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PDS Automatic Sprinkler systems

CoBC Assignment 3
by

Tom Hopton

on 21 March 2014

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Transcript of PDS Automatic Sprinkler systems

Different types of fire sprinkler systems
1) Wet pipe systems
What is an automatic fire sprinkler system?
Automatic Fire Sprinkler Systems
There are two types of sprinkler coverage
Objectives
1) Describe what an automatic sprinkler system is and the components that make one up.
Components of an Automatic Fire Sprinkler system
It is a series of sprinklers arranged so that the system will automatically distribute sufficient quantities of water directly onto a fire to extinguish or keep under control until fire personnel arrive.
When was the first automatic fire sprinkler system put into service?
The world's first recognizable sprinkler system was installed in the Theatre Royal, Dury Lane in the United Kingdom in 1812. (source wikipedia) However this was not the first automatic system. Henry S.Parmalee is considered the inventor of the first practical automatic sprinkler head. In 1874 he installed his sprinkler system into the piano factory that he owned. Until the 1940's sprinklers were installed almost exclusively for the protection of commercial buildings. (source automatic fire and integrated solutions)
1) Complete - covers entire building
2) partial-protects certain areas such as high hazard areas,exit routes,areas designated by code,or by authority having jurisdiction.
1) Water Supply- This can come from a public, private or mobile water source.
Examples:
2) Describe the different types of sprinkler systems
3) Describe the different types of sprinkler heads
4) Describe the different types of valves associated with a sprinkler system
5) Identify the hazard group and size plant for a sprinkler installation
Generally require little maintenance
Contains water under pressure at all times
Connected to a public or private water supply
Sprinkler heads immediately discharge water once release mechanism has been compromised
2) Dry pipe systems
Used in locations where piping may be subjected to temps below 4 degrees C
have pitched pipes to help drain water in system back toward main drain
Sprinkler systems continued
Designed so that a small amount of air pressure above dry-pipe valve will hold back greater water pressure on water supply side of dry-pip valve
Sprinkler systems continued
3) Deluge systems
Similar to dry-pipe systems in that there is no water in the distribution piping before system activation
The difference from a dry-pipe system is that there are no fusible links in the sprinkler heads
Designed to quickly supply large volume of water or foam to protected area
Common in aircraft hangers
Sprinkler systems continued
4) Preaction systems
Dry systems that employ deluge-type valve, fire detection device, closed sprinkler heads
Used when important to prevent water damage, even if pipes broken
Water is discharged into pipe in response to smoke or heat detection actuation
Alarm will give warning before opening of sprinklers
Sprinkler systems continued
5) Residential sprinkler systems
Installed in one and two family dwellings
Employs quick response sprinklers
Operates in the same manner as other wet/dry pipe systems
Typically uses cpvc piping
Designing Automatic Sprinkler Systems
Tom Hopton

Sprinkler Heads
1) There are three different styles of sprinkler heads
Pendant
Upright
Sidewall
2) Three styles of release mechanism
Fusible link
Frangible bulb
Chemical pellet
Control valves and Operating valves
1) Control valves
Outside stem and yoke (OS&Y)
Post indicator valve (PIV)
Wall indicator valve (WIV)
Butterfly valve
2) Operating valves
Alarm test valve
Inspector test valve
Main drain valve
Remember our justifications for having a Automatic Fire Sprinkler System
Smoke detectors only reduce the death/injury rate by 50%
Sprinkler systems reduce death/injury by 80%
They have had a 99% success rate on controlling fire over the last 130 years around the world
Sprinkler systems reduce property damage by 90%
Components Continued
2) Means of controlling the water supply
3) Network of pipes for water to flow thru
4) Array of sprinkler heads strategically placed
Control valves
Piping is usually steel, but can be galvanized, stainless steel,copper, and cpvc
Take height of building / 10 = Bar (Ps)

Ceiling mounted sprinkler spacing
figure 38 of BS 5308

Draw a simply block diagram identifying the hazard grouping of each compartment, your chosen fire protection installation, and location of sprinkler plant, justify your decision for type of sprinkler plant?

