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ShIp TeChNoloGy (｡･ω･｡)
Transcript of ShIp TeChNoloGy (｡･ω･｡)
Timeline of the Ship Technology and designs.
2nd Century BC
5th century BC
Originated from the Mediterranean,
the lateen sails (or also known as Settee sails) used to be a quadrilateral sail configuration but then evolved into a triangular, fore and aft sail suspended from a yard.
By the 6th century, the Lateen sail was the standard rig for ships
The Byzantine war galleys and Belisarius' flagship(532 AD invasion of the Vandal kingdom) used this design ("Middle Age Ships."1)
16th Century A.D
Were originally cog-like square-rigged vessels from the Late Middle Ages.
Widely used along the coasts of Europe, in the Baltic, and also in the Mediterranean.
Expansion of trade along Africa's Atlantic coast during the 15th century led them to require needed a larger and more advanced ship for their long oceanic adventures.
Developed the carrack from a fusion and modification of aspects of the ship types they knew operating in both the Atlantic and Mediterranean
Had a new, more advanced form of sail rigging that allowed much improved sailing characteristics in the heavy winds and waves of the Atlantic ocean. ("SQUARE-RIGGED SHIP HISTORY." 1
Invented in 1698 by Thomas Savery,
Provided a more reliable source of movement.
In 1815, steamboats began to replace barges and flatboats in the transport of goods around the United States.
United States saw an drastic growth in the transportation of goods and people, with the steamboat this time was reduced drastically with trips ranging from twenty-five to thirty-five days.
Beneficial to farmers as their crops could now be transported elsewhere to be sold.
The steamboat also allowed for increased specialization. Sugar and Cotton were shipped up north while goods like poultry, grain and pork ("Industrial History: The History of the Steam Engine."1 ) ("Steam Power during the Industrial Revolution.")
Impacts of the lateen sail
Before the lateen sail was invented, it was almost impossible to sail close to the wind. With the lateen sail, ships became easier to travel in due to the restriction of winds being lifted off. The lateen sail impacted the ship designs over a long period of time, it was a design that allowed merchants and transporters to move products and people easier and faster.
The Phoenician design changed the ship's form during those times. The design made the ships more durable. The durability led the military and merchants to adopt the design. While the merchants used the ships to transport goods, the military reinforced the ship even more in order for them to become rammable warships. During the time period, the durability and size of the ships signified a country's power.
The Phoenician Design originated from Phoenicia in 5th century.
It became the main design for ships during those time periods because the hulls were shorter and more reinforced than the more popular Egyptian ships and were therefore probably more seaworthy.
There is a wicker fence along the sheerstrake to protect the deck cargo.
The design later influenced the warships of Greek, Persia, and Romans. Those ships built using the design became known as the triremes, a ship equipped with a ram to ram other ships.
The merchant ships of the design used the sails to carry goods, the triremes used oars to give them the short boost of speed needed to sink the enemy ships.(" Phoenician Ships"1)
Impacts of the design
The magnetic compass was first invented as a device for divination as early as the Chinese Han Dynasty since about 206 BC.
Later used in Song Dynasty China by the military for navigational orienteering by 1040-1044, and was used for maritime navigation by 1111 to 1117.
Was spread to Europe where the first use of a compass was recorded in Western Europe between 1187 and 1202, and in Persia in 1232.
The dry compass was invented in Europe around 1300.
The dry compass was later replaced in the early 20th century by the liquid-filled magnetic compass. ("Compass." 1)("History of the Compass."1)
Impacts of the Compass
Efficient and sturdy ships that were traveling across oceans as early as the second century A.D.
Incorporated numerous technical advances in sail plan and hull designs that were later adopted in Western shipbuilding.
One of the most efficient ships of the time because of its capability to sail into the wind.
In the 13th century, the ships became the main force of the naval military.
In the 14th century, the Junks were used (due to their ability to sail long distances) by Mongols to invade Japan. ( Which ultimately failed due to the typhoons.) ("Junk (ship)."1)
Impacts of the Junk
Many of the technologies that were first on the Junks were later applied to the western ships. The Junks were easily maneuverable and highly efficient in sail overseas or against winds. The Junk allowed China's economy to bloom due to the short time required to transport goods and manpower.
