions and services
Machine and Peripheral
Management
The operating systems controls the whole machine.
It also controls peripherals like keyboards, mouse, printers etc.
File Mangment
Operating system needs to have file management system it can show files, create new files, deleting, editing and other functions linked to the files.
Security
An Operating system needs to make sure that everything works properly
There is no unauthorised access that can harm your data
Device Drivers
Drivers are programs that tell the operating system what and how to deal with a particular device.
Features
Ability to Customize
This just means that you are able to change the way your homescreen looks. Here are a few things you can do:
Change the background picture
Change the colour of the windows
Change the size of the icons to make it easier to read
Support For Connectivity Of Portable Media
This just if the Operating system can sort certain portable media. So things like:
- usb
-cd
-sync
-bluetooth
-wifi
Security
This is basically how well your operating system is at making sure everything is safe and your computer isnt at any risk of getting damge by things.
Stability and Reliability
When you buy a computer you want the operating system to be Stable and reliable.
Meaning you dont want it crashing all the time or running slow.
Most modern computers and operating systems are stable and reliable.
Ease of Management
Operating systems need to be easy to manage.
So if something goes wrong users can use support to make it work again
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