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Art history

(Neoclassicism, Romanticism & Realism)

Pamela Ordanza

on 17 December 2012

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Transcript of Art history

Neoclassicism Neoclassicism is the Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome. Characteristics of Neo classical paintings Neoclassicism Romanticism was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1840.

it was also a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment.

Romantic period peak was associated with liberalism and radicalism

It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature.

The movement validated strong emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension, horror and terror, and awe—especially that which is experienced in confronting the sublimity of untamed nature and its picturesque qualities, both new aesthetic categories.

Romantic- appreciation without sexual intent.

Artists were fascinated by nature, passions, struggles, moods.

The importance the Romantics placed on untrammeled feeling is summed up in the remark of the German painter Caspar David Friedrich that "the artist's feeling is his law"
Highly emotional school of art: deeply felt, exotic, beautiful and even passionate.

It is famous as a blending of stylistic boundaries.

The central notion of romanticism is to draw from ordered classicism and use subversion to assert the originality of the artist.

Revels in the individual, subjective, irrational, imaginative, personal, spontaneous, emotional, visionary and transcendental.

It rejects order, calm, harmony, balance, idealization and rationality.

Shows a preference for exotic, mysterious, monstrous, diseased, occult and even satanic subject matter. Characteristics of Romantic Art Roman and Greek history and mythology were often subjects for their paintings.
themes of the paintings emphasized stoicism and heroism
characterized by symmetry, clean lines and the emphasis on the
more restraint and control emotions
linear characteristics and sharp outlines of figures
feature colors that are sharper The major characteristics of Neoclassical paintings Factors that sparked the Neo-classical movement The expansion, evolution, and redefinition of the European standard classical education was one of the greatest causes., as well was the then recent archeological discoveries of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The rise in commissioned art and architecture and the refinement of art scholarship also gave rise to this movement. Finally, the general reaction to the exorbitant styles of Baroque and Rococo. Romanticism Neoclassicism was a cultural, artistic and architectural movement which arose in reaction to rococo, possessing similar characteristics to those of the renaissance, placing reason above imagination and emotion.

The rational nature of neoclassicism promoted ideas of order, limited aspirations and sensibility, the concept that reason should be used to guide artistic creation. According to the neoclassicist, art cannot be a spontaneous eruption of imagination and emotion. Emotion is present, but it must be directed and controlled.

Neoclassicism works within the established social norms of society. Neoclassical artists believe that the individual should follow and conform to the common consensus that society offers, leading them to the common truth, rather than the opinion of a single person.

Neoclassical art attempts to express common and shared human traits and characteristics, valuing the individual only because he represents a common human truth. Art is seen as an expression of a universal truth regarding human nature, communicating to others. Romanticism is defined as a literary, artistic and intellectual movement that emerged in reaction against the social and political norms of the enlightenment and the rationalization of nature.

The romanticist emphasizes intuition, emotion and imagination over logic and reason, to the point where he may be considered irrational.

Romanticism places a strong emphasis on the individual, the belief that true artistic inspiration is born out of the individual genius.

Romantic artists strive to be utterly original, expressing a unique and unseen vision, by expressing themselves. The Death of General Wolfe by Benjamin West The Death of Marat by Jacques-Louis David The Apotheosis of Homer by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres Oath of the Horatii by Jacques-Louis David The Death of Socrates by Jacques-Louis David. Francisco Goya Saturn Devouring His Son The Black Paintings The Women of Algiers (In Their Apartment) by Eugène Delacroix. Death of Sardanapalus (La Mort de Sardanapale) by Eugène Delacroix Liberty Leading the People (French: La Liberté guidant le peuple) by Eugène Delacroix Carlos IV of Spain and His Family by Francisco Goya Eugène Delacroix The Third of May 1808 (El tres de mayo de 1808 en Madrid, by Francisco Goya refers to the accurate, unembellished representation of the ordinary, observable world without idealization eschewing romantic ideals of beauty, abstraction and imagination, art realism seeks to depict objects and figures as they appear in real life.

a movement in mid-19th-century European art and literature, that was a reaction against Romantic and classical idealization and a rejection of conventional academic themes, such as mythology, history, and sublime landscapes.