Using a suspended lodestone for gravitational navigation. The compass allowed sailors orient themselves without the positioning of celestial bodies. The compass constantly pointed towards a directly, causing it to be more reliable than any other orienting-device of their time. The compass also impacts us today, although everything has become electronic, the concept of the compass is still present in the technology.
Because the Europeans did not have any Junks, effective ship traveling was not possible to them. The invention of the Carracks greatly benefited the Europeans because the ships were able to be controlled with greater ease, and furthermore the durability of the ship allowed them to travel great distances without danger. The Carracks benefited the economy of the countries because of its ability to transport large quantities.
Developed in the 1850s as a result of the vulnerability of wooden warships to explosive or incendiary shells.
First ironclad battleship, Gloire, was launched by the French Navy in November 1859.
the British Admiralty unwilling to fall behind in military technology,
in early 1859 the Royal Navy started building two ironclads , and by 1861 had made the decision to move to an all-armored battle fleet.
During the American Civil War, after the first clashes of ironclads took place in 1862 during the American Civil War
it became clear that the ironclad had replaced the unarmored ship of the line as the most powerful warship afloat. ("Ironclads and Blockade Runners."1)
Impacts of the Ironclad
The Ironclads symbolized the the modernization of ships. The rapid evolution of warship design in the late 19th century transformed the ironclad from a wooden-hulled vessel that carried sails to supplement its steam engines into the steel-built, turreted battleships and cruisers familiar in the 20th century. This change was pushed forward by the development of heavier naval guns, more sophisticated steam engines, and advances in metal crafting which made steel shipbuilding possible.
"The four sails do not face directly forward, but are set obliquely, and so arranged that they can all be fixed in the same direction, to receive the wind and to spill it."
The third century book "Strange Things of the South"by Wan Chen
He describes the sails as sails that can be changed to catch the wind when it is blowing in any direction.
Impacts of the steam engine
The invention of steam engine greatly improved the amount of time needed to transport things. Although the steam engine only made a direct impact on the man powered or nature powered devices, the steam engine indirectly impact America as a whole. In order for more boats to move in the canals, the canals had to be expanded. Furthermore the economic benefits of the steamboat extended far beyond the construction of the ships themselves, and the goods they transported. These ships led directly to growth in the coal and insurance industries, along with creating demand for repair facilities along the rivers. Additionally the demand for goods in general increased as the steamboat made transport to new destinations both wide reaching and efficient.
not a invention but a technology developed over a period of time.
Development first began with British physicist James Clerk Maxwell
he developed equations governing the behaviour of electromagnetic waves in 1864.
Prototypes and test trials started from those equations.
The first practical radar system was produced in 1935 by the British physicist Sir Robert Watson-Watt.
Helped ships acquire intel that the enemy was coming or avoided collision with other ships.
During World War 2 the radars helped the turrets and other weaponry become more consistent in hitting targets. ( Asu 1)
Impacts of the Radar
Ships were impacted by the versatility of the radar. The radar allowed the ships avoid collisions, air strikes, and even helped warship gain increased accuracy. Furthermore, the radar not only impacted the ships, but the country itself. The countries that were equipped with radar gained a edge in the war. During the World War, advancement in technology meant a step towards victory.
2nd Century BC
Fifth Century BC
16th Century AD
A painting from c.800 depicting a Byzantine ship rigged with lateen .
Diagram of a Chinese Mariner's Compass
Blueprint of a Steam Engine Ship
by Theodore E.Ferris
Blueprint of the Ironclad : La Gloire
by chief naval architect Dupuy de Lôme
Ironclad St. Louis
Blueprint of a more modern radar
by US Air Force
Title :Sammlung der Predigten des Hl.
Drawn by Meister der Predigten des Heiligen Gregor von Nazianz
Blueprint of the Junk
Picture of the early chinese compass
Title :Carracks of a rocky coast.
Author:Circle of Joachim Patinir
Painting of the carrack Mary Rose