Identification of hazard group – BS 5306.2-1990

High of storage racking exceeds OH group therefore refer to table 9

Hazard classification flow chart

Most likely in life safety installations where LPZ require a separate zone per 200 heads

For HH sprinkler running pressure + static lift + reasonable allowance for friction losses, say 3bar?

High hazard – (this is more complicated refer to section BS EN12845) For simplification refer to table below

OH group
The water supply running pressure at the “C” gauge shall be not less than 2.2bar plus the static pressure (equivalent to the height of the highest sprinkler in the installation above the “C” Gauge) when a water flow rate of 375L/min is established through the drain and test valve.

Calculate Pump flow rate & Pressure

calculating flowrate over maximum area of operation
Example OH1
5mm/min multiplied by the area of operation i.e.
convert mm to m
0.005 x 72 = 0.36m3/min
convert to l/s
0.36 x 1000 / 60 = 6l/s

Now do this for your office sprinkler system!

Design density - System flowrate

Sprinkler systems are designed to provide an appropriate level of protection for the occupancy and the hazard.

In BS 5306-0-2011 and BS EN 12845:2004 occupancies are classified in hazard groups, ‘Light’ (LH), ‘Ordinary’ (OH) and ‘High’ (HH). OH and HH are further subdivided into groups, eg OH is divided into OH1, OH2, OH3 and OH4.

The hazard classification takes into account the properties, dimensions, arrangements, quantities and locations of combustible materials that are likely to be found in the building, and the expected rate of growth of the fire in the early stages.

The appropriate hazard classification for the design is determined from a fire hazard review carried out by a suitably qualified person

Designing a automatic sprinkler system

The system operates automatically on a pressure basis. The jockey pump maintains a pressure of 5.5 bar in the system (OH1). It cuts in at a detected pressure of 5.0 bar.
A differential of 1 bar is maintained between the main sprinkler and the jockey pump system. If the system pressure falls below 4.5 bar, the main sprinkler pump cuts in.

For your assignment state the size of the sprinkler tank needed

P = process
S = storage

water supply shall have sufficient capacity for the following minimum durations:
⎯ LH 30 min
⎯ OH 60 min
⎯ HHP 90 min
⎯ HHS 90 min

Storage Tanks

Outside stem and yoke (OS&Y)
Post indicator valve (PIV)
Wall indicator valve (WIV)
Butterfly valve
Alarm test valve
Inspector test valve
Main drain valve
Home study:
Provide a sentence or two describing these valve types
BS 5306.2-1990

Assume palletised racking – 6.5m high

Supply Flow rates.

For your assignment state the pump flow rate & pressure, then select one from manufacturer web site

Not the End...
further learning below

Further Learning on Dry Pipe sprinklers
Water Mist
What methods of supply have you come across?
Assessment of prior knowledge!

Name and describe the features of different types of sprinkler systems

what goods category?
Page 148
BS EN 12845
Draw a simply block diagram identifying the hazard grouping of each compartment, your chosen fire protection installation, and location of sprinkler plant, justify your decision for type of sprinkler plant?

Draw a simply block diagram identifying the hazard grouping of each compartment, your chosen fire protection installation, and location of sprinkler plant, justify your decision for type of sprinkler plant?

1
Produce a typical sprinkler head layout for one compartment in your development

2
BS 12845 page 35
Note pump flowrate is higher than system flowrate?
High Hazard group - AMAO
Design density is a factor of your pipe layout within racking (assume this is confirmed as 12.5mm/min
Again note higher requirements for pump
Sketch out a schematic illustrating the different pressure and flow requirements of the system and pumps.
For your assignment provide evidence of how you have arrived at these figures
3
4
Produce a installation schematic showing the major components of the system and system requirements, pumps size and tank capacity

Exercise :
calculate the full storage requirements for the HH group
For what reasons might you chose a full or reduced capacity storage tank?
(refer to BS 12845 page 48)
Designing a Sprinkler system

Sprinklers Explained
Full transcript