favoured themes of everyday life and carefully observed social settings. Realism Characteristic of Realism in Art •Realism strives for absolute accuracy in the depiction of its subjects, devoid of any unnecessary dramatics or artistic affectation. Realistic works refrain from undue embellishment, aiming for a natural tone.
•Realism seeks the depiction of honesty, rather than hiding things behind distortions or opinions. Unpleasant facts or images are presented as they are, as are plain or unassuming details about the subject.
•Realism stresses the independence of objects from their observer. They have a life and an existence separate from anything else, which will continue regardless of anyone's thoughts on the matter.
•The subjects of realistic works are defined not by their exceptional nature, but by how ordinary they are. Art realism movement The realism art movement emerged in France in the wake of the 1848 Revolution and lasted until 1880. Although several attempts at infusing realism into art had been made throughout art history, the actual wave of realism art swept the art world after Gustave Courbet's independent exhibition in 1855 of his shockingly truthful realism paintings to a scandalized public who, until then, had only been exposed to original art steeped in the sublime aesthetics of Romanticism or the classical ideal of the Old Masters. Rejecting the idealized classicism of the old academic tradition, the realism art movement found raison d'etre in what Gustave Courbet himself called the “representation of real and existing things.” In realism paintings, ordinary, familiar and unadorned figures and objects become worthy subjects. Often implying a moral or social message, realism paintings present a straightforward depiction of the grim lives of the common folk. But not all realism paintings are intentionally imbued with social consciousness or political subversion; there are also realist paintings that capture every day scenes of contemporary life that the audience may find sweetly sentimental or innocuously spontaneous. Barbizon School Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The Raft of the Medusa by Théodore Géricault Jean Louis Théodore Géricault A Burial At Ornans by Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet The Stone Breakers by Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet The Peasants of Flagey by Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (also known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848 byWilliam Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. The three founders were soon joined by William Michael Rossetti, James Collinson, Frederic George Stephens and Thomas Woolner to form a seven-member "brotherhood". The Pre-Raphaelites have been considered the first avant-garde movement in art, though they have also been denied that status, because they continued to accept both the concepts of history painting and of mimesis, or imitation of nature, as central to the purpose of art.
The group's intention was to reform art by rejecting what they considered to be the mechanistic approach first adopted by the Mannerist artists who succeeded Raphael and Michelangelo. They believed that the Classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on the academic teaching of art, hence the name "Pre-Raphaelite"

The Brotherhood's early doctrines were expressed in four declarations:
to have genuine ideas to express
.to study Nature attentively, so as to know how to express them
sympathize with what is direct and serious and heartfelt in previous art, to the exclusion of what is conventional and self-parodying and learned by rote
.most indispensable of all, to produce thoroughly good pictures and statues The Barbizon school of painters were part of an art movement towards Realism in art, which arose in the context of the dominant Romantic Movement of the time. The Barbizon school was active roughly from 1830 through 1870. It takes its name from the village of Barbizon, France, near the Forest of Fontainebleau, where the artists gathered. Some of the most prominent features of this school are its tonal qualities, color, loose brushwork, and softness of form. Joseph Mallord William Turner The Coronation of Napoleon by Jacques-Louis David The Slave Ship by J. M. W. Turner Raby Castle, the Seat of the Earl of Darlington by J. M. W. Turner Impressionism Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists.The name of the style derives from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satiric review published in the Parisian newspaper Le Charivari.

Impressionist painting characteristics include relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), common, ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles. The development of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed by analogous styles in other media that became known as impressionist music and impressionist literature. Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant) by Claude Monet. Woman with a Parasol, (Camille and Jean Monet) by Claude Monet The Cliffs at Etretat by Claude Monet A Bar at the Folies-Bergère by Édouard Manet Olympia by Édouard Manet. Post-Impressionism Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1910 to describe the development of French art since Manet. Fry used the term when he organized the 1910 exhibition Manet and the Post-Impressionists.

Post-Impressionists extended Impressionism while rejecting its limitations: they continued using vivid colours, thick application of paint, distinctive brush strokes, and real-life subject matter, but they were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms, to distort form for expressive effect, and to use unnatural or arbitrary colour.

The Post-Impressionists were dissatisfied with the triviality of subject matter and the loss of structure in Impressionist paintings, though they did not agree on the way forward. Georges Seurat and his followers concerned themselves with Pointillism, the systematic use of tiny dots of colour. The Luncheon on the Grass by Édouard Manet The Starry Night by Vincent van Gogh. Haying at Eragny by Camille Pissarro The Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte by Georges Seurat Pamela Santos Rinadon Serrano
Derrick Yap Eula Andrea San Juan
Aviette Sumaoang Sharlene Villegas
Eira Cuartero

1AD-2 Sources: en.wikipedia.org